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研究生:呂卓樫
研究生(外文):Cho-Chien Lu
論文名稱:工程測量實習之電腦輔助教學研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Computer-aided Instruction for Engineering Surveying Practice
指導教授:謝尚賢謝尚賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shang-Hsien Hsieh
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:測量實習電腦輔助教學使用者中心設計軟體工程修正版布魯姆認知分類技能檢定技術士
外文關鍵詞:Surveying PracticeComputer-aided InstructionUser-centered DesignSoftware EngineeringRevised Bloom''s TaxonomySkill TestCertified Technician
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本研究從探討如何提昇工程測量教育品質的角度出發,提出應用電腦輔助教學於測量實習課程的解決方案,以協助解決工程測量實習課程在技能訓練上所面臨多元的教學實務問題。本研究所提出的具體解決方案包括反覆遞增式使用者中心系統開發方法(I&I-UCD)、工程測量訓練系統(SimuSurvey)及針對工程測量丙級技術士開發的工程測量輔助訓練教材。
本研究所提出的反覆遞增式使用者中心軟體系統開發方法(I&I-UCD)是一個整合反覆遞增開發模式與使用者中心的設計概念的軟體系統開發方法。此開發方法是一個連續的迭代開發過程,每一個迭代包含:(1)計劃(Plan);(2)分析(Analysis);(3)設計(Design);(4)實作(Implementation);與(5)釋出(Release)等五個程序所組成。其中在設計階段與實作階段各自有兩個子迭代程序用以進行使用者測試(User Tests)。因I&I-UCD系統開發方法兼具IID開發方法的效率與UCD設計的概念需求導向,可以系統化且有效率地方式開發具使用者中心設計的軟體系統,並有效處理使用者需求隨系統開發而變動的現象。I&I-UCD系統開發方法包含許多使用者測試(User Tests)用以處理不同背景的使用者所產生的多重需求。這些使用者測試(User Tests)含有訪談(Interview)、問卷調查(Questionnaire)、觀察(Observation)、使用性測試(Usability Tests)與田野測試(Field Tests)等方法。
本研究所提出的工程測量訓練系統(SimuSurvey)是以I&I-UCD方法所設計與開發。SimuSurvey包括四個主要的功能模組:(1)測量儀器與相關附件的數位模型可供使用者以教學內容的設計而進行視覺化的呈現;(2)可對映真實儀器功能的操作介面;(3)記錄使用者操作歷程的功能機制,以供學習的診斷與評估;(4)可提供場景的設計介面供教師設計教學活動。SimuSurvey目前已在國內職業學校與技術學院的323位同學進行教學實證研究,獲得良好的評價。並於課後實施問卷評估其學習效果。問卷結果顯示有91%的同學同意(包含強烈同意及同意)虛擬儀器對其學習動機有所幫助。該問卷測驗分數顯出有66%的同學可以正確的回答出方位角的問題。透過專家訪談發現導入SimuSurvey的教學比傳統的訓練方式更能引起學習興趣與動機。
此外,本研究對國內高級職業學校的測量實習課程的教學內容進行分析,並針對行政院勞工委員會之丙級測量技術士檢定考試內容提出實際的應用案例。採用布魯姆認知分類修正版理論設計以SimuSurvey為基礎的輔助訓練教材,包含試題編號04200-950301直接水準測量與試題編號04200-950302經緯儀角度測量等兩個教材設計案例。期能充分發揮SimuSurvey的效能,提供學生更多元的工程測量學習資源來建構學科知能,以培養具有解決工程空間定位問題能力的人才。

關鍵字:測量實習、電腦輔助教學、使用者中心設計、軟體工程、修正版布魯姆認知分類、技能檢定、技術士
The surveying course is an important core course for most vocational schools and universities in the field of civil engineering and architecture in Taiwan. A typical surveying course includes both indoor instruction, which covers surveying related theories, and outdoor fieldwork, which provides students with opportunities to familiarize themselves with the proper use of surveying instruments. In the state-of-practice for survey training, survey instruments are expensive, difficult to maintain, and sensitive to weather conditions. Surveying course instructors often find it challenging to make high-quality instruments available to the class. Also, instruction tools are still needed for better simulation of surveying tasks to help explaining the complicated 3D geometric relationships among objects and operation details involved in surveying practice. To address the above challenges of teaching and learning in surveying practice, we present a solution that includes: (1) I&I-UCD approach for developing a computer-aided instruction tool; (2) development of a computer-based surveyor-training system called SimuSurvey for surveying practice; and (3) an accompanying series of surveying practice teaching materials for use with SimuSurvey.

In this research, we integrated the principles of both iterative and incremental development (IID) and user-centered design (UCD), resulting in a software development approach called here I&I-UCD. The proposed I&I-UCD approach features a sequence of iterations, each of which is composed of five incremental stages: (1) planning; (2) analysis; (3) design; (4) implementation; and (5) release. Sub-iterations exist in both of the design and implementation phases. In each, user tests are performed to evaluate the result of design on implementation until all identified usability problems are addressed. The experiences of applying the approach to development of SimuSurvey have been reported and shared. During the development of SimuSurvey, we found that the proposed I&I-UCD approach is effective for developing or improving software systems. I&I-UCD involves many user tests (i.e., interview, questionnaire, observation, usability tests, and field tests) to gather integrated requirements for users of different backgrounds at different stages in the development.
This study applied I&I-UCD approach to develop SimuSurvey. The functions provided by the latest version of SimuSurvey include: (1) the visualization of a survey instrument and measurement poles involved in an assigned survey task; (2) the simulation of the control interface of a real surveying instrument; (3) the logging of each student’s performed operations; and (4) the design of learning activities for students to practice surveying tasks in a simulated environment. In addition, SimuSurvey was designed for use in a low-cost computer-generated virtual environment to facilitate its application.
The effectiveness of using SimuSurvey for instruction was evaluated by a feasibility study. Five experienced instructors and 323 novice students from four schools were involved. The results from the student questionnaires and quiz can be summarized as follows: (1) 91% of students have a positive attitude toward using SimuSurvey for self-learning the concepts of surveying instrument operations, and (2) 66% of students passed the quiz after using SimuSurvey to learn a basic surveying task. From interviews with experienced instructors, the results indicate that both the students’ motivation to learn and their technical results are significantly better than those using the traditional teaching approach.
At the same time, we provided example teaching materials to demonstrate how SimuSurvey can be adopted for use in class. We used a revised Bloom''s taxonomy of learning objectives to design the teaching materials for helping students to obtain the surveying skills required for a Class-C surveying skill certificate, which is one of the official certificates that supervised by the Council of Labor Affairs, Taiwan.

Keywords: Surveying Practice, Computer-aided Instruction, User-centered Design, Software Engineering, Revised Bloom''s Taxonomy, Skill Test, Certified Technician
誌 謝 I
摘 要 III
Abstract V
目 錄 VII
圖目錄 XI
表目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與範圍 3
1.3 研究方法 4
1.4 論文組織與架構 6
第二章 電腦輔助教學的發展與工程測量訓練的現況 9
2.1電腦輔助教學的發展 10
2.1.2電腦輔教學的成效 14
2.1.3應用電腦輔教學工具的教學方式 15
2.2電腦科技之應用 16
2.2.1虛擬實境 17
2.2.2虛擬實境技術應用於技能訓練的發展 17
2.2.3使用者中心設計的概念 20
2.3工程測量訓練現況 22
2.3.1工程測量訓練所面臨的教學實務問題 22
2.3.2國內外相關工程測量電腦輔助教學研究 25
2.3.3解決工程測量訓練的現況問題的可行方案 28
第三章 反覆遞增式使用者中心的軟體系統開發方法 31
3.1 使用者中心的設計與反覆遞增的開發 31
3.2 反覆遞增式使用者中心的軟體系統開發方法之實現 33
3.3 計畫階段(Plan Phase) 34
3.4 分析階段(Analysis Phase) 34
3.5 設計階段(Design Phase) 35
3.6 實作階段(Implementation Phase) 37
3.7 釋出階段(Release Phase) 40
第四章 工程測量訓練系統(SimuSurvey)的研發 43
4.1 工程測量訓練系統的需求分析 43
4.2 工程測量訓練系統的系統設計 44
4.2.1 測量儀器的數位模型 45
4.2.2 虛擬測量儀器的控制模組 48
4.2.3 外業實習虛擬環境模組 50
4.2.4 使用者行為記錄模組 55
4.3 工程測量訓練系統的介面設計與實作 58
4.3.1 SimuSurvey的基本功能設計 58
4.3.2系統介面的第一次設計與實作 60
4.3.3系統介面的第二次設計與實作 65
4.4系統介面的使用者測試 70
4.3.1 分析階段的使用者測試 71
4.3.2 設計階段的使用者測試 71
4.3.3 實作階段的使用者測試 72
第五章 SimuSurvey輔助教材的開發 73
5.1測量訓練的教學內容分析 73
5.2使用SimuSurvey進行測量訓練的教學設計 78
5.2.1布魯姆認知分類修正版 78
5.2.1布魯姆認知分類修正版的教學設計方法 81
5.3以SimuSurvey進行測量訓練的教學設計案例 85
5.3.1直接水準測量 85
5.3.2經緯儀角度測量 103
第六章 教學實證研究的討論 117
6.1可行性研究 117
6.2田野測試 121
第七章 結論與建議 125
7.1結論 125
7.2建議 128
參考文獻 131
作者簡歷 139
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