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研究生:張涵碩
研究生(外文):Han-Shuo Chang
論文名稱:色彩配置與4D建物模型之使用性研究
論文名稱(外文):Color Schemes on 4D Models in 4D Construction Management Tools
指導教授:康仕仲康仕仲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:36
中文關鍵詞:4D建物模型色彩配置使用性使用者介面
外文關鍵詞:4DConstruction ModelColor SchemeUsabilityUser Interface
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  • 被引用被引用:0
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
4D營建管理系統能夠依據施工排程的順序,依序顯示各施工階段的3D建物模型,以利使用者以視覺化的方式瞭解工程的進行。然而,由於4D建物模型同時包含了空間與時間的資訊,欲呈現在2D的電腦螢幕上,在較複雜或規模較大的工程中,往往不能有效地讓使用者理解其內容。由於色彩配置的不當,使用者在檢視建物施工狀態的色彩表現時,往往無法由4D建物模型聯想到施工狀態,造成了無法直覺地做出即時回應的困難;此外經由不同顯示介面(如液晶螢幕與單槍投影機)所呈現的畫面,在色彩上亦有所差異,降低了系統的使用性(Usability)。本研究旨在針對4D建物模型的色彩元素進行探討,透過使用性良好的色彩配置,有效幫助4D營建管理系統表達3D物件的施工狀態。
為找出適用於4D建物模型的色彩配置,本研究提出了系統化流程,探討4D建物模型的時間資訊與色彩之間的關係,進而定義適用於4D建物模型的色彩配置法則;為改進系統色彩表現與使用者互動性不佳的問題,透過使用性評估、訪談與問卷調查的方式來了解4D營建管理系統潛在使用者對於表達施工狀態色彩的習慣、偏好,並分析不同色彩配置的使用性表現。
本研究目前的成果顯示,人們對於色彩的選擇有其喜好差異。在觀看4D建物模型時,不同的色彩組合確實會影響其使用,但透過本研究提出的色彩配置法則,謹慎運用色彩組合將可強調與分類資訊、提高可讀性與易學性。本研究將可用以改善軟體模擬介面與使用者的溝通,讓色彩幫助建物模型呈現時間與空間的關係,加速使用者理解4D視覺化模擬所傳達的訊息。
Four-dimensional models, which are 3D models with an added dimension to represent schedule information, have become an important tool in representing construction processes. These models usually rely on colors to represent the different construction statuses, such that when an ideal color scheme is used, engineers are able to understand the model and identify the potential problems more easily. However, up to this point, little research has been conducted in this area.
This research presents a systematical procedure to determining the ideal color scheme for a 4D model. I named this procedure SEUT as an acronym for the three major steps: (1) Selection of color scheme, (2) Examination of color scheme, and (3) User Test. This procedure can be performed iteratively to obtain the ideal color scheme, which would fit a model according to its construction purposes. To verify the proposed procedure, an example case with two iterations was tested and the ideal color scheme for six construction statuses of a 4D model for plant construction found after examining ten color schemes and testing by 58 users during two iterations.
Through the user tests, the results show that the SEUT procedure can effectively find an ideal color scheme for presenting 4D models. The logical thinking has been testified and may be extended in familiar applications which involve time and colors. For future work, developers of 4D tools can choose to freely apply the color scheme developed in this research or use the SEUT procedure to develop more color schemes to meet their own needs.
口試委員會審定書 i
誌謝 ii
ABSTRACT iv
摘要 v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation and Background 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 4D Modeling 4
2.2 Color Schemes 6
3 SYSTEMATICAL PROCEDURE: SEUT 8
3.1 Summary 8
3.2 Step 1: Color Scheme Selection 9
3.2.1 Consider the Natures of Schedule Information 9
3.2.2 Consider the Characteristics of Colors 10
3.3 Step 2: Color Scheme Examination 11
3.3.1 Examine Color Blindness 11
3.3.2 Examine Colors in Gray Scale 13
3.3.3 Examine Colors on Different Display Media 14
3.4 Step 3: User Test 15
3.4.1 Define Usability Requirements 16
3.4.2 Measure User Performance 17
4 EXAMPLE CASE 18
4.1 Original Color Scheme in Construction Director 18
4.2 First Iteration 19
4.2.1 Selection of Color Schemes 19
4.2.2 Examination of Color Schemes 20
4.2.3 User Test 21
4.3 Second Iteration 24
4.3.1 Selection of Color Schemes 25
4.3.2 Examination of Color Schemes 26
4.3.3 User Test 26
5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 29
5.1 Conclusions 29
5.2 Major Contributions 30
5.3 Future Work 31
REFERENCE 33
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