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研究生:陳怡潔
研究生(外文):Yi-Chieh Chen
論文名稱:嬰兒問題解決情境中母親行為之預測因素
論文名稱(外文):The Determinants of Maternal Behaviors in Infant Problem-Solving Context
指導教授:雷庚玲雷庚玲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:智力內隱理論努力永遠有用成果沒有極限氣質嬰兒期母親行為華人文化
外文關鍵詞:implicit theory of competencepragmatic concept of efforttemperamentinfancymaternal behaviorsChinese
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近年研究指出,精熟動機為日後動機發展的重要前導因素之一。嬰兒的目標導向行為約在他們進入第一年的下半年時開始出現,而這些行為可能會受到他們與主要照顧者的互動經驗所影響。為了探討母親在嬰兒精熟探索情境中的行為之預測因素,本研究測量了母親的智力內隱理論、母親對嬰兒氣質的覺知(包含外向啟動、定向調節與負向情緒三個面向)以及母親對於「努力永遠有用、成果沒有極限」概念的看法。此外,本研究發展了一套新的行為登錄系統以捕捉在重視努力之華人文化思維下的母親教養行為模式。共有53位母親與他們九個半月大的嬰兒完成了三次三分鐘的問題解決活動。母親在這些活動中所展現的行為以時間取樣法分別被登錄為五種不同的行為面向(高壓控制、目標導向參與、孩童導向、正向情緒與示範)。於第一步驟中先控制了嬰兒性別及母親教育程度的階層回歸分析顯示出以下的結果:(1)嬰兒性別、母親教育程度以及母親對嬰兒負向情緒的覺知可預測母親的高壓控制行為。(2)母親對嬰兒定向調節氣質的覺知可預測母親的孩童導向行為。(3)母親對嬰兒定向調節的覺知可預測母親的正向情緒;母親的智力內隱理也有預測母親正向情緒的趨勢。(4)嬰兒性別與母親對嬰兒定向調節的覺知可預測母親的示範行為。此外,母親對嬰兒定向調節的覺知更進一步調節了母親智力內隱理論對母親示範行為之解釋力。(5)母親所持對「努力永遠有用、成果沒有極限」之內隱理論調節了母親智力內隱理論與母親對嬰兒氣質覺知(包含外向啟動及定向調節)間之交互作用對母親目標導向參與行為的影響。藉由新的行為登錄系統的使用,本研究展現了在母親智力內隱理論與嬰兒氣質覺知之上,華人文化中所強調之「努力永遠有用、成果沒有極限」概念對母親行為的貢獻。
Recent research has suggested that mastery motivation is an important developmental precursor for later motivational orientation. As children entering the second half of their first year, they start to show goal-directed behaviors, which may be influenced by their interactive experience with the main caregivers. To investigate the determinants of maternal behaviors while facing infant’s mastery endeavor, this study measured maternal implicit theory of competence, maternal perception of infant temperament (including three dimensions of Negative Affectivity, Surgency/Extraversion, & Orienting/Regulating), and maternal pragmatic concept of effort. Moreover, a new taxonomical coding system was developed to capture the parenting patterns that are bound with the cultural-specific philosophy in culturally Chinese societies. Fifty-three mothers and their 9.5-month-old infants completed three 3-minute problem-solving sessions. Maternal behaviors manifested in these sessions were coded into five behavioral dimensions (Power Assertion, Goal-Oriented Involvement, Child-Centered, Positive Affect, and Demonstration) by time-sampling method. Hierarchical regression analyses, including infant gender and maternal educational level in the first step, demonstrated the following results. (1) Maternal display of Power Assertion was predicted by infant gender, maternal educational level, and maternal perception of infant Negative Affectivity. (2) Maternal Child-Centered behavior was predicted by their perception of infant Orienting/ Regulating. (3) Maternal expression of Positive Affect was predicted by their perception of infant Orienting/ Regulating and marginally predicted by their implicit theory of competence. (4) Maternal exertion of Demonstration was predicted by infant gender and maternal perception of infant Orienting/Regulating. Further, maternal perception of infant Orienting/ Regulating also moderated the effect of maternal implicit theory of competence on their use of Demonstration. (5) Maternal pragmatic concept of effort moderated the relation between maternal implicit theory of competence and perception of infant temperament (including Surgency/Extraversion & Orienting/ Regulating) on their Goal-Oriented Involvement. With the new taxonomical coding system, this study demonstrated the unique contribution of the pragmatic concept of effort, an ideology often emphasized in the Chinese culture, to maternal behaviors.
Introduction………………………………………………………. 1
Prefac…………………………………………………………... 1
Chinese mothers’ involvement in support of infant
problem-solving endeavors………………………………….. 2
Parenting dimensions in Western literatur…………….. 6
Maternal implicit theory of competence- the malleability
of infant ability…………………….................... 9
Maternal pragmatic view of effort- the malleability of
infant performance…………………...................... 12
Maternal perception of infants’ temperament ......... 13
Overview of the current study......................... 18
Method…………………………………………………………….... 24
Participants…………………………………………………….. 24
Procedure…………………………………………………………. 25
Results………………………………………………………………. 36
Preliminary analyses……………………………………….... 36
Central analyses……………………………………………….. 38
Discussion…………………………………………………...……. 49
References……………………………………………………….... 59
Appendix…………………………………………………………….. 73
Appendix 1-1 Consent form (the first time visit to the
university laboratory)…………………………………….... 73
Appendix 1-2 Consent form (the second time visit to the
university laboratory)…………………………………….... 74
Appendix 2-1 Experimental Introduction (the first time
visit to the university laboratory)…………………..... 75
Appendix 2-2 Experimental Introduction (the second time
visit to the university laboratory)……………………... 76
Appendix 3 Detailed experimental instruction……..... 77
Appendix 4 Toys and tasks used in the present study.. 79
Appendix 5 Detailed coding definitions and examples.. 81
Appendix 6 Coding sheet……………………………………… 84

Table 1………………………………………………………………. 31
Table 2………………………………………………………………. 36
Table 3………………………………………………………………. 38
Table 4-1…………………………………………………………... 41
Table 4-2…………………………………………………………... 42
Table 4-3…………………………………………………………... 43

Figure 1A……………………………………………………………. 44
Figure 1B……………………………………………………………. 44
Figure 2……………………………………………………………… 46
Figure 3……………………………………………………………… 47
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