跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.23.193) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/24 14:03
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:廖培真
研究生(外文):Pei-Chen Liao
論文名稱:論暴力與身份認同:「後」九一一南亞裔英國小說研究
論文名稱(外文):Of Violence and Identity:“Post”-9/11 South Asian British Fiction
指導教授:李有成李有成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Cheng Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:外國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:254
中文關鍵詞:「後」九一一南亞裔英國小說美國帝國主義西方自戀暴力身份認同全球化
外文關鍵詞:“post”-9/11South Asian British fictionAmerican imperialismWestern narcissismviolenceidentityglobalization
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:1036
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在主流的後九一一論述中,字首「後」的使用是有問題的。首先,它表徵著前九一一、九一一、和後九一一的線性發展,進而使得前九一一時期成為美國純真的歷史,而後九一一則成為美國重建和恢復自信和安全的時代。第二,二元對立的時間軸線削弱權力二元對立之間的張力:反恐怖主義者對抗恐怖主義者,儘管如冷戰時期所呈現的,二者間的差別卻是微乎其微。第三,「後九一一」這個詞暗示九一一不只是世界重大事件,更是二十一世紀的決定性標記。在此美國時間的標記下,世界無數文化和國家都成為次要的。最後,「後九一一」作為形容詞,其前面的限定冠詞迫使多元性成為單一性。在此狀況下,世界被單一地區分為恐怖主義和反恐怖主義,使得其他更多不同形式的暴力和衝突相對地被漠視了。本論文因此在使用「後」九一一這個詞時,將其「置於抹拭之下」。
在研究四本「後」九一一南亞裔英國小說的同時,本論文致力於東方主義、後殖民和全球化理論,以及南亞文化研究。本論文有二個目標。局部目標是要揭露美國柔性帝國主義和西方自戀的暴力。研究的小說包含有Salman Rushdie的《小丑薩里曼(Shalimar the Clown)》、Hari Kunzru的《傳播(Transmission)》、Monica Ali的《紅磚巷(Brick Lane)》以及Mohsin Hamid的《拉合爾茶館的陌生人(The Reluctant Fundamentalist)》。這些小說是「後」九一一的,因為他們關心並創作於九一一的餘波中,然而他們也是前九一一和反九一一的。在再現九一一事件的詭魅以及反恐戰爭的全球性狂暴衝擊的同時,這些南亞裔英國作家跳脫標記九一一日期的政治權術,具體描繪移民的「家園不再」,並藉著容納本土和區域的具體性,處理「後」九一一的多樣性。本論文的較為廣泛而複雜的目標則是要強調暴力和身份認同的矛盾連結,無論是從宗教或從群落、文化、國家、文明、階級和性別的觀點來看。移動(民)的小說人物角色的多重旅程、身份、和經驗,得以讓這些小說家在他們的故事中以跨國和跨文化的方式,探索九一一和反恐戰爭所隱含的暴力、性別及種族歧視、種族屠殺、納粹的猶太屠殺、反移民運動、和全球資本主義之間的關連。
The use of the prefix “post” in the dominant post-9/11 discourse is problematic. Firstly, it indicates a linear development from “pre-9/11,” “9/11,” to “post-9/11,” rendering the “pre-9/11” period a history of American innocence and “post-9/11” an era in which American confidence and security is being recovered and rebuilt. Secondly, the binary axis of time undercuts the tension in the binary axis of power—counter-terrorist vs. the terrorist, although the dichotomy is inadequately nuanced, as in the case of the Cold War. Thirdly, the term “post-9/11” hints at the presumption that 9/11 is not only a major world event but the determining marker of the twenty-first century, to which the world’s multitudinous cultures and countries are subordinated. Fourthly, “the” post-9/11 condition reduces multiplicity to singularity. Under the condition, the world is seen simply in terms of terrorism and anti-terrorism, and violence and conflict in its multiple forms are comparatively treated with indifference. My dissertation thus uses the term “post”-9/11 “under erasure.”
Reading four “post”-9/11 South Asian British novels, my dissertation is engaged with Orientalism, postcolonial and globalization theories, and South Asian cultural studies. It has two aims. At a smaller level, it endeavors to expose the violence of American benign imperialism and Western narcissism. The novels include Salman Rushdie’s Shalimar the Clown (2005), Hari Kunzru’s Transmission (2004), Monica Ali’s Brick Lane (2003), and Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007). These novels are “post”-9/11 because they are concerned with and written in the aftermath of 9/11, yet they are pre-9/11 and anti-9/11, too. While representing the uncanniness of 9/11 and the global and violent impacts of the war on terror, these South Asian British writers reach beyond the politics of dating 9/11, delineate the “unhomely” migrant experience, and attend to the diversity of the “post”-9/11 by admitting local and regional specificity. At a broader and more complicated level, my dissertation aims to underscore the ambivalent link between violence and identity in terms of religion, community, culture, nation, civilization, class, or gender. The multiple journeys, identities, and experiences of the (im)migrant characters allow the novelists to explore transnationally and transculturally in their narratives the connection of the violence inherent in 9/11 and the war on terror with sexual and racial discrimination, ethnic cleansing, the Holocaust, anti-immigration movement, and global capitalism.
Contents
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………..i
Chinese Abstract……………………..………………………………………………....ii
English Abstract………………………………………………………………………..iv
Introduction 9/11, Violence, and Identity…………………...………………………….1
9/11 as a Major World Event in Media Representations………………..1
The “9/11” Fiction……………………………………………………...8
The “Post”-9/11 Fiction……………………………………………….17
Chapter 1 The Uncanny Violence of Strangers:
Salman Rushdie’s Shalimar th Clown……………………………………..27
1.1 The Notion of the Uncanny………………………………….….…30
1.2 Not Exactly Post-9/11……………………….………………….…35
1.3 Historical (De)-Construction of Terrorism and the Terrorist……...42
1.4 Intimate Enemies or Strangers to Ourselves……………..………..64
Chapter 2 The Computer Virus, Terrorism, and Immigration:
Hari Kunzru’s Transmission………………………………………………78
2.1 The Virus as a Metaphor…….…………………………………….80
2.2 The Computer Virus…………………………………..…………...86
2.3 Cyber-terrorism…………………………..………………………..92
2.4 Immigration and B/order Controls……..…………………...……115
Chapter 3 Home-land Insecurity:
Monica Ali’s Brick Lane……….……………..………………………….128
3.1 Homeland Insecurities……………………..…...………………..130
3.2 New Home = Non-Home………...…………..…………………..133
3.3 New Home = Old Home = Non-Home…………………….…….152
Chapter 4 The Post-9/11 “Return Home” Novel:
Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist………………………...179
4.1 A Twist on the Classic Immigrant Tale…….....………………….183
4.2 Negotiating Hospitality………………………………..…………205
Conclusion The Precarious Life of the Other………………….…….........................227
Causes and Consequences……………………………………………227
Broader Meanings of 9/11 and the War on Terror……………………231


Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………..233
Works Cited
“1993: World Trade Center Bomb Terrorises New York.” BBC News. 26 Feb. 1993. BBC. 14 May 2009 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/26>.
Agamben, Giorgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.
Agnew, John. Geopolitics: Revisioning World Politics. London: Routledge, 1998.
Ahmad, Ali. “Brick Lane: A Note on the Politics of ‘Good’ Literary Production.” Rev. of
Brick Lane, by Monica Ali. Third Text 18.2 (2004): 199-205.
Ali, Monica. Brick Lane. London: Black Swan, 2004.
Alibhai-Brown, Yasmin. Rev. of Enemy Combatant, by Moazzam Begg and Victoria Brittain. Independent 24 Mar. 2006. 9 Apr. 2009 <http://www.independent.co.uk/
arts-entertainment/books/reviews>.
“Al-Qaida Cyber Capability.” Public Safety Canada: publicsafety.gc.ca. 20 Dec. 2001. 19 May 2009 <http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/em/ccirc/2001/
ta01-001-eng.aspx>.
Amis, Martin. Interview with Tishani Doshi. “Laughter in the Dark.” Hindu Literary Review 6 Oct. 2002. Martin Amis Website. 2009. Western Oregon U. 6 Apr. 2009 <http://www.martinamisweb.com/interviews_files/doshi_interview.pdf>.
Anam, Tahmima. A Golden Age. London: John Murray, 2007.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of
Nationalism. London: Verso, 2006.
Anthias, Floya, and Nira Yuval Davis. Women-Nation-State. London: Macmillan, 1989.
Appadurai, Arjun. “Dead Certainty: Ethnic Violence in the Era of Globalization.” Development and Change 29 (1995): 905-25.
——. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1996.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. The Ethics of Identity. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2005.
Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt, eds. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Santa Monica: Rand, 2001.
Ataöv, Türkkaya. Kashmir and Neighbors: Tale, Terror, Truce. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.
Barua, Tushar Kanti. Political Elite in Bangladesh: A Socio-Anthropological and Historical Analysis of the Processes of their Formation. Las Vegas: Peter Lang, 1978.
Battersby, Eileen. “A Camus Conversion for a Paranoid World.” Irish Times 24 Feb. 2007. EBSCOhost. 17 May 2009 <http://search.ebscohost.com/>.
Baudrillard, Jean. The Spirit of Terrorism and Other Essays. Trans. Chris Turner. New York: Verso, 2003.
Bedell, Geraldine. “Full of East End Promise.” Rev. of Brick Lane, by Monica Ali. Observer 15 June 2003. 10 June 2008 <http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/
generalfiction/0,,977505,00.html>.
Begg, Moazzam, and Victoria Brittain. Enemy Combatant: A British Muslim’s Journey to Guantánamo and Back. London: Pocket Books, 2007.
Behera, Navnita Chadha. Demystifying Kashmir. Washington: Brookings, 2006.
Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.
Bhattacharjee, Anannya. “The Public/Private Mirage: Mapping Homes and Undomesticating Violence Work in the South Asian Immigrant Community.” Feminist Geneologies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures. Ed. M. Jacqui Alexander and Chandra T. Mohanty. New York: Routledge, 1997. 308-29.
Bhattacharya, Soumya. “In Bitter Homage to September 11.” Rev. of The Reluctant Fundamentalist, by Mohsin Hamid. Sydney Morning Herald 14 Apr. 2007: 33.
Bhattacharyya, Gargi. “South Asian Cultural Studies—Lessons from Back Home?” South Asian Popular Culture 1.1 (2003): 3-11.
Bin Kashem, Tauhid, comp. “Glossary of Muslim Terms.” Office of Jewish Affairs. 2007. U of Massachusetts Amherst. 13 May 2009 <http://www.umass.edu/jewish/pdf/
Glossary%20of%20Muslim%20Terms.pdf>.
Bin Laden, Osama. “Text: Bin Laden’s Statement.” Guardian 7 Oct. 2001. 4 Oct. 2008 .
Bonner, Raymond. “A Ticking Bomber.” National Interest 97 (2008): 69-78.
Borradori, Giovanna. “Deconstructing Terrorism.” Philosophy in a Time of Terror: Dialogues with Jürgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida. Ed. Giovanna Borradori. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. 137-72.
Bowen, John. “The Myth of Global Ethnic Conflict.” Globalization and the Challenges of a New Century. Ed. Patrick O’Meara, Howard D. Mehlinger, and Matthew Krain. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. 79-90.
Brah, Avtar. “Global Mobilities, Local Predicaments: Globalization and the Critical Imagination.” Feminist Review 70 (2002): 30-45.
——. Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities. London: Routledge, 1996.
Brain, Marshall. “How Computer Viruses Work?” HowStuffWorks. 1 Apr. 2000. HowStuffWorks, Inc. 23 Dec. 2008 <http://computer.howstuffworks.com/
virus.htm/printable>.
Brock, Richard. “An ‘Onerous Citizenship’: Globalization, Cultural Flows and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Hari Kunzru’s Transmission.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 44.4 (2008): 379-90.
Brodie, Richard. Virus of the Mind: The New Science of the Meme. Carlsbad: Hay House, 2009.
Brunn, Stanley D. Introduction. 11 September and Its Aftermath: The Geopolitics of Terror. Ed. Brunn. London: Frank Cass, 2004. 1-15.
Bush, George W. “Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People.” White House, Washington. 20 Sep. 2001. “Transcript of President Bush’s Address.” CNN.com/U.S. 21 Sep. 2001. Cable News Network. 25 June 2008 <http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/20/gen.bush.transcript/>.
——. “President Delivers State of the Union Address.” White House: President George W. Bush. 29 Jan. 2002. 18 May 2009 <http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/
20020129-11.html >.
——. “Remarks by the President upon Arrival.” White House: President George W.
Bush. 16 Sep. 2001. 18 May 2009 <http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/
news/releases/2001/09/20010916-2.html>.
——. “President Bush Commemorates Fifth Anniversary of U.S. Department of
Homeland Security.” Homeland Security. 6 March 2008. U.S. Dept. of Homeland
Security. 18 May 2009 <http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/speeches/
sp_1204838566072.shtm>.
Butler, Judith. Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence. London: Verso, 2004.
CAIR. “American Muslim Voters: A Demographic Profile and Survey of Attitudes.”
CAIR: Pennsylvania. 24 Oct. 2006. Council on American-Islamic Relations. 18
May 2009 <http://pa.cair.com/annreport/AmericanMuslimVoters.pdf>.
Campbell, David. “Time Is Broken: The Return of the Past in Response to September 11.” Theory and Event 5.4 (2002): 24 pars.
Carter, Helen. “Oldham Council Hits Out over Riot Report’s Criticism.” Guardian 29 June 2002. 18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2002/jun/ 29/politics.race>.
Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993.
Chermak, Steven, Frankie Y. Bailey, and Michelle Brown. Introduction. Media Representations of September 11. Ed. Chermak, Bailey, and Brown. London: Praeger, 2003. 1-13.
Chomsky, Noam. 9-11. New York: Seven Stories P, 2001.
Chossudovsky, Michel. “Who is Osama Bin Laden?” GlobalResearch.ca: Centre for Research on Globalization. 12 Sep. 2001. GlobalResearch.ca. 13 May 2009 <http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO109C.html>.
Colarik, Andrew M. Cyber Terrorism: Political and Economic Implications. Hershey: Idea, 2006.
Coleman, Mat. “The Naming of ‘Terrorism’ and Evil ‘Outlaws’: Geopolitical Place-Making After 11 September.” 11 September and Its Aftermath: The Geopolitics of Terror. Ed. Stanley D. Brunn. London: Frank Cass, 2004. 87-104.
Colombani, Marie. “After This Act of Terrorism We Are All Americans.” Guardian Weekly 20 Sep. 2001: 33.
Cormack, Alistair. “Migration and the Politics of Narrative Form: Realism and the Postcolonial Subject in Brick Lane.” Contemporary Literature 47.4 (2006): 695-721.
Cowley, Jason. “From Here to Kashmir.” Rev. of Shalimar the Clown, by Salman Rushdie. Observer 11 Sep. 2005. 21 Nov. 2007 <http://books.guardian.co.uk/print/
0,,5282687-99930,00.html>.
Dalby, Simon. “Calling 9/11: Geopolitics, Security and America’s New War.” 11 September and Its Aftermath: The Geopolitics of Terror. Ed. Stanley D. Brunn. London: Frank Cass, 2004. 61-86.
“DARPA History.” Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. 14 May 2009 <http://www.darpa.mil/history.html>.
Daumerie, Denis. “Are Illegals Making U.S. a Leper Colony?” WorldNetDaily 22 May 2005. 1 Jan. 2009 <http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/
article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=44394>.
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. Oxford: W. H. Freeman, 1976.
——. The Extended Phenotype. Oxford: W. H. Freeman, 1982.
DeLillo, Don. Falling Man. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007.
Denning, Dorothy E. “Cyberterrorism.” Dorothy Denning’s Homepage. 23 May 2000. Georgetown Univ. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.cs.georgetown.edu/~denning/
infosec/cyberterror.html?mboxSession=1225917718172-981251>.
——. “Is Cyber Terror Next?” Understanding September 11. Ed. Craig Calhoun, Paul Price, and Ashley Timmer. New York: New Press, 2002. 191-97.
Der Derian, James. “In Terrorism: Before and After 9/11.” Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of Global Order. Ed. Ken Booth and Tim Dunne. London: Palgrave, 2002. 101-17.
Derrida, Jacques. Interview with Borradori. “Autoimmunity: Real and Symbolic Suicides: A Dialogue with Jacques Derrida.” Philosophy in a Time of Terror: Dialogues with Jürgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida. Ed. Giovanna Borradori. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. 85-136.
——. Of Grammatology. Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
UP, 1997.
——. Rogues: Two Essays on Reason. Trans. Pascale-Anne Brault and Michael Naas. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2005.
Derrida, Jacques, and Anne Dufourmantelle. Of Hospitality. Trans. Rachel Bowlby. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.
Donadio, Rachel. “The Irascible Prophet: V. S. Naipaul at Home.” New York Times 7 Aug. 2005. 6 Apr. 2009 <http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/07/books/review/
07DONADIO.html>.
——. “Truth Is Stronger than fiction.” New York Times 7 Aug. 2005. 6 Apr. 2009
<http://www.nytimes.com/pages/arts/index.html>.
Dowshen, Steven. “Immune System.” KidsHealth. Nov. 2007. The Nemours Foundation. 18 May 2009 <http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/immune.html>.
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Harmonsworth: Penguin, 1965.
Emerson, Steve. American Jihad: Terrorists Living among Us. New York: Free P, 2002.
——. “An Investigation into the Operations of Terrorist Networks in the United States and Canada.” Hearing on International Terrorism and Immigration Policy. House Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims. 26 Jan. 2000.
Faist, Thomas. “‘Extension du domaine de la lutte’: International Migration and Security before and after September 11, 2001.” International Migration Review 36.1 (2002): 7-14.
Farman, Jason. “The Virtual Artaud: Computer Virus as Performance Art.” TechKnowledgies: New Imaginaries in the Humanities, Arts, and TechnoSciences. Ed. Mary Valentis. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars P, 2007. 157-67.
Fesperman, Dan. The Amateur Spy. New York: Knopf, 2008.
Fildes, Jonathan. “One Tonne ‘Baby’ Marks its Birth.” BBC News. 20 June 2008. BBC. 15 Jan. 2009 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7465115.stm>.
Fites, Philip, Peter Johnston, and Martin Kratz. The Computer Virus Crisis. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. This Side of Paradise. New York: Scribner, 1920. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. 1999. 17 May 2009 <http://www.bartleby.com/115/>.
Ford, Peter. “Europe Cringes at Bush ‘Crusade’ Against Terrorists.” Christian Science Monitor 19 Sep. 2001. 14 Oct. 2008 <http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0919/
p12s2-woeu.html>.
Foden, Giles. Zanzibar. London: Faber and Faber, 2002.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Penguin, 1977.
Freud, Sigmund. “The Uncanny.” The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud: An Infantile Neurosis and Other Works (1917-1919). Trans. James Strachey. Vol. 17. London: Vintage, 2001. 217-56.
——. “Fausse Reconnaissance (“déjà raconté”) in Psycho-analytic Treatment.” Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud: Totem and Taboo and Other Works (1913-1914). Trans. James Strachey. Vol. 13. London: Hogarth, 1955. 201-07.
Friedman, Dorian. “The Myth of Parasites.” U.S. News & World Report 3 Oct. 1994: 38.
Fujinami, Robert S. “Viruses and Autoimmune Disease—Two Sides of the Same Coin?” Trends in Microbiology 9.8 (2008): 377-81.
Gallo, Robert. “A Reflection on HIV/AIDS Research after 25 Years.” Retrovirology 3 (2006). 25 Dec. 2008 <http://www.retrovirology.com/content/pdf/
1742-4690-3-72.pdf>.
Ganguly, Sumit. “The Flash-Point of South Asia: Kashmir in Indo-Pakistani Relations.” The Post-colonial States of South Asia: Democracy, Identity, Development and Security. Ed. Amita Shastri and A. Jeyaratnam Wilson. Richmond: Curzon, 2001. 311-25.
George, Rosemary Marangoly. The Politics of Home: Postcolonial Relocations and Twentieth-Century Fiction. Los Angeles: U of California P, 1999.
Godin, Seth. Unleashing the Ideavirus. New York: Hyperion, 2001.
Gopinath, Gayatri. “Nostalgia, Desire, Diaspora: South Asian Sexualities in Motion.” Theorizing Diaspora: A Reader. Ed. Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur. Maldon: Blackwell, 2003. 261-79.
Gorra, Michael. “East Enders.” Rev. of Brick Lane, by Monica Ali. New York Times 7 Sep. 2003. 10 June 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/07/books/
east-enders.html >.
Green, Joshua. “The Myth of Cyberterrorism.” Washington Monthly Nov. 2002. 1 Dec. 2008 <http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0211.green.html>.
Grice, Andrew, and Ian Herbert. “Bitter Race Row after Oldham Riot.” Independent 28 May 2001. 17 Oct. 2008 <http://www.independent.co.uk>.
Groes, Sebastian. “A Kind of Translation: Reading Monica Ali’s Brick Lane as Enactment of New Labour’s Model of Britishness.” American, British and Canadian Studies 8 (2007): 120-38.
Gunew, Sneja. “Technologies of the Self: Corporeal Affects of English.” South Atlantic Quarterly 100.3 (2001): 729-47.
Haass, Richard N. “The Bush Administration’s Response to September 11th—and beyond.” Council on Foreign Relations. 15 Oct. 2001. Council on Foreign Relations. 18 May 2009 <http://www.cfr.org/bios/3350/
?groupby=3&hide=1&id=3350&filter=2001 >.
Habermas, J. The Inclusion of the Other. Cambridge: MIT P, 1998.
“Hacker Vows to Fight Extradition.” BBC News. 30 July 2008. BBC. 14 May 2009 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7533916.stm>.
Hamid, Mohsin. The Reluctant Fundamentalist. New York: Harcourt, 2007.
——. Interview with Deborah Solomon. “The Stranger.” New York Times Magazine 15 April 2007: 16. 6 Jan. 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/15/magazine/
15wwlnQ4.t.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss>.
——. Interview. PenguinBooks. 2009. Penguin Books Ltd. 15 Feb. 2009 <http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9780141029542,00.html>.
——. “My Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Powell’s Books. 2009. Powells.com. 18 Feb. 2009 <http://www.powells.com/essays/mohsin.html>.
Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. Empire. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2000.
Harle, Vilho. The Enemy with a Thousand Faces: The Tradition of the Other in Western Political Thought and History. Westport: Praeger, 2000.
Harvey, David. “Contemporary Globalization.” Spaces of Hope. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2000. 53-72.
Hauben, Ronda. “The Internet: On Its Origins and Collaborative Vision.” Amateur Computerist Newsletter 12.2 (2004). 15 Jan. 2009 <http://www.ais.org/~jrh/acn/
ACn12-2.a03.txt>.
Heinegg, Peter. “The Political is Personal.” Rev. of Shalimar the Clown, by Salman Rushdie. America 13 Feb. 2006: 23-24.
Heller, Dana, ed. Selling of 9/11: How a National Tragedy Became a Commodity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Herbert, Ian, and Ian Burrell. “From Arson to Vicious Assaults: The Reality of Daily Life for Muslims.” Independent 4 Jan. 2002. 28 July 2008 <http://www.independent.co.uk/dayinapage/2002/January/4>.
Hettne, Björn. “South Asia and the War against Terrorism.” Religion, Violence and Political Mobilisation in South Asia. Ed. Ravinder Kaur. London: Sage, 2005. 184-217.
Hesse, Barnor. Introduction. Un/Settled Multiculturalism: Diasporas, Entanglements, and “Transruptions.” Ed. Hesse. London: Zed, 2000. 1-30.
Hewitt, Roger. White Backlash and the Politics of Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005.
Hiddleston, Jane. “Shapes and Shadows: (Un)veiling the Immigrant in Monica Ali''s Brick Lane.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 40.1 (2005): 57-72.
Hirschkorn, Phil, and Michael Okwu. “Airlines Face Post9/11 Racial Profiling, Discrimination Suits.” CNN.com. 4 June 2002. Cable News Network. 20 Mar. 2009 <http://archives.cnn.com/2002/LAW/06/04/airlines.discrimination/>.
Hoffman, Bruce. “Defining Terrorism.” Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment. Ed. Russell D. Howard and Reid L. Sawyer. Guildford: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 3-24.
Holloway, David. 9/11 and the War on Terror. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2008.
Hooks, Bell. Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End P, 1990.
“Host.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.
Huddart, David. Homi K. Bhabha. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Huntington, Samuel. “Clash of Civilizations.” Globalization and the Challenges of a New Century. Ed. Patrick O’Meara, Howard D. Mehlinger, and Matthew Krain. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. 419-27.
Inda, Jonathan Xavier. “Foreign Bodies: Migrants, Parasites, and the Pathological Nation.” Discourse 22.3 (2000): 46-62.
Jaffrelot, Christophe, ed. A History of Pakistan and Its Origins. London: Anthem, 2002.
Jahan, Roushan. “Hidden Wounds, Visible Scars: Violence against Women in Bangladesh.” Ed. Bina Agarwal. Structures of Patriarchy: State, Community and Household in Modernising Asia. London: Zed, 1988. 199-227.
Jasper, Lee. “Trevor Philips Is in Danger of Giving Succour to Racists.” Guardian 12 Oct. 2005. 12 Oct. 2008 <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/oct/12/race.uk>.
Johnson, Chalmers. “The Consequences of Our Actions Abroad: Americans Feeling the Effects of ‘Blowback.’” Los Angeles Times 4 May 2000. 4 Oct. 2008 <http://www.latimes.com/>.
——. Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire. New York: Henry Holt, 2000.
Kabeer, Naila. The Power to Choose: Bangladeshi Women and Labour market Decisions in London and Dhaka. London: Verso, 2000.
Kandiyoti, Deniz. “Identity and Its Discontents: Women and the Nation.” Colonial Discourse and Post-colonial Theory. Ed. Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman. New York: Columbia UP, 1994. 376-91.
Kane, Margaret. “‘ILOVEYOU’ E-Mail Worm Invades PCs.” ZDNet News 4 May 2000. 24 Dec. 2008 <http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-107318.html?legacy=zdnn>.
Kaplan, Amy. “Violent Belongings and the Question of Empire Today.” American Quarterly 56.1 (2004): 1-18.
——. “Homeland Insecurities: Reflections on Language and Space.” Radical History Review 85 (2003): 82-93.
Kapoor, Mini. “New Lonely Londoners.” Rev. of Brick Lane, by Monica Ali. Indian Express 25 May 2003. 5 June 2008 <http://indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/
full_story.php?content_id=24525>.
Kerr, Sarah. “In the Terror House of Mirrors.” Rev. of The Reluctant Fundamentalist, by Mohsin Hamid, and The Unknown Terrorist: A Novel, by Richard Flanagan. New York Review of Books 11 Oct. 2007: 22-24. Powell’s Books. 2009. Powell.com. 18 May 2009 <http://www.powells.com/blog/?p=2547>.
Khadra, Yasmina. The Attack. New York: Anchor, 2007.
King, Bruce. “The Image of the United States in Three Pakistani Novels.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 8.3-4 (2007): 683-88.
Knowlton, Brian. “Bush Makes Public Parts of Report on Terrorism.” New York Times 26 Sep. 2006. 6 Oct. 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/26/washington>.
Krause, Richard M. Foreword. Emerging Viruses. Ed. Stephen S. Morse. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993. xvii-xix.
Kristeva, Julia. Strangers to Ourselves. Trans. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia UP, 1991.
Kunzru, Hari. Transmission. London: Penguin, 2005.
——. “Guantanamo and Belmarsh (2003).” Royal Court Theatre, London. 10 Dec. 2003. Hari Kunzru. 2008. Hari Kunzru. 18 May 2009 <http://harikunzru.com/
guantanamo-bay-and-belmarsh-2003>.
——. “Making Friends with the Mail.” Reform Club, London. 20 Nov. 2003. Hari Kunzru. 2008. 26 June 2009 <http://harikunzru.com/ making-friends-with-mail-2003>.
Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1980.
Lasdun, James. “The Empire Strikes back.” Rev. of The Reluctant Fundamentalist, by Mohsin Hamid. Guardian 3 Mar. 2007. 24 Jan. 2008 <http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,2025106,00.html>.
Lemos, Robert. “Inside the ‘ILOVEYOU’ Worm.” ZDNet News 5 May 2000. 24 Dec. 2008 <http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-107344.html>.
Libicki, Martin C. Defending Cyberspace and Other Metaphors. Washington: Institute of National Strategies Studies/GPO, 1997.
Lynch, Aaron. Thought Contagion: How Belief Spreads through Society. New York: BasicBooks, 1996.
Maalouf, Amin. On Identity. Trans. Barbara Bray. London: Harvill, 2000.
Malik, Kenan. “Multiculturalism Has Fanned the Flames of Islamic Extremism.” Times 16 July 2005. 12 Oct. 2008 <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/
columnists/guest_contributors/article544443.ece>.
Mandel, R. “Turkish Headscarves and the ‘Foreigner Problem’: Constructing Difference through Emblems of Identity.” New German Critique 46 (1989): 27-46.
Marlowe, Ann. “Buying Anti-American.” National Review 14 May 2007. 18 Feb. 2009 <http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=ODIwM2JiNzhlZjMwMzlhZjZhZjI4ZGZkOWVjYjI3NTA=>.
Matar, Dina. “Diverse Diasporas, One Meta-Narrative: Palestinians in the UK Talking about 11 September 2001.” Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies 32.6 (2006): 1027-40.
Mayer, Ruth. “Virus Discourse: The Rhetoric of Threat and Terrorism in the Biothriller.” Cultural Critique 66 (2007): 1-20.
McClintock, Anne. “The Angel of Progress: Pitfalls of the Term ‘Postcolonialism.’” Social Text 31/32 (1992): 84-98.
——. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. New York: Routledge, 1993.
McDermott, Terry. Perfect Soldiers: The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did it. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.
McLuhan, Eric. “The Source of the Term, ‘Global Village.’” McLuhan Studies 2. 15 Jan. 2009 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss2/1_2art2.htm>.
“Metaphor.” Oxford English Dictionary Online. 2009. Oxford UP. 15 May 2009 <http://dictionary.oed.com/>.
Mishra, Pankaj. “The End of Innocence.” Guardian 19 May 2007. 19 May 2009
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/may/19/fiction.martinamis>.
——. “Exit Wounds.” New Yorker 13 Aug. 2007: 80.
Mitchell, Christopher. “The Significance of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks for United States-Bound Migration in the Western Hemisphere.” International Migration Review 36.1 (2002): 29-32.
Mitchell, W. J. T. “Picturing Terror: Derrida’s Autoimmunity.” Critical Inquiry 33.2 (2007): 277-90.
Mohan, C. Raja. “Catharsis and Catalysis: Transforming the South Asian Subcontinent.” Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of Global Order. Ed. Ken Booth and Tim Dunne. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. 205-14.
Morton, Stephen. “‘There were Collisions and Explosions. The World was No Longer Calm.’ Terror and Precarious Life in Salman Rushdie’s Shalimar the Clown.” Textual Practice 22.2 (2008): 337-55.
Munro, Iain. Information Warfare in Business: Strategies of Control and Resistance in the Network Society. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Nacos, Brigitte Lebens. Mass-Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
Nasta, Susheila. Home Truths: Fictions of the South Asian Diaspora in Britain. London: Palgrave, 2002.
Nayak, Meghana. “Orientalism and ‘Saving’ US State Identity after 9/11.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 8.1 (2006): 42-61.
Nisbet, Erik C., and James Shanahan. “MSRG Special Report: Restrictions on Civil Liberties, Views of Islam, and Muslim Americans.” Cornell University: Department of Communication. Dec. 2004. Cornell University: Department of Communication. 26 Oct. 2008 <http://www.comm.cornell.edu/msrg/report1a.pdf>.
Olsson, Karen. “I Pledge Allegiance.” Rev. of The Reluctant Fundamentalist, by Mohsin Hamid. New York Times 22 Apr. 2007. 19 Jan. 2009 <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/books/review/Olsson.t.html>.
Owuor, Elizabeth. “Fiction with 9/11 Themes Begins to Fill US Bookstores.” Christian Science Monitor 18 Apr. 2005. 30 Mar. 2009 <http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/
0418/p11s01-ussc.html>.
Paparone, Christopher R. “On Metaphors We Are Led by.” Military Review Nov-Dec. 2008: 55-64.
Papastergiadis, Nikos. The Turbulence of Migration: Globalization, Deterritorization and Hybridity. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.
Paul, Kathleen. Whitewashing Britain: Race and Citizenship in the Postwar Era. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1997.
Perez-Rivas, Manuel. “Bush Vows to Rid the World of ‘Evil-Doers.” CNN.com. 16 Sep. 2001. Cable News Network. 14 Oct. 2008 <http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/
09/16/gen.bush.terrorism/>.
Perlez, Jane. “A Pakistani-American Voice in Search of a True Home.” Rev. of The Reluctant Fundamentalist, by Mohsin Hamid. New York Times 13 Oct. 2007. 2 Jan. 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/13/world/europe/13hamid.html>.
Petty, Linda. “Survey: Cities Fear Biological, Chemical Attacks.” CNN.com. 6 Sep. 2002. Cable News Network. 1 Dec. 2008 <http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/
09/06/prepared.cities.survey/index.html>.
Phillips, Melanie. Londonistan: How British Is Creating a Terror State Within. London: Gibson Square, 2007.
Pitkin, Annabella. “Salman Rushdie Loses His Cheerfulness: Geopolitics, Terrorism and Adultery.” Rev. of Shalimar the Clown, by Salman Rushdie. Journal of International Affairs 61.1 (2007): 257-62.
Porteous, J. Douglas. “Home; the Territorial Core.” Geographical Review 66.4 (1976): 383-90.
Price, Joshua M. “The Apotheosis of Home and the Maintenance of Spaces of Violence.” Hypatia 17.4 (2002): 39-70.
Prince, Ron. “Americans Want Illegal Immigrants Out.” Los Angeles Times 6 Sep. 1994: B5.
Prokesch, Steven. “The Media Business; BBC’s Global Challenge to CNN.” New York Times 28 Oct. 1991. 5 Apr. 2009 <http://www.nytimes.com/1991/10/28/business/
the-media-business-bbc-s-global-challenge-to-cnn.html>.
Rahman, Tariq. “Language and Education.” A History of Pakistan and Its Origins. Ed. Christophe Jaffrelot. London: Anthem, 2002. 252-57.
Rasch, Mark. Foreword. Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyber-terrorism. By Vernton Dan. New York: McGraw, 2003. vii-xii.
Rashid, Ahmed. Descent into Chaos: How the War against Islamic Extremism Is Being Lost in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia. London: Allen Lane, 2008.
Reynolds, Amy, and Brooke Barnett. “‘America under Attack’: CNN’s Verbal and Visual Framing of September 11.” Media Representations of September 11. Ed. Steven Chermak, Frankie Y. Bailey, and Michelle Brown. London: Praeger, 2003. 85-101.
Ridge, Tom. “Remarks by Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge to the Electronics Industries Alliance.” White House: President George W. Bush. 23 Apr. 2002. 18 May 2009 <http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/04/
20020423-15.html>.
Ross, Andrew. “Containing Culture in the Cold War.” No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture. New York: Routledge: 1989. 42-64.
Royle, Nicholas. The Uncanny. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2003.
Rushdie, Salman. Shalimar the Clown. London: Jonathan Cape, 2005.
——. “The Right Time for an Islamic Reformation.” Washington Post 7 Aug. 2005: B7.
——. Interview with Jack Livings. “Salman Rushdie: The Art of Fiction No. 186.” Paris Review 174 (2005): 107-143. 15 Nov. 2007 <http://www.theparisreview.org/
viewinterview.php/prmMID/5531>.
——. Interview with Steve Inskeep. “‘Shalimar the Clown’ Takes Rushdie back to Kashmir.” Morning Edition 24 Oct. 2005. 6 Oct. 2008 <http://www.npr.org/
templates/story/story.php?storyId=4968866>.
Robinson, Christa, and Paul Schur. “CNN Is Viewers Cable Network Choice for Democratic and Republican National Conventional Coverage.” TimeWarner.com. 18 Aug. 2000. Time Warner Inc. 5 Apr. 2009 <http://www.timewarner.com/corp/
newsroom/pr/0,20812,667801,00.html>.
Said, Edward W. “Traveling Theory.” The World, the Text, and the Critic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1983. 226-47.
——. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage, 1994.
Sandhu, Sukhdev. “Come Hungry, Leave Edgy.” London Review of Books 9 Oct. 2003: 10-13. 24 Jan. 2008 <http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n19/sand01_.html>.
Sayyid, S. “Beyond Westphalia: Nations and Diasporas—the Case of the Muslim Umma.” Un/settled Multiculturalisms: Diasporas, Entanglements, Transruptions. Ed. Barnor Hesse. London: Zed, 2000. 33-50.
Schattner, Amichai, and Bracha Rager-Zisman. “Virus-Induced Autoimmunity.” Reviews of Infectious Diseases 12.2 (1990): 204-22.
Scheer, Robert. “CIA’s Tracks Lead in Disastrous Circle.” Los Angeles Times 17 Sep. 2001. 4 Oct. 2008 <http://www.latimes.com/>.
Scheuerman, William E. Carl Schmitt: The End of Law. New York: Rowan & Littlefield, 1999.
Schirato, Tony, and Jen Webb. Understanding Globalization. London: Sage, 2003.
Schmitt, Carl. The Concept of the Political. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.
Sen, Amartya Kumar. Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. New York: Norton, 2007.
Shaw, Alison. “Why Might Young British Muslims Support the Taliban?” Anthropology
Today 18.1 (2002): 5-8.
Shryock, Richard. Tales of Storytelling: Embedded Narrative in Modern French Fiction. New York: Lang, 1993.
Siegel, Lee. “Midnight Rambler.” Rev. of Shalimar the Clown, by Salman Rushdie.
Nation 3 Oct. 2005: 28-32.
Silversteub, Arthur M. A History of Immunology. San Diego: 1989.
Sontag, Susan. AIDS and its Metaphors. New York: Farrar, 1998.
St-Pierre, Paul. “Multiple Meanings and Contexts: The Diversity of the Post-Colonial.” TTR: Traduction, Terminologie, Rédaction 10.1 (1997): 9-17.
Stempel, Guido H., and Thomas Hargrove. “Media Sources of Information and Attitudes about Terrorism.” Communication and Terrorism: Public and Media Responses to 9/11. Ed. Bradley S. Greenberg. Cresskill: Hampton, 2002. 17-26.
Strawson, John. “Holy War in the Media: Images of Jihad.” Media Representations of September 11. Ed. Steven Chermak, Frankie Y. Bailey, and Michelle Brown. Westport: Praeger, 2003. 17-28.
Taylor, Jonathan, and Chris Jasparo. “Editorials and Geopolitical Explanations for 11 September.” 11 September and Its Aftermath: The Geopolitics of Terror. Ed. Stanley D Brunn. London: Frank Cass, 2004. 217-52.
“terrorism.” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. Merriam-Webster Online. 15 May 2009 <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/terrorism>.
——. The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007. Columbia UP. 15 May 2009 <http://www.bartleby.com/65/te/terroris.html>.
——. Cambridge Dictionaries Online. 2009. Cambridge UP. 15 May 2009 <http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=82104&dict=CALD>.
United States. Cong. Senate. Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information of the Committee on the Judiciary. Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years after the World Trade Center. 105 Cong., 2nd sess. S. Hrg. 105-703. Washington: GPO, 1998.
——. Dept. of Justice. Criminal Division. “Creator of ‘Melissa’ Computer Virus Pleads Guilty to State and Federal Charges.” 9 Dec. 1999. 26 Dec. 2008 <http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/melissa.htm>.
——. Census Bureau. The Foreign-Born Population of the United States: Population Characteristics. By Lisa Lollock. Jan. 2001. 18 May 2009 <http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/p20-534.pdf>.
“US Warns of Al-Qaeda Cyber Threat.” BBC News. 1 Dec. 2006. BBC. 16 Jan. 2009 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6197446.stm>.
Van der Vliet, Virginia. The Politics of AIDS. London: Bowerdean, 1996.
Versluys, Kristiaan. “9/11 as a European Event: The Novels.” European Review 15.1 (2007): 65-79.
Verton, Dan. Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyber-terrorism. New York: McGraw, 2003.
Vidler, Anthony. The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely. Cambridge: MIT P, 1992.
Viswanathan, Gauri. Masks of Conquest: Literary Study and British Rule in India. London: Routledge, 1989.
Ward, Mark. “Cyber Terrorism ‘Overhyped.’” BBC News. 14 March 2003. BBC. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/2850541.stm>.
Weenie, Angelina. “Postcolonial Recovering and Healing.” Learn in Beauty: Indigenous Education for a New Century. Ed. Jon Reyhner, Joseph Martin, Louise Lockard, and W. Sakiestewa Gilbert. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona UP, 2000. 65-70.
Weimann, Gabriel. “Cyberterrorism: How Real Is the Threat?” United States Institute of Peace. 2004. United States Institute of Peace. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://www.usip.org/
pubs/specialreports/sr119.html>.
Werbner, Pnina. “Theorising Complex Diasporas: Purity and Hybridity in the South Asian Public Sphere in Britain.” Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies 30.5 (2004): 895-911.
Westmoreland, Mark W. “Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality.” Kritike 2.1 (2008): 1-10.
Whartenby, H. Allen. “The Interlocutor in ‘La Chute’: A Key to Its Meaning.” PMLA 83.5 (1968): 1326-33.
Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. London: Fontana, 1988.
——. Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1977.
Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Signet, 1951.
Willmott, Glenn. “McLuhan, or Modernism in Reverse.” Canadian Journal of Communication 23.4 (1998). 15 Jan. 2009 <http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/
journal/article/view/1077/983>.
Winterman, Denise. “Belmarsh—Britain’s Guantanamo Bay?” BBC News. 6 Oct. 2004. BBC. 27 Nov. 2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/3714864.stm>.
Wright, Lawrence. Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
“Wrong Then, Wrong Now: Racial Profiling before and after September 11.” Civilrights.org. 2009. Civil Rights/Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund. 18 May 2009 <http://www.civilrights.org/publications/reports/
racial_profiling/racial_profiling_report.pdf>.
Wyatt, Edward. “After a Long Wait, Literary Novelists Address 9/11.” New York Times 7 Mar. 2005. 14 May 2009 <http://www.nytimes.com/pages/arts/index.html>.
Yardley, Jonathan. “The 9/11 Hijackers.” Washington Post 1 May 2005: BW2.
Zolberg, Aristide R. “Guarding the Gates.” Understanding September 11. Ed. Craig Calhoun, Paul Price, and Ashley Timmer. New York: New Press, 2002. 285-302.
Zutshi, Chitralekha. Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. London: Hurst & Co., 2004.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊