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研究生:林彥成
研究生(外文):Yen-Cheng lin
論文名稱:台北地區蚤蠅(雙翅目:蚤蠅科)的行為研究與其法醫重要性
論文名稱(外文):Behavioral Studies of Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and Its Forensic Importance in Taipei Area
指導教授:蕭旭峰蕭旭峰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:蚤蠅法醫雙翅目行為
外文關鍵詞:Phoridaedipterabehaviorforensic
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蚤蠅科包含200多個屬與3000多種,是雙翅目中的一個具高生態多樣性的大型類群。它們包含寄生性與捕食性的物種;其他廣泛取食的種類在人類的生活周遭成為重要的居家害蟲,有些食腐性的種類亦出現在法律案件的紀錄。暴露的屍體提供了野生動物豐富卻短暫的資源,麗蠅與肉蠅是其中最常被利用來判斷死後間隔時間的昆蟲,但是位於地下屍體的腐爛速度常遠低於暴露於空氣中,容易造成死後間隔時間的誤判,因此找出法醫昆蟲中可應用於協助地下屍體鑑識的昆蟲是有其必要的。在麗蠅無法侵入的土壤深層中,蚤蠅時常隨著地下屍體的發掘而出現,但蚤蠅通常會被誤認為是露天暴露屍體腐爛後期才大量產生的昆蟲,而其中Megaselia scalaris (Loew) 在自然與都市環境中,均是常見的世界性分布的腐食性種類,有高於麗蠅的入侵能力與分布範圍,在法醫研究方面具有普遍應用之可能性。本研究之目的為調查台北公館地區可能出現的法醫重要性蚤蠅的種類,得到6種蚤蠅,其中 Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot) 與Diplonevra peregrine (Wiedemann) 為地下屍體上的優勢物種。並嘗試證明蚤蠅M. scalaris是否可穿過土壤,並在地下的目標上產卵;在野外以大白鼠埋入地下模擬可能在地下出現的屍體,確定蚤蠅在地下屍體法醫昆蟲方面應用的可能性。本實驗設計以自製的壓克力盒裝入培養土,下方放置豬肝吸引蚤蠅鑽入土壤產卵,在低深度的土壤中初步證明蚤蠅穿土產卵的可能性,但是在較深與顆粒細密的土壤設置時,蚤蠅入侵成功率即降低;於實驗室中麗蠅科紅顏金蠅Chrysomya rufifacies 無法在土壤隔絕下產卵利用地下的屍體; M. scalaris 在本實驗中的結果顯示不適合用於短期地底屍體的法醫研究。我們相信了解Dohrniphora cornuta在短時間到達地底的能力與結合其發育時間的研究後,將可幫助預測屍體掩埋在淺層土壤中一星期到一個月的PMI。
Phoridae is a large family of Diptera with highly biological diversity. There are about 200 genera and more than 3,000 species were identified in the world. Phorids are worthy to study because the larvae of most species are parasitoids or specialist predators. In other species, they also feed on dung, carrions, fungus, or plants, and some of them were recorded in the forensic cases. The majority of forensic cases that involve examination of insects found on a corpse are mainly concerning for the blow flies (Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae). People collect these data for estimating the earliest oviposition dates(EODs)and know how long the dead body was exposed there. The phorid flies may be found in many cases because their small bodies are able to enter the smallest opening, even several meter deepth in the soil. In this study, we collected 6 phorid species of possible forensic importance and captured maggots by using subterranean rat corpses which were set in different depth. Below the ground, 2 phorid species, Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot) and Diplonevra peregrine (Wiedemann), were significantly more than other species. Magaselia scalaris (Loew) and blowflies were blocked by the soil. Abilities of flies to penetrate the ground under different sizes of soil granules and different soil depth were tested. Diplonevra cornuta was proved to have better ability to penetrate the soil than the other 2 phorid fly species. The penetrating ability of tested phorid flies is worse than previously recorded in other field studies. Finally, we believe it is useful to build a model of D. cornuta for covering the unexpected situation of decaying remains and estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of the corpse buried in a shallow grave in a week to a month.
致謝i
中文摘要ii
英文摘要iii
目錄iv
圖次vi
表次viii
壹、緒言1
貳、往昔研究3
一、法醫昆蟲學3
二、蚤蠅科分類地位與生物學概論7
三、蚤蠅科在法醫昆蟲學的應用可能性10
叁、材料與方法16
一、試驗昆蟲之採集與飼養16
二、實驗設計16
(一)台北地區露天嗜屍性蚤蠅調查17
(二)台北地區地下嗜屍性蚤蠅調查18
(三)以大白鼠屍體埋於地下誘集鑽地蠅類之調查18
(四)蚤蠅科Megaselia scalaris下鑽能力實驗19
(五)麗蠅科紅顏金蠅Chrysomya rufifacies下鑽能力實驗21
(六)蚤蠅科Dohrniphora cornuta 下鑽能力實驗22
(七)蚤蠅科Diplonevra peregrina下鑽能力實驗22
肆、實驗結果23
一、台北地區露天嗜屍性蚤蠅調查23
二、台北地區地下嗜屍性蚤蠅調查27
三、以大白鼠屍體埋於地下誘集鑽地蠅類之調查28
四、蚤蠅科Megaselia scalaris下鑽能力實驗32
五、麗蠅科紅顏金蠅Chrysomya rufifacies 下鑽能力實驗33
六、蚤蠅科Dohrniphora cornuta下鑽能力實驗33
七、蚤蠅科D. peregrina下鑽能力實驗34八、比較三種蚤蠅在不同深度的鑽土能力35
九、比較三種蚤蠅在不同培養土顆粒大小的鑽土能力36
伍、討論38
陸、結論43
柒、參考文獻44
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