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研究生:聖迪
研究生(外文):Diccon King Sandrey
論文名稱:中華人民共和國執行《1982年聯合國海洋法公約》環境法的分析
論文名稱(外文):An analysis of the implementation of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea environmental law in the People’s Republic of China
指導教授:姜黃池姜黃池引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:聯合國海洋法公約中華人民共和國環境保護法海洋法
外文關鍵詞:UNCLOSPRCenvironmental lawmarine law
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被稱為「海洋憲章」的1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》是一部具權威性和綜合性的國際條約,此部前所未見的《聯合國海洋法公約》,共分17部分,其中有一部分,亦即第十二部分,章名為「海洋環境的保護與保全」,同時也可以在《海洋法公約》中看到關於海洋環境的保護與保全的其他相關條款。足見海洋環境保護議題在當代國際法,當然亦即當代國際海洋法,之重要性。中華人民共和國近年來急速的經濟發展,導致其廣大的管轄水域存在著環境危機,本文欲探討中國在海洋環境保護與保全的現狀,包括中國對海洋環境的態度與規範,並以《海洋法公約》分析中國與國際海洋環境規範在法制面及落實面的對應關係。
The rapid economic growth of the PRC in recent years, coupled with the enormous sea area under its jurisdiction, has led many to look with concern on a possible environmental crisis in the waters of East Asia. In this regard, the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea an international treaty of unprecedented authority and comprehensiveness, sometimes described as a constitution for the oceans. Of its 17 sections, one section is dedicated to the protection and preservation of the marine environment, as well as numerous and highly significant articles scattered through the remainder of the text. This thesis will therefore use the convention to analyze China’s commitment to tackling the issue of marine environmental degradation. Through this it is hoped to gain a clearer perspective of China’s attitude towards international environmental law, as well as the functioning of the convention in East Asia.
摘要 1

目錄 3

第一章:緒論 6
壹、研究目的 6
貳、研究意識 8
參、研究方法 8
肆、研究架構 11

第二章:1982聯合國海洋法公約與國際海洋環境規則 13
壹、1982聯合國海洋法公約的背景 13
一、背景 13
二、《海洋法公約》與國際海洋環境保護規則 14

貳、海洋污 16
一、防止海洋污染規則 16
1. 來自船舶的污染 17
2. 傾倒 19
3. 海床活動 20
4. 陸地活動 23
5. 大氣層污染 24

二、實施防止海洋污染規則 25
1. 沿海國 25
2. 船旗國 26
3. 港口國 27

三、國際規則和標準在海洋法公約 28

參、生物多樣性 30
一、生物多樣性的定義 30
二、各國保護生物多樣性的義務 31
三、漁業 33
四、其他海洋動物 35
五、海洋保護區 37
1. 海洋保護區的基礎 37
2. 特別敏感海域 41
3. 公海 40

第三章:中國對國際海洋環境保護法的態度 44
壹、 中國對國際法的態度 44
貳、 中國對國際環境保護法的態度 47
參、 中國對《海洋法公約》的態度 51

第四章:中國執行《1982聯合國海洋法公約》海洋環境保護法的分析 54
壹、背景 54
貳、中國的海洋環境管理制度 56
參、《海洋環境保護法》 58
一、簡介 58
二、《海洋環境保護法》與《海洋法公約》之間的關係 59
三、結論 64

肆、防止來自船舶污染的國內法 65
伍、防止傾倒的國內法 66
陸、防止來自海床活動污染的國內法 67
柒、防止來自陸地活動污染的國內法 69
捌、防止來自大氣層污染的國內法 71
玖、保護生物多樣性的國內法 73
拾、特別保護區及自然保護區 75
拾壹、《刑法》 77
拾貳、執行國內法的分析 79

第五章: 結論 83

附件一:國際條約彙編 86

附件二:《中華人民共和國海洋環境保護法》 90

參考文獻 111
壹、英文書 111
貳、英文文章 112
參、中文書 114
肆、中文文章 115
伍、網路資料 115
參考文獻

壹、英文書

Aust, A: Modern Treaty Law and Practice, Cambridge: CUP, 2003

Birnie, PW; Boyle, AE: International Law and the Environment, Oxford: OUP, 1993

Cassese, A: International Law, Oxford: OUP, 2001

Chen, AHY: An Introduction to the Legal System of the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong: Butterworths, 1998

Churchill, RR; Lowe, AV: The Law of the Sea (3rd Ed), Manchester: Juris, 1999

Greenfield, J: China’s Practice in the Law of the Sea, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992

Kiss, A; Shelton, D: International Environmental Law, New York: Transnational Publishers, 2003

Lubman, SB (ed): China’s Legal Reforms, New York: OUP, 1996

Lucchini, Quénedec (eds): La Mer et son Droit, Paris: Pedone, 2003 (法文)

Mushkat, R: International Environmental Law and Asian Values, Vancouver: UBC Press, 2004

Ringbom, H: Competing Norms in the Law of Marine Environmental Protection, London: Kluwer Law International, 1997

Roberts, J: Marine Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation: The Application and Future Development of the IMO’s Particularly Sensitive Sea Area Concept, Berlin: Springer, 2007

Ross, L; Silk, MA: Environmental Law and Policy in the People’s Republic of China, New York: Quorum, 1987

Snape, WJ III: Biodiversity and the Law, Washington DC: Island Press, 1996

Stokke, OS; Vidas, D (eds): Governing the Antarctic, Cambridge: CUP, 1996

UN: Third United Nations Conference of the Law of the Sea: Official Records (XVII), New York: UN, 1982

Victor, DG; Raustida, K; Skolnikoff, EB: The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice, Boston: MIT Press, 1998

貳、英文文章

Alford, WP; Shen, Y: “Limits of the law in addressing China’s environmental dilemma”, 16 Stanford Environmental Law Journal 1997

Bachner, B: “Regulating pollution in the People’s Republic of China: An analysis of the enforcement of environmental law” 7 Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 1996

Bethill, CD: “People’s China and the law of the sea” 8 International Law 1974

Beyer, S: “Environmental law and policy in the People’s Republic of China” 5 Chinese Journal of International Law 2006

Carr, M: “China and the Law of the Sea Convention” 9 Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 1983


Charney, JI: “The marine environment and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea” 28 Internationall Law 1994

Craig, RK: “Protecting international marine biodiversity: International treaties and regional systems of marine protected areas” 20 Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law 2004-2005

Dickson, B: “The precautionary principle in CITES: A critical assessment” 39 Natural Resources ournal. 1999

Dzidzornu, DM: “Coastal state obligations and powers respecting EEZ environmental protection under Part XII of the UNCLOS: A descriptive analysis” 8 Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 2007

Ferris, RJ Jr; Zhang, H: “Reaching out the rule of law: China’s continuing efforts to develop an effective environmental law regime” 11 William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 2002-2003

Keyuan, Z: “Implementing marine environmental protection law in China: progress, problems and prospects” 23 Marine Policy 1999

Keyuan, Z: “Curbing environmental degradation: China’s new legislation” 16 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 2001

Keyuan, Z: “China’s efforts in deep sea-bed mining: law and practice” 18 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 2003

Killion, MU: “China’s amended constitution: Quest for liberty and independent judicial review”, 4 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 2005,

Kim, H-S: “The 1992 Chinese Territorial Sea Law in the light of the UN Convention” 43 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 1994

Lee, SD: “Environmental protection in the Northeast Asia region” 19 Korean Journal of Comparative Law 199

Lubman, S: “Looking for law in China” 20 Columbia Journal of Asian Law 2006

McDorman, TL: “Port state enforcement: A comment on article 218 of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention” 28 Journal of Marine Law and Commerce 1997

Ross, L: “China: Environment protection, domestic policy trends, patterns of participation in regimes and compliance with international norms” 156 China Quarterly 1998

Schiffman, HS: “The International Whaling Commission: Challenges from within and without” 10 ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 2003-04

Schwarte, C: “Environmental concerns in the adjudication of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea” 16 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 2003-2004

Scovazzi, T: “Marine protected areas on the high seas: Some legal and policy considerations”, 19 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 2004

Sitaraman, S: “Regulating the belching dragon: Rule of law, politics of enforcement, and pollution prevention in post-Mao industrial China” 18 Colorado Journal of International Law and Policy 2007

Wang, A: “The role of law in environmental protection in China: Recent developments” 8 Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 2006

Wang, C: “Chinese environmental law enforcement: Current deficiencies and suggested reforms” 8 Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 2006-2007

Wang, S: “Environmental crime and environmental criminal law in the People’s Republic of China” 12 European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 2004

Watters, L; Xi, W: “The protection of wildlife and endangered species in China” 14 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 2001

Xiangcong, Ma; Zhenguo, C: “On the Marine Environmental Protection Law”, Environmental Law and Policy in the People’s Republic of China, New York: Quorum, 1983

Yang, C; Head, JW; Liu, S: “China’s treatment of crimes against the environment: Using criminal sanctions to fight environmental degradation in the PRC” 8 Journal of Chinese Law 1994

參、中文書

王進旺(編):《中國主要海洋法規彙編》,台北:行政院海岸巡防署,2007年

王泰銓(編):《最新中華人民共和國法律、法規彙編》,台北:和蘆圖書,2006年

高健軍:《中國與國際海洋法─紀念聯合國海洋法公約生效10周年》,北京:海洋出版社,2004年

徐祥民:《海洋環境得法律保護研究》,青島:中國海洋大學出版社, 2005年

張皓若,卞耀武:《中華人民共和國海洋環境保護法釋義》北京:法律出版社,2000年

韓成棟、潘抱存:《國際法教程》,南京:南京大學出版社,1998年

《聯合國海洋法公約(漢英)》,北京:海洋出版社,1996年

肆、中文文章

吳險峰:《我國海洋環境保護的法律原則和政策措施》24/3 海洋環境科學 2005

徐祥民、馬英傑:《論我國海洋特殊區域的分類保護》,4海洋開法與管理2004

劉惠榮、高威、楊益松:《海洋特別保護區管理法律制度探討》21/3法制論叢2006


伍、網路資料

Argonne National Laboratory (US): (ANL):http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2007/Beijing_report_final.pdf

Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN): http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/

CIA World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook /rankorder/2174rank.html

Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (Australia):
http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/species/cetaceans/whale-protection/iwc-06-meeting.html

Earth Policy: http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/Update45.htm

Food and Agriculture Organization: http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/ 1000505/en/stocks.pdf

FAOLex: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/mul38165.pdf

Greenpeace: http://www.greenpeace.org/china/en/campaigns/toxics/water-pollution

Guardian (UK): http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/may/14/ endangeredhabitats.mining

International Maritime Organisation: http://www.imo.org/

International Seabed Authority: http://www.isa.org.jm

International Whaling Commisson: http://www.iwcoffice.org/

Kosovo’s Constitution: http://www.kushtetutakosoves.info/?cid=2,247

Legislation Online: http://www.legislationline.org/upload/legislations /01/9c/b4b8702679c8b42794267c691488.htm

NOWPAP: http://www.nowpap.org/new_projects_02.php

Regional Organisation for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait:
http://www.ropme.net/pages/legal.htm

UN Environment Program: http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/ Default.asp?DocumentID=78&ArticleID=1163

中國日報:http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-06/13/content_
451005.htm

中國海洋信息網:http://www.coi.gov.cn/zrbhq/

中國網:http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/38110.htm

天涯法律網:http://www.hicourt.gov.cn/law/show.asp?fileno=1069

東明環保網:http://hz.dmhbw.com/Article/web03/gjgy/2006-04-13/200604132

國家海洋局:http://www.soa.gov.cn/hyjww/ml/qf/s/webinfo/2003/12/ 1196914662892548.htm

環境保護部:http://www.sepa.gov.cn/info/gw/bgth/200609/W02006092738951087 0854.pdf

環境保護部環境規劃院:http://www.caep.org.cn/ReadNews.asp?NewsID= 144315411.html
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