跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.120.150) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/06 02:59
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:章舒婷
研究生(外文):Shu-Ting Chang
論文名稱:OECD國家公共年金之研究---單一制與分立制之比較
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Public Pension in OECD Countries -Comparision Between Dualism and integration
指導教授:蘇彩足蘇彩足引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai-Tsu Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:公共年金單一制分立制隨機效果模型
外文關鍵詞:public pensionDualismintegrationrandom effect model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:470
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
當世界各國六十五歲以上人口普遍逐年穩定遞增,面對高齡化社會的趨勢,年金改革成為各國政府不得不面對的重大考驗,參考相關年金資料文獻,OECD國家之中,屬於分立制國家有11個,有19個國家則可歸屬於單一制國家,而本研究的研究目的即是比較(1)單一制國家與分立制國家之公共老年年金規模以及(2)在分立制國家中,政府對於公務人員與非公務人員間之公共老年年金支出之差異。而影響公共年金支出之因素相當多元,因此,本研究將以OECD三十個會員國、樣本期間為1980年至2003年為分析對象,而影響年金支出因素將區分為五大類,分別為公共年金制度、政治、人口統計、總體經濟與財政因素。
依據實證結果所示,單一制與分立制國家在總體公共年金支出與非公務人員年金支出並無顯著差異,但分立制國家相對於單一制國家,確實較為照顧公務人員的老年生活。並且比較分立制國家之下,公務人員與非公務人員公共年金支出之差異,公務人員雖會受到政黨意識形態以及政府面臨沉重的財政壓力,而對公務人員年金支出做出限縮之改革;但另一方面,公務人員年金制度調整給付額度所依據的指數標準比一般私部門年金更有優勢,從實證結果顯示,公務人員年金支出會隨著消費者物價指數連動,而私部門確沒有明顯地逐年隨物價自動調節。
年金體系是複雜且分歧,所以要進行年金制度比較是相當困難的,並且年金的設置也有多重政策目標,例如要思考社會公平性以及經濟效率性等,這些目標可能不同制度下有不同比重,有的制度符合公平層面的要求,但未必有利於人力資源配置之經濟效率原則,而各項政策目標比重上之取捨則視該國所需,但在規劃上則需通盤考量。並且一國公共年金制度不論是朝向單一制整併之目標,還是維持分立制,在作年金改革之前須多方考量,需考慮改制的風險、成本並且要兼顧社會適當性、個人公平性以及財務負擔性,因此,並以漸進的方式改革才較為周延才具可行性。
As the number and share of the population aged 65 and over will continue to grow steadily in OECD countries over the next decades, reforming pensions is becoming one of the biggest challenges governments have to face. With information for OECD countries, 11 OECD countries can be categorized as having separate public pension arrangements for civil servants, 19 OECD countries are categorized as integrated schemes. Hence, the main purposes of this study are to: (1) compare public pension between separated and integrated schemes and (2) compare public pension between public and private sector in the separated scheme countries. Public pension might be affected by different category of factors, so this study use of 30 OECD countries during the 1980-2003 period data, and the variables in the public pension model include public pension scheme, politics, demography, macroeconomics and finance factors.
The empirical result reveals that there is no difference between separated and integrated scheme in public pension expenditures. But comparing with integrated schemes, civil servants in the separated scheme countries whose pension are more generous. And comparing public pension between public and private sector in the separated scheme countries, civil servants’ pension expenditures were mainly influenced by party ideology and fiscal burden. However, we found that civil servant pension was significantly correlated to CPI. On the other hand, we do not find the evidence to support private sector pension also was affected by CPI.
Pension systems are complex and diverse, so comparing them is consequently difficult. And pensions have multiple purposes, like social equity and economic sufficiency. These purposes may be given different weights, but policy needs to bear them all in mind. Before reforming, we should judge from the perspectives of equality, efficiency, and feasibility. A move from dualism towards integration may or may not be welfare-improving, depending on a series of country specifics. The analysis of any such move needs to take account of the costs of moving from one steady state to another, rather than simply comparing two steady states And it also needs to take account of differences in risk and of the significant differences in administrative costs of different types of pension arrangement And it also needs to rebalance retirement income provision to ensure it is both adequate and financially sustainable. Moreover, it is suggested that the public pension reform should be implemented incrementally.
口試委員會審定書………………………………………………… I
謝辭…………………………………………………………………II
中文摘要……………………………………………………………III
Abstract ………………………………………………………… IV
第一章緒論……………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機與目的………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究範圍與研究架構…………………………………… 5
第三節 研究方法與研究限制…………………………………… 8
第四節 文獻探討………………………………………………… 10
第二章 單一制與分立制國家之比較…………………………… 18
第一節 單一年金制與分立年金制之意義……………………… 19
第二節 OECD各國公共年金制度 ………………………………… 27
第三章 資料與理論模型建構…………………………………… 46
第一節 影響年金支出因素之相關理論………………………… 46
第二節 資料來源與特徵………………………………………… 50
第三節 模型設定………………………………………………… 68
第四章 實證研究結果…………………………………………… 88
第一節 公共老年年金支出之影響因素………………………… 88
第二節 單一制與分立制國家之比較…………………………… 94
第三節 公務人員與非公務人員之比較………………………… 101
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………… 104
第一節 研究發現………………………………………………… 104
第二節 後續研究建議…………………………………………… 108
參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 110
附錄一:OECD國家65歲老年人口統計與推估…………………… 115
附錄二:OECD歷年統計之總生育率……………………………… 116
附錄三:OECD國家歷年男性與女性65歲以後之預期壽命……… 117
附錄四:OECD公共老年年金制度各項文獻分類之整理………… 118
附錄五:OECD單一制國家公共年金制度計畫內容……………… 120
附錄六:OECD分立制國家公共年金制度計畫內容……………… 125
壹、中文部分
王季云,2002,《我國退休金制度與老人經濟安全保障之探討》,國立政治大學行政管理學程社會財經組碩士論文。
王鼎銘、詹富堯,2006,「台灣地方財政的政治景氣循環分析:固定效果與隨機效果模型的估算比較」,《台灣政治學刊》,第10卷,第2期:63-100。
王儷玲,2007,「全球公務人員退休制度設計之改革與發展」,《公務人員季刊》,第135期:2-5。
任雲楠譯,2008,《公共行政比較分析》,台北市:國立編譯館與韋伯文化國際出版有限公司,原著B.Guy Peters。
李明峻,2004,「小泉改革路線的審判」,《新台灣新聞週刊》,第434期。http://www.newtaiwan.com.tw/bulletinview.jsp?bulletinid=18547
辛炳隆,2002,「由建構老人經濟安全體系談我國勞工保險年金化」,國政研究報告,社會研究091-009號。
呂淑芳,2004,《公務人員新制退休金採行確定提撥制之研究》,國立政治大學行政管理碩士學程第三屆碩士論文,民國九十三年一月。
吳凱勳,1993,《我國社會保險制度現況分析及整合問題》,台北市:行政院研究發展考核委員會。
吳聰敏,2007,《經濟學》,http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/∼ntut019
林雅婧,2000,《我國國民年金制度與現有職域保險整合問題之研究-就財務面分析之》,國立政治大學財政學研究所碩士論文。
周麗芳,1997,《農民保險與勞工保險整合可行性之研究》,台北市:內政部研究報告。
侯仁義,2001,《德國年金制度之研究--及其對臺灣年金制度形成之啟示》,國立台灣大學經濟學研究所碩士論文。
柯木興、林建成,2004,《國民年金制度之比較》,台北市:國家政策研究資料中心。http://old.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/FM/093/FM-R-093-004.htm
施華恩,2007,「從全球退休金制度的發展趨勢思考我國公務人員退休制度的未來方向」,《公務人員季刊》,第135期:18-27。
莊正中,2007,「日本公共年金制度的省思」,《勞動保障雙月刊》,第12期http://www.bli.gov.tw/sub.asp?a=0011941。
郭冠甫,2004,《公共年金制度之研究》,初版。台北市:五南。
陳登源,2000,「退休基金制度設計與委託經營及共同基金市場關係之探討」,《退休基金季刊》,第 1期:29-41。
陳雲中,2008,《人壽保險的理論與實務》,修訂五版,台北市:三民。
陳鵬仁,2007,「黨內缺人才 安倍沒人轟下台 」,聯合報,2007/07/31,A19。
詹火生、柯木興、林建成,2003,《檢視英國政府年金改革計畫——兼述台灣建構年金制度的省思》,台北市:國家政策研究資料中心。http://www.npf.org.tw/particle-3486-3.html
楊永芳,2004,《建立我國老年經濟安全保障制度之研究》,國立臺灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文。
楊 瑩,2000,「瑞典年金制度的改革」,《社區發展季刊》,第91期:204-239。
廖振威,2006,《公務人員退休所得替代率之探討》,國立政治大學行政管理碩士學程第五屆碩士論文。
銓敘部,2004,《美加英法德等五國公務人員退休撫卹制度彙編》,台北市:考試院銓敘部。
簡文政,2000,《政治景氣循環》,國立中山大學經濟學研究所碩士論文。
鄺 明,2008,「美國總統選舉比較貨架」,《彼岸雜誌》,第20080708期。http://magazine.sina.com/coastide/20080708/2008-08-19/195858884.shtml
蘇彩足,2008,《公、教人員退休再就業問題及對策》,台北市:行政院研究發展考核委員會。


貳、西文部份
Anderson, K. M. & Immergut, E. M. 2007. “Sweden: after Social Democratic hegemony.” In Immergut, E. M., Anderson, K. M. & Schulze, I. (Eds.) (2007). The Handbook of West European Pension Politics (pp. 349-395). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Aspalter, Christian,2002. Democratization and welfare state development in Taiwan. Aldershot, England:Baker & Taylor Books.
Cutright, Phillips, 1965. “Political Structure, Economic Development, and National Social Security Programs,” American Journal of Sociology,(70):537-50.
Chand , Sheetal K. and Albert Jaeger,1996. “Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes,” IMF Occasional Papers No. 147.
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/56/35802785.pdf
Disney, Richard & Paul Johnson, 2001. Pension Systems and Retirement Incomes across OECD Countries, Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA : Edward Elgar.
Feldman, Stanley ,1983. “ Economic Individualism and American Public Opinion,” American Politics Quarterly (11): 3-29.
Friedman, Milton and Rose Friedman ,1980. Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Galenson, Walter ,1968 “Social Security and Economic Development: a quantitative approach,” Industrial and Labour Relations Review, 11(4): 559-569.
Gilder, George,1980. Wealth and Poverty. New York :Basic Books.
Greene, William H. 2008. Econometric Analysis. 6th ed, Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall.
Hasenfeld, Yeheskel and Jane A. Rafferty,1989. “ The Determinants of Public Attitude Toward the Welfare State,” Social Forces,(67) :1027-48.
Heo, M, Faith, M. S., Mott, J. W., Gorman, B. S., Redden, D. T., and Allison, D. B. 2003. “Hierarchical linear models for the development of growth curves: An example withbody mass index in overweight/obese adults ,” Statistics in Medicine(22) :1911-1942.
Hibbs, D. A. 1977, ““Political Parties and Macroeconomic Policy,” The American Political Science ReviewVol.71(4): 1467-1487.
Hsiao, C., 1985. “Benefits and Limitations of Panel Data.” Econometric Reviews(4) :121-174.
Hsiao, C. 1986. Analysis of Panel Data. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Klevmarken, N. A., 1989. “Panel Studies: What can We Learn from Them? Introduction.” European Economic Review, (33):523-529.
Kluegel, James R. and Eliot R. Smith ,1983. “ Affirmative Action Attitudes: Effects of Self-Interest, Racial Affect, and Stratification Beliefs on Whites'' Views.” Social Forces(61) :797-824.
Leal ,Christine, 2006. “ Civil Service Pension Schemes : An Overview of EU Member States,” paper presented at Seminar on “Social Rights and Pensions for Civil Servants in some EU Member States” Vilnius, 9 November 2006.
Maddala, G. S. 2001. Introduction to econometrics. 3rd ed, John wiley and Sons Ltd, West Sussex England.
Nyce, S. A. and Schieber, S. J. (Eds.). 2005. The economic implications of aging societies: The cost of living happily ever after.New York: Cambridge University Press.
OECD, 2006a. “ Live Longer, Work Longer,” OECD Observer No. 254, March 2006.
OECD,2006b. OECD Health Data 2006, www.oecd.org/health/healthdata, Paris.
OECD, 2007a. “ Trends in Severe Disability Among Elderly People:Assessing the Evidence in 12 OECD Countries and the Future Implications,” Health Working Papers No.26.
OECD, 2007b. OECD Factbook 2007: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, Paris.
OECD, 2007c. Pensions at a Glance 2007. Paris.
OECD, 2007d. “Public Sector Pensions and the Challenge of an Ageing Public Service,” Working Papers on Public Governance .
Palacios, Robert, and Edward Whitehouse, 2006. “Civil-service Pension Schemes around the World,” Pension Reform Primer series, Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0602., World Bank, Washington, DC.
Pampel, Fred C.&John B. Williamson, 1985. “Age structure, Politics,and Cross-National Patterns of Public Pension Expenditures,” American Sociological Review50:782-799
Pampel, Fred C.&John B. Williamson, 1988.“ Welfare Spending in Advanced
Industrial Democracies,”American Journal of Sociology,93(6):1424-1456.
Pampel, Fred C, 1994.“Population Aging, Class Context and Age Inequality in Public Spending,” American Journal of Sociology, 100(1): 153-195.
Pindyck, Robert S. and Daniel L. Rubinfeld 1998, Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts, 4th ed, Boston, Mass. The McGraw-Hill Press,.
Pinheiro , Vinicius Carvalho, 2005. “ Pension Funds for Government Workers in OECD Countries,”.
http://www.oecd.org/LongAbstract/0,3425,en_2649_37411_35802786_119666_1_1_37411,00.html
Queisser ,Monika & Edward Whitehouse,2006. “Comparing the pension promises
of 30 OECD countries,” International Social Security Review,(59):49-77.
Rimlinger, Gaston,1966. “Welfare Policy and Economic Development: a comparative historical perspective,”Journal of Economic History, XXVI(4): 556-571.
Solon, G. S. 1989. “The Value of Panel Data in Economics Research.” In Panel Surveys, ed. D. Kasprzyk, G. J. Duncan, G. Kalton and M. P. Singh. New York: Wiley, pp. 486-496.
Stéphane Garelli, 2007. “The Competitiveness Roadmap: 2007 – 2050,” IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007. http://www.imd.ch/research/publications/wcy/competitiveness_roadmap.cfm?bhcp=1
Swank, D., 2002. “Political Strength of Political Parties by Ideological Group in Capitalist Democracies. 21-Nation Pooled Time-Series Data Set,” http://www.marquette.edu/polisci/Swank.htm
Turner, Adair, 2006. “Pension Challenges in an Aging World,” Finance and Development A quarterly magazine of the IMF September 2006, Volume 43, Number 3.
Whitehouse, Edward, 2006a. “New Indicators of 30 OECD Countries’s Pension Systems,” Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, 5(3), 275-298.
Whitehouse, Edward, 2006b. Pensions Panorama, Washington DC: The World Bank.
Whitehouse, Edward, 2007. Pensions Panorama : Retirement-Income Systems in 53
Countries. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Wildavsky, A. 1964. The Politics of the Budgetary Process, Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top