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研究生:高慧如
研究生(外文):Hui-Ju Kao
論文名稱:台灣海峽北部現代沈積物之沈積速率與傳輸途徑
論文名稱(外文):Modern sedimentation in the northern Taiwan Strait: Rates andpathways
指導教授:劉家瑄劉家瑄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Char-Shine Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:海洋研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:台灣海峽沈積速率210Pb定年粒徑分析潮流
外文關鍵詞:Taiwan Straitsedimentation rate210Pb137C7Begrain size analysis
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本論文研究利用海研一、二號於台灣海峽十個航次所採之重力岩心62支與箱型岩心20支沈積物樣本,分析落塵放射核種210Pb及137Cs於岩心中垂直分布,計算沈積速率與核種儲量。此外,從各航次所採230個表層沈積物樣本所測得之7Be,及部分航次之表層沈積物粒徑分布,配合連續變頻聲納淺層沈積物或底質形貌資料,探討台灣海峽從年際、年代紀至百年尺度之沈積通量、沈積物來源及傳輸途徑。

根據210Pb及 137Cs於沈積物岩心中剖面所計算出台灣海峽百年尺度之沈積速率大多介於0.1-2.4 g/cm2/yr之間,平均沈積速率約為0.6 g/cm2/yr。沈積速率與核種儲量高值區有二:一為近濁水溪河口之東彰雲脊頂,另一為海峽西北端之大陸沿岸。依據210Pbex活度剖面多呈非單一指數遞減趨勢,可知台灣海峽沉積環境不單純,隨時間變化既快且鉅。海峽中線東側地帶在過去五十年間之沈積速率有增快現象,反映台灣西部山地土壤之侵蝕加劇,可能與山坡地過度的開發及暴雨之發生頻率增高有關。

粒徑分析、7Be活度分佈與聲納探測資料顯示,海峽中的粗砂主要分佈在台灣近岸與觀音凹陷,其來源為台灣西部河川與較老的殘餘沈積物。細砂則主要來自彰雲沙脊,受到潮流作用,往北傳輸,與海峽中央地帶的泥質沈積物混合。泥質沈積物主要由台灣西部河川所供應,入海後先於河口地區暫時堆積,之後繼續受潮流與海流作用,輾轉搬運至海峽中央地帶。西北部之泥質沈積物,依淺層沈積物構造、沈積速率與核種儲量分佈,判定其來源為中國大陸河川輸出,被沿岸流攜帶,往南傳送。

綜言之,在現代水文(潮流與海流)與氣候(颱風或暴雨)條件作用下,除海峽西北部有來自中國大陸沿岸的泥質沈積物分佈,基本上台灣海峽之淺層(一米內)沈積物大多為台灣陸源的現代(百年內)沈積物與海峽內原已存在之較老沈積物混合組成。
Sixty-two gravity cores and 20 box cores collected from 10 cruises onboard R/V Ocean Researcher I and II were analyzed for 210Pb and 137Cs to estimate sedimentation rates and nuclide inventories. In addition, surficial sediments from many of these cruises were analyzed for 7Be and grain size distribution. The results are integrated with information derived from Chirp sonar survey about the structure and distribution trend of shallow sediment strata to elucidate the sources, pathways and budget of sediment in the Taiwan Strait from seasonal to annual, decadal and centennial timescales.

Based on profiles of 210Pb and 137Cs, the calculated sedimentation rates largely fall in the range from 0.1 to 2.4 g cm-2 yr-1, averaging 0.6 g cm-2 yr-1. The highest sedimentation rates as well as nuclide inventories are found at the top of the eastern Yun-Chan Ridge near the Choshui River’s estuary and in the northwestern corner of the Taiwan Strait. In much of the Taiwan Strait, sedimentation rates are highly variable with time, as indicated by non-steady state 210Pb profiles. In the eastern part of the strait, sedimentation rates appear to have increased in the last few decades, probably reflecting intensified soil erosion in Taiwan in wake of accelerated exploitation of land and more frequent occurrence of intense precipitation in the region.

7Be and grain size distribution in surface sediments, coupled with Chirp sonar survey of shallow sediment strata, indicate coarse sand is distributed mainly along part of the west coast of Taiwan and the Kuanyin depression with swift along-shore or bottom flows. The distribution of fine sand in the Taiwan Strait is controlled mainly by tidal currents which transport such particles from the Yun-Chang Ridge northward toward the middle of the Taiwan Strait where fine sand from the south merges into mud derived from western Taiwan Rivers. As for the mud in the northwest of the Strait, it is derived from Chinese rivers and transported alongshore toward the south.

In summary, shallow (<1 m) sediments in the Taiwan Strait are composed of relict sand and modern (<100 years) sediment derived mainly from Taiwanese rivers. Dispersal and deposition of such sediments are controlled by modern hydrodynamics in the strait.
目 錄
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………….....i
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………...iii
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………....v
圖目錄...........................................................................……………………...…........vii
表目錄...........................................................................................................................ix
第一章 緒論................................................................................................................1
1.1 前言.................................................................................................................1
1.2 研究區域背景.................................................................................................2
1.2.1 地質背景..............................................................................................2
1.2.2 海底地形..............................................................................................4
1.2.3水文概況...............................................................................................7
1.3 前人研究回顧...............................................................................................10
1.3.1 台灣海峽沈積物特性與分佈............................................................10
1.3.2 台灣海峽沈積物來源與沈積作用....................................................14
1.3.3 台灣海峽現代沈積物混合界線........................................................17
1.3.4 台灣海峽沈積物之沈積速率............................................................20
1.3.5 小結....................................................................................................20
第二章 研究方法......................................................................................................22
2.1 研究區域.......................................................................................................22
2.2 採樣方法與樣本之前處理步驟...................................................................23
2.2.1 採樣方法...........................................................................................23
2.2.2 標本之前處理...................................................................................24
2.3 分析步驟.......................................................................................................25
2.3.1 沈積物放射性核種分析及偵測儀器................................................25
2.3.2 沈積物粒徑分析................................................................................32
2.3.3 連續變頻聲納回聲資料....................................................................34
第三章 實驗結果與討論..........................................................................................35
3.1 沈積物之放射性核種分析...........................................................................35
3.1.1 沈積物之表觀沈積速率....................................................................35
3.1.2 沈積物中210Pbex與137Cs之儲量分布 ............................................44
3.1.2.1 210Pbex與137Cs的來源、預期通量與儲量..................................44
3.1.2.2 沈積物中放射性核種之儲量、來源與分佈................................45
3.1.3 台灣海峽表層泥質沈積物之短期傳輸:以7Be作示蹤劑.............51
3.2 表層沈積物粒徑分析...................................................................................58
3.2.1 ORⅡ-1559表層沈積物(台灣海峽西北部)...............................58
3.2.2. ORI-790、ORI-841、 ORⅡ-1442與ORⅡ-1539表層沈積物…...61
3.3 綜合討論........................................................................................................70
3.3.1 台灣海峽沈積速率............................................................................70
3.3.2 台灣海峽沈積物分佈、來源與傳輸途徑..........................................70
3.3.3 台灣與中國大陸之陸源物質混合界線............................................73
3.3.4 台灣海峽沈積物收支之粗估............................................................73
第四章 結論..............................................................................................................75
參考文獻......................................................................................................................77
附錄I.............................................................................................................................83
附錄Ⅱ..........................................................................................................................90







圖 目 錄
圖1-1 東西向橫切台灣海峽地層剖面....................................................................2
圖1-2 台灣造山帶與撓曲前凸起(forebulge)示意圖………………....…...……3
圖1-3 台灣海峽海底地形圖....................................................................................6
圖1-4 台灣海峽海流季節變化示意圖....................................................................8
圖1-5 台灣海峽潮汐(M2)橢圓............................................................................9
圖1-6 東海與南中國海海床構造與表層沈積物分佈情形..................................11
圖1-7 台灣海峽周圍海域殘餘沈積物、變餘沈積物及現代沈積物分佈情形…12
圖1-8 台灣海峽沈積作用帶分佈..........................................................................13
圖1-9 沈積趨勢矩陣顯示台灣海峽東側北方、南方可能的沉積物傳輸方向...16
圖1-10 台灣海峽東側沈積示意圖..........................................................................16
圖1-11 台灣海峽北方沈積作用界線......................................................................18
圖1-12 台灣海峽北部外海表層沈積物粒度方柱圖..............................................19
圖1-13 台灣海峽東側北方可能的沈積作用..........................................................19
圖1-14 東海內陸棚區沈積速率分佈圖..................................................................21
圖2-1 本研究各航次採樣站位圖..........................................................................22
圖2-2 天然放射性核種238U系列之蛻變示意圖..................................................29
圖2-3 GMX偵檢器之計測效率與能量關係圖....................................................31
圖2-4 GMX偵檢器之計測效率與樣本質量關係圖……....................................32
圖3-1 台灣海峽沈積速率分佈圖..........................................................................38
圖3-2 東彰雲沙脊與台灣西部近岸沈積物岩心核種垂直剖面展示圖..............41
圖3-3 彰雲沙脊至觀音凹陷間之槽溝區沈積物岩心核種垂直剖面展示圖......42
圖3-4 觀音凹陷區核種垂直剖面展示圖..............................................................42
圖3-5 台灣海峽西北部沈積物岩心核種垂直剖面展示圖…………………..…42
圖3-6 210Pbex儲量分佈圖.......................................................................................47
圖3-7 137Cs儲量分佈圖.........................................................................................48
圖3-8 ORⅡ-1300與ORI-770航次 之7Be活度分佈圖......................................54
圖3-9 ORI-799與ORⅡ-1367航次之7Be活度分佈圖......................................54
圖3-10 ORⅡ-1442航次之7Be活度分佈圖..........................................................55
圖3-11 ORⅡ-1539、ORⅡ-1547與ORⅡ-1559航次之7Be活度分佈圖...............56
圖3-12 利用連續變頻聲納觀測在敏督利颱風前後的近岸淺層沉積物..............57
圖3-13 台灣海峽細泥沈積物可能傳輸途徑與堆積區域圖..................................57
圖3-14 ORⅡ-1559航次表層沈積物粒徑頻率曲線套疊圖..................................60
圖3-15 台灣河口近岸地區表層沈積物粒徑分佈圖..............................................65
圖3-16 大甲溪河口連續變頻聲納地形資料..........................................................66
圖3-17 彰雲沙脊至觀音凹陷間之槽溝區,與觀音凹陷表層沈積物之粒徑頻率分佈圖...............……………………………………...…..…………..………67
圖3-18 西彰雲沙席往觀音凹陷西緣之變頻聲納地形及淺層地層剖面資料 (ORI-794).................................................................................................68
圖3-19 觀音凹陷東緣之連續變頻聲納地形及淺層地層資料 (ORⅡ-1442).............................................................................................69
圖3-19 台灣海峽北部表層沈積物平均粒徑分佈圖..............................................72
圖3-20 台灣河川沈積物輸出量示意圖..................................................................74








表 目 錄
表 3-1 本論文研究各站位之沈積速率.................................................................39
表 3-2 本論文研究各站位210Pbex與137Cs儲量....................................................49
表 3-3 ORⅡ-1559表層沈積物之粒徑分析結果..................................................59
表 3-4 ORI-790、ORI-841、ORⅡ-1442與ORⅡ-1539表層沈積物粒徑分析結果………………………………….……………………………………...63
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