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研究生:林育審
研究生(外文):Yu-Shen Lin
論文名稱:飼糧添加黃耆、淫羊藿及補骨脂對蛋雞產蛋性狀與免疫反應之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astragalus membranaceus, Epimedium brevicornum, and Psoralea corylifolia on Egg Production and Immune Response in Laying Hens
指導教授:吳兩新
指導教授(外文):Leang-Shin Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物科學技術學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:中草藥蛋雞產蛋性狀蛋品質免疫反應
外文關鍵詞:Chinese herbal medicinelaying henproduction performanceegg qualityimmune response
相關次數:
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本研究旨在探討飼糧中添加不同劑量之三種中草藥(即黃耆、淫羊藿、補骨脂)對蛋雞產蛋性狀與免疫反應之影響。供試動物為100隻單冠白色來航蛋雞(海蘭W-36品系);於雞隻18週齡時,將其逢機分配至十個飼糧處理組:(1) 對照組(基礎飼糧,不含中草藥);(2-4) 添加黃耆5、15及30 g/kg組;(5-7) 添加淫羊藿5、15及30 g/kg組;(8-10) 添加補骨脂5、15及30 g/kg組。試驗期自18至80週齡,分為產前(育成)期(18∼20週齡)及產蛋期(21∼80週齡);產蛋期又細分為Phase I(21∼31週齡)、Phase II(32∼44週齡)、Phase III(45∼60週齡)及Phase IV(61∼80週齡)四階段。產蛋期期間,記錄雞隻產蛋數,以計算隻日產蛋率;測定蛋重、平均採食量,以計算隻日產蛋量及飼料轉換率;亦測定蛋殼強度、蛋黃色度、雞蛋豪氏單位三項蛋品質指標。於雞隻41週齡及75週齡時,接種新城雞病(ND)疫苗,並於接種前後分別採血,測定血清中免疫球蛋白(包括IgG、IgM及IgA)之濃度與抗ND病毒 (NDV)抗體之力價。另於雞隻80週齡(即試驗結束)時採血,並測定血清轉胺酶ALT與AST之活性,以及血清尿酸之含量。結果顯示,無論在Phase I∼III任一階段內,飼糧中添加5、15或30 g/kg之黃耆、淫羊藿或補骨脂,對蛋雞之隻日產蛋率、蛋重、平均採食量、隻日產蛋量及飼料轉換率,皆無顯著影響(P > 0.05)。而在Phase IV階段內,飼糧中添加5或30 g/kg黃耆及5、15或30 g/kg補骨脂,雖對蛋重、平均採食量無顯著影響(P > 0.05),但可顯著改善蛋雞之隻日產蛋率、隻日產蛋量及飼料轉換率(P < 0.05)。蛋品質方面,在Phase I∼IV四階段內,飼糧中添加5、15或30 g/kg之黃耆、淫羊藿或補骨脂,對雞隻蛋殼強度、蛋黃色度及雞蛋豪氏單位,皆無顯著影響(P > 0.05)。雞隻41週齡及 75週齡時,其血清免疫球蛋白濃度,不受飼糧中添加5、15或30 g/kg之黃耆、淫羊藿或補骨脂所影響(P > 0.05)。而41∼44週齡期間,飼糧中無論添加5、15或30 g/kg之黃耆、淫羊藿或補骨脂,皆不影響蛋雞於接種ND疫苗後血清NDV抗體之力價(P > 0.05);然在75∼80週齡期間,飼糧中添加15或30 g/kg之黃耆及5 g/kg之補骨脂,可提升蛋雞於接種ND疫苗後血清NDV抗體之力價(P < 0.05)。此外,飼糧中添加5、15或30 g/kg之黃耆、淫羊藿或補骨脂,對蛋雞血清轉胺酶ALT與AST之活性(肝功能指標)及血清尿酸含量(腎功能指標),皆無顯著影響 (P > 0.05)。綜上所述,飼糧中添加30 g/kg之黃耆或5 g/kg之補骨脂,不僅能改善蛋雞在Phase IV階段(61∼80週齡期間)內之隻日產蛋率、隻日產蛋量及飼料轉換率等生產性狀,且能提高雞隻75∼80週齡期間之NDV抗體生成反應,故可供農民參考使用於老齡(60週齡以上)蛋雞之飼養,以延遲雞隻之淘汰時間。
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) supplementation on production performance and immune function in commercial laying hens. One hundred 18-week-old White Leghorn layers were randomly allocated to 10 dietary treatments with 10 birds each. Hens were fed diets containing three levels (5, 15 and 30 g/kg) from three commercial CHM (Astragalus membranaceus, Ast; Epimedium brevicornum, Epi; Psoralea corylifolia, Pso), in comparison to basal diets without CHM as control group, from 18 to 80 wk of age. The whole experimental period was divided into developing period (18−20 wk of age) and laying period (21−80 wk of age), and the latter was subdivided into four phases as follows: I (21−32 wk of age), II (33−44 wk of age), III (45−60 wk of age) and IV (61−80 wk of age). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, egg quality parameters (including eggshell breaking strength, yolk color score and Haugh unit) were measured, and egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were also calculated. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, M and A level as well as antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were determined. Activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and content of uric acid (UA) were measured. The results showed that egg weight and feed intake were not significantly influenced by different type or level of CHM supplementation throughout the study (P > 0.05). However, addition of Ast at a level of 5 or 30 g/kg and Pso at 5, 15 or 30 g/kg increased egg production and egg mass, as well as reduced FCR compared to the control group during Phase IV. There was no significant difference between control group and other groups for egg quality parameters measured (P > 0.05). Neither type nor level of dietary CHM had significant effect on serum IgG, IgM and IgA levels, while antibody titers against NDV were significantly higher in hens fed diets containing 15 or 30 g/kg of Ast and 5 g/kg of Pso compared to the control group after NDV vaccination (on Day 21) during 75−80 wk of age. Serum ALT and AST activity and UA content were not significantly affected by different type or level of dietary CHM at the end of the trial (80 wk of age) (P > 0.05), which suggested that long-term feeding of three levels from three commercial CHM had no adverse effects on liver and kidney function in laying hens. To sum up, dietary supplementation of Ast at a level of 30 g/kg and Pso at 5 g/kg could not only exert beneficial effects on egg production, egg mass and FCR during Phase IV (61−80 wk of age) but also increase antibody response to NDV during 75−80 wk of age. Thus, these two formulae are expected to be added in diets for old layers aged more than 60 weeks so that the hens could produce more total egg mass and prolong the timing of elimination.
誌 謝......i
中文摘要......iii
英文摘要......v
目 次......vii
表 次......x
圖 次......xi
第一章 前 言......1
第二章 文獻檢討......3
2.1 台灣蛋雞產業現況......3
2.2 飼料添加物之定義與種類......4
2.3「含藥物飼料添加物」之使用及其衍生問題......5
2.4 可供取代「含藥物飼料添加物」之天然物......5
2.4.1 益生菌(Probiotics)......6
2.4.2 益菌素(Prebiotics)......11
2.4.3 合生素(Synbiotics)......14
2.4.4 酵素(Enzymes)......15
2.4.5 有機酸(Organic acids)......17
2.4.6 植生素(Phytobiotics)......18
2.5 本研究選用之中草藥簡介......22
2.5.1 黃耆(Astragalus membranaceus)......22
2.5.2 淫羊藿(Epimedium brevicornum)......30
2.5.3 補骨脂(Psoralea corylifolia)......34
2.6 本研究選用之中草藥在蛋雞飼養之應用......39
2.6.1 加速生殖系統發育,提早開產......39
2.6.2 增加雞隻產蛋率、蛋重,改善飼料利用效率......39
2.6.3 增加種蛋合格率及孵化率......40
2.6.4 延長雞隻產蛋高峰期與延後淘汰時間......40
2.6.5 提高蛋品質......41
2.6.6 增加雞隻抵抗力......42
第三章 材料與方法......43
3.1 單味中草藥來源......43
3.1.1 中草藥製劑......43
3.2 試驗設計與動物飼養管理......43
3.2.1 試驗動物分組......43
3.2.2 試驗飼糧組成......44
3.2.3 飼養管理方式......49
3.3 測定項目、樣品採集及檢測方法......51
3.3.1 產蛋性狀......51
3.3.2 蛋品質......51
3.3.3 免疫能力......52
3.3.4 肝及腎毒性評估......53
3.4 統計分析......53
第四章 結果與討論......54
4.1 產蛋性狀......54
4.1.1 隻日產蛋率......54
4.1.2 蛋重......56
4.1.3 隻日產蛋量......57
4.1.4 平均採食量......57
4.1.5 飼料轉換率......57
4.2 蛋品質......64
4.2.1 蛋殼強度......64
4.2.2 蛋黃色度......64
4.2.3 雞蛋豪氏單位......65
4.3 免疫能力......69
4.3.1 血清G、M及A型免疫球蛋白濃度......69
4.3.2 血清新城雞病病毒(NDV)之抗體力價......71
4.4 肝及腎毒性評估......76
4.4.1 血清轉胺酶ALT及AST之活性......76
4.4.2 血清尿酸含量 ......76
第五章 結 論......78
參考文獻......79
附 錄......104
A.1 試驗飼糧之中草藥製劑與纖維素實際添加量之計算......104
A.1.1 中草藥製劑之濃縮比(生藥與浸膏比例)......104
A.1.2 中草藥製劑與纖維素之添加比例......104
A.2 血清新城雞病病毒抗體力價測定......105
A.2.1 原理......105
A.2.2 步驟......105
A.3 血清G、M及A型免疫球蛋白濃度測定......107
A.3.1 原理......107
A.3.2 步驟......108
A.4 血清轉胺酶ALT(GPT)及AST(GOT)活性測定......109
A.4.1 原理......109
A.4.2 步驟......111
A.5 血清尿酸含量測定......112
A.5.1 原理......112
A.5.2 步驟......112
作者簡歷......113
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