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研究生:陳宗薊
研究生(外文):Tsung-Chi Chen
論文名稱:教科書市場,著作權法和策略性誘因的一般理論
論文名稱(外文):A General Theory of Textbook Market,Copyright Law and Strategic Incentives
指導教授:宋玉生宋玉生引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-sen Sung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:經濟學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:195
中文關鍵詞:教科書市場著作權法市場失靈折舊率教科書書價膨脹教科書產業左派著作權著作人格權
外文關鍵詞:Textbook MarketCopyright LawMarket FailureDepreciation rateTextboojs InflationTextbook IndustryCopyleft
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長久以來,經濟學家依賴教科書傳授有關經濟學理論的知識,卻鮮少研究教科書市場。對教科書市場缺乏足夠的認識,就會產生許多誤解與繆論。經濟學的文獻過度關心複製品,反而忽略了對正版品的研究。人們誤以為只要透過著作權法抑制盜版,就能保護教科書市場的財產權能正常交易,繼而帶來該產業的進步與品質的提升。本研究挑戰支持擴張著作權的傳統經濟理論,提出嶄新的模型,用以解釋教科書市場的經濟活動。
本研究包含三大部份。首先,回顧教科書研究的經濟學文獻,深入了解盜版、抄襲與教科書的經濟思想,是如何演變至今。直到近年美國大學生抗議教科書索價過高,造成供需雙方對簿公堂的過程,也一並做記錄與分析。其次,觀察個體行為,建構出一般理論模型,用以解釋教科書市場的運作。過去文獻重視供給面的部份均衡,一般理論模型則補足以往缺乏的需求面;也將「教科書品質」作為貫穿理論的主軸,有異於傳統文獻對「數量」的過分關注。一般理論模型能解釋著作權法對教科書市場的多重影響,尤其是在法律環境改變經濟誘因之後,各個經濟單位所採取的策略行為。最後,依循Varian(2005),試圖尋找免用著作權法的解決方案,是有可能存在的。再以DeLong(2000)作為檢驗是否「市場失靈」的標準,結果證明:著作權法不能改善教科書市場的經濟效率!
本研究以折舊率來負面定義品質變數;以「不耐久的程度」負面定義耐久財,使得折舊率在經濟學理論裡面,出現「內生」的可能性。在考慮品質變數之後的一般理論模型,解釋教科書市場的能力優於使用部分均衡的傳統文獻。著作權法在一般理論的檢視之下,顯現其只能增加交易數量,不能提升品質的本性。這就說明該法保護的教科書產業,對於經濟成長與技術進步,並不存在有社會所期待的貢獻,還會造成社會過多的負擔。
Economists have long been depending on textbooks to instruct the theories on Economics, but few of them are dedicated to researching the market of textbook. People tend to develop a number of misunderstandings and paradoxes due to lack of sufficient knowledge. In the past, most studies on Economics concentrated on the duplicates so as to ignore the research of the original items. People think incorrectly that the textbook market is able to trade normally for the improvement of the quality and the advancement of the industry as long as the piracy can be stopped by the Copyright Law. In addition to challenge the traditional theories of supporting the Copyright Law, this research proposes a new model to explain the economic activities in textbook market.
This research can be divided into three parts:
At first, we look backwards to the past studies on textbook, discuss the piracy, plagiarism, related thoughts, and how to evolve till now. Some college students in America have recently protested the high prices of textbooks so that both the supply and demand appeared in court. It’s also included and analyzed further in this research.
Furthermore, by observing the individual behavior, we construct a general theory model to explain how the textbooks market works. For the past studies, they only put emphasis on the partial balance in the aspect of supply. Our model strengthens the aspect of demand. Meanwhile, we consider the ”quality of textbooks” as the center of our theory, which is quite different from the traditional studies on the overconcern of the “quantities”. Our theory model can explain the multi-influences on textbook market under the Copyright Law. Especially when the laws change the economic incentives, each economic unit takes the responding strategy.
At last, according to Varian (2005), it’s possible to seek a solution without the Copyright Law. Also, we examine it subject to Delong (2000) as a standard of “the market failure”. The result proves that the Copyright Law is unable to improve the economic efficiency of textbook market.
This research defines the quality variations negatively by depreciation rate, and the non-durable level for the duration goods. So, the possibility of “endogenous Variable” appears. After considering the quality variations, our model is superior to the traditionally partial equilibrium studies. In our model, the Copyright Law can only increase the trading quantities instead of improving the quality. That is, the textbook industry protected under the Copyright Law doesn’t contribute too much to the society in view of the economic growth and technological advancement; instead, it might lead to too much burden to our society.
目 錄
口試委員會審定書………………………………………………………………… i
誌謝………………………………………………………………………………… ii
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………… vi
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………vii
第一章 前言………………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究方法…………………………………………………………… 2
第三節 研究目的…………………………………………………………… 3
第二章 教科書與經濟學家的歷史共業…………………………………… 4
第一節 盜版行為的相關文獻與分類……………………………………… 4
2.1.1 盜版行為的經濟思想史………………………………………… 4
2.1.2 盜版行為在經濟學上其他領域的相關研究…………………… 7
(1) 反智慧財產權的經濟學…………………………………… 7
(2) 法律經濟學的新進發展與挫敗…………………………… 8
(3) 盜版經濟學的「新興」研究……………………………… 9
(4)「左派著作權」經濟學……………………………………… 10
(5)「偽」經濟學………………………………………………… 10
第二節 高等教育教科書產業的相關研究與文獻………………………… 13
2.2.1 教科書經濟學的演進歷史………………………………………13
2.2.2 教科書在經濟學上的其他相關領域……………………………16
(1) 教科書的產業經濟學研究……………………………………16
(2) 經濟學教科書的內容研究……………………………………16
(3) 期刊經濟學……………………………………………………18
(4) 二手書經濟學…………………………………………………18

第三節 抄襲行為的相關文獻與研究……………………………………… 22
2.3.1 作者與經濟學的關係……………………………………………22
2.3.2 抄襲行為與經濟學的關係………………………………………23
第四節 美國高等教育下的教科書戰爭…………………………………… 26
2.4.1 戰爭背景…………………………………………………………26
2.4.2 戰爭前夕…………………………………………………………27
(1) 勝兵先勝而後求戰的供給面…………………………………27
(2) 敗兵先戰而後求勝的需求面…………………………………27
(3) 序戰……………………………………………………………28
(4) 序戰時期的經濟學家…………………………………………29
2.4.3 巡迴公聽會上的四回合百人論戰………………………………31
(1) 第一場:華盛頓特區…………………………………………31
(2) 第二場:依利諾大學芝加哥校區……………………………38
(3) 第三場:加州聖塔克拉瑞塔市………………………………40
(4) 第四場:奧勒岡州波特蘭市…………………………………41
2.4.4 清理戰場…………………………………………………………43
(1) 戰場逃兵:沒有均衡的市場?………………………………43
(2) 戰場俘虜:聯邦政府的「時間不一致」……………………44
(3) 戰場蛆蟲:國家不幸我甚幸…………………………………45
(4) 戰場浪人:需求到底是什麼?………………………………45
(5) 戰場輸家:一場沒有贏家的戰爭……………………………46
(6) 戰場忍者:暗中指導戰爭方向與主導勝負…………………47
第五節 個人造業眾人擔…………………………………………………… 49
第三章 個體行為模型與市場結構……………………………………………… 51
第一節 教科書的市場結構………………………………………………… 51
第二節 購書決策者:學生的行為……………………………………………54
第三節 用書決策者:教師的行為……………………………………………75
第四節 創作決策者:作者的行為……………………………………………85
第五節 訊息決策者:書商的行為……………………………………………94
3.5.1 過去文獻上用來理解教科書市場的學理……………………… 94
3.5.2 本研究的書商定價模式…………………………………………102
3.5.3 追求跨期利潤極大化的「耐久財」定價………………………107
第四章 著作權法下的誘因與行為以及市場……………………………………114
第一節 著作權法下各部門的策略性行為…………………………………114
(1) 廢紙行為──教科書本身就是「搭售」的複合產品……………123
(2) 教科書的細胞分裂行為………………………………………… 125
(3) 教師的高級玩具………………………………………………… 126
(4) 假限核以擴軍的競賽──有一種損友叫做「負」班代…………128
(5) 恐懼的代價……………………………………………………… 132
(6) 策略性訂價……………………………………………………… 135
(7) 抄襲行為………………………………………………………… 137
(8) 內神通外鬼──作者與業務員的神鬼交鋒………………………138
第二節 實務上的著作權法與理論存在的歧異……………………………140
4.2.1 著作權法的成本與效益……………………………………… 140
4.2.2 政策實務與經濟理論之間的不一致………………………… 143
4.2.3 理論盲點下的混亂結果……………………………………… 145
(1) 部分均衡下的價值遺失…………………………………… 145
(2) 法律造成的策略性行為…………………………………… 145
(3) 公共財的迷思與失焦……………………………………… 145
(4) 知識不經濟的幼稚產業…………………………………… 146
(5) 是數量還是人數?………………………………………… 147
(6) 價格是一層面紗…………………………………………… 147
(7) 兩階段需求………………………………………………… 148
第三節 免用著作權法下的商業模式………………………………………149
4.3.1 著作權法下各相關產業的演化簡史………………………… 149
4.3.2 無著作權世界的Varian預言…………………………………151
第四節 市場失靈了嗎?……………………………………………………159
4.4.1 DeLong對市場失靈的看法…………………………………… 159
4.4.2 讓教科書市場失靈的是什麼?……………………………… 160
4.4.3 政府失靈造成的市場失靈…………………………………… 161
4.4.4 法律失靈的公園法案………………………………………… 162
第五章 著作權的醮渡水懺………………………………………………………163
第一節 著作財產權帝國主義下的兩種抗暴軍……………………………163
第二節 有關著作權的謬論與真實…………………………………………165
第二節 結論…………………………………………………………………167
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………168
附錄…………………………………………………………………………………187











圖目錄
(圖3.1.1)Koch(改)市場架構………………………………………………………52
(圖3.2.1)溫書備考需求……………………………………………………………56
(圖3.2.2)個人學期分數線…………………………………………………………56
(圖3.2.3)兩位學生的學期總分比較………………………………………………58
(圖3.2.4)兩位學生面對重修風險的學期總分比較………………………………62
(圖3.2.5)同時考慮樂透需求與避險需求的學期總分結構………………………65
(圖3.2.6)因為使用折舊率較低的書,使得印象分數的需求增加………………67
(圖3.2.7)願付價格的遞減排序……………………………………………………67
(圖3.2.8)溫書備考需求只會出現在特定的排序位置……………………………70
(圖3.2.9)教科書折舊率明顯下降後的需求變化…………………………………72
(圖3.2.10)教科書折舊率明顯上升後的需求變化……………………………… 72
(圖3.3.1)折舊率與各族群人數變化的關係………………………………………77
(圖3.3.2)分配在請益時間與備課時間的單調轉換………………………………77
(圖3.3.3)受限制下追求效用極大化的不同時間分配……………………………82
(圖3.3.4)教師指定的教科書折舊率上升後的需求變化…………………………84
(圖3.4.1)分配在研究活動與教學活動的生產可能曲線…………………………86
(圖3.4.2)書稿創作的勞動供給……………………………………………………89
(圖3.4.3)扣除社會貢獻COPYLEFT之後的書稿創作淨報酬………………………92
(圖3.5.1)修正後的Herbert S. Bailey的出版社訂價決策………………………95
(圖3.5.2)Landes-Posner的總需求與著作權保護效果………………………… 97
(圖3.5.3)本研究與Landes-Posner Model之間的需求線比較之一…………… 99
(圖3.5.4)本研究與Landes-Posner Model之間的需求線比較之二…………… 99
(圖3.5.5)著作權保護在成本效益比較下的使用極限………………………… 101
(圖3.5.6)教師指定教科書的最佳折舊率與次佳折舊率……………………… 103
(圖3.5.7)教科書依照折舊率訂價下的關係圖………………………………… 104
(圖3.5.8)各折舊率水準不同的教科書在生產量不同時的平均成本………… 106
(圖3.5.9)依照折舊率擴張的教科書商利潤軌跡……………………………… 106
(圖3.5.10)教科書商在面對跨期市場需求下的訂價……………………………109
(圖3.5.11.A)跨三期訂價之一……………………………………………………111
(圖3.5.11.B)跨三期訂價之二……………………………………………………111
(圖3.5.12)書商在跨期利潤極大化之下決定最適銷售時間……………………113
(圖3.5.13)折舊率不同時的最適發行時間與跨期利潤…………………………113
(圖4.1.1)著作權法下的願付價格因為使用價值轉趨消極性而降低………… 115
(圖4.1.2)著作權之下教師指定教科書的最佳折舊率與次佳折舊率………… 117
(圖4.1.3)著作權法下的願付價格因為社會秩序價值的出現而略微升高…… 119
(圖4.1.4)著作權出現以後對平均成本的擴張路徑產生了扭轉……………… 122
(圖4.1.5)教科書的內容分配與價值分佈結構………………………………… 124
(圖4.1.6)受書商補貼時間成本以後的教師最適決策………………………… 127
(圖4.1.7)負班代會使用策略行為去分裂族群以提高自己的成功機率……… 131
(圖4.1.8)受公共暴力影響下的學生需求……………………………………… 134
(圖4.1.9)著作權法下的兩部門收益與利潤來源……………………………… 136
(圖4.2.1)著作權立法前後的比較……………………………………………… 142
(圖4.3.1)學生在不同時間會有不同的教科書需求強度……………………… 158








表目錄
(表2.2.1)教科書產業經濟學的研究發展近況………………………………… 17
(表2.2.2)經濟學教科書內容的研究發展近況………………………………… 19
(表2.2.3)二手書經濟學的研究發展近況……………………………………… 21
(表2.3.1)作者經濟學的研究發展近況………………………………………… 23
(表2.3.2)抄襲行為經濟學的的研究發展近況………………………………… 25
(表2.4.1)NACS所分析的教科書產業利潤分配情形………………………… 33
(表2.4.2)十年間教科書產業的教學配件成長的比較………………………… 37
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