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研究生:呂牧涵
研究生(外文):Mu-Han Lu
論文名稱:甘藷熱處理與貯藏研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Heat Treatments and Storage of Sweet Potato
指導教授:李允中李允中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeun-Chung Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生物產業機電工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:甘藷熱處理貯藏
外文關鍵詞:Sweet potatoHeat treatmentsstorage
相關次數:
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甘藷長久性貯藏在國外已經很普遍,國外都是在特定的溫濕度冷藏庫中進行貯藏,而台灣因為貯藏期間的高腐爛率因此較少見。因此本研究目的為使甘藷經過適當的熱處理而後進行貯藏。本研究所使用的熱處理方法,包括熱風處理、熱水處理以及蒸汽處理預防貯藏期間的腐爛,並且實際量測甘藷表面深度5 mm處的溫度,並使用商業軟體COMSOL Multiphysics模擬甘藷在熱處理的加熱過程中,深度5 mm處的溫度與實際加熱溫度相近,以此模擬推測甘藷表面溫度。熱處理後的甘藷在13~15℃、相對濕度85~100%下進行冷藏,經由統計分析比較貯藏30天與60天之腐爛率。在此冷藏貯藏期後,由變異數分析結果指出冷藏貯藏比室溫貯藏腐爛率低,在統計上具有顯著的差異(p<0.05)。冷藏貯藏中的甘藷容易產生鬚根,腐爛率也較高。而在冷藏貯藏中,各熱處理者皆比對照組腐爛率低,在統計上也具有顯著的差異(p<0.05),且在蒸汽處理下的甘藷外觀顏色雖然較深但仍可以接受。本實驗結果顯示,甘藷於冷藏前進行熱處理在貯藏30天內是俱有商業應用的可行性,60天的貯藏因為甘藷樣本來源有些已經受到感染而較容易腐爛,所以必須更加嚴選無受損及感染的甘藷,達成貯藏60天的商業可行性。
It is very general abroad that sweet potato are stored in cold storage. However, in Taiwan, cold storage of sweet potato is rarely seen because of highly decay loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was concentrated on heating treatments to decrease decay of sweet potato during cold storage. The methods of this study were to use the heat treatments included hot air, hot water and steam to prevent decay. We measured the temperature in 5 mm depth of the surface on sweet potato in heating treatments and also used COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate the process and to predict surface temperature that was undetectable during heating process to insure the effeteness of heat treatments. After heating treatments, sweet potato were stored in cold rooms at 13~15℃ and 85~100%. After storage of 30 and 60 days, decay rates were compared by using statistical analysis program ANOVA. The results showed the decay rates in cold rooms were significantly lower (p<0.05) than that in room temperature. Sweet potato became more decayed and produced fibrous roots in non-treated control during cold storage. Control treatments had much more decay than heat treatments and were also significant (p<0.05) but difference between hot water and steam treatments were insignificant. Steam treatments caused sweet potato became more brownish but still acceptable. Our results indicate that 30 days storage of heat treated sweet potato in cold storage is commercially applicable and the storage life might extent to 60 days if healthy roots are selected.
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
第一章 前言 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻探討 3
2-1 甘藷 3
2-1-1 常見甘藷種類 3
2-1-2 生質酒精的甘藷品種 7
2-1-3 甘藷產銷現況 9
2-2 熱處理技術 13
2-2-1 甘藷的熱水處理 14
2-2-2 甘藷之蒸汽處理 15
2-3 甘藷的癒傷 17
2-4 甘藷貯藏之溫度與濕度 19
2-5 甘藷的貯藏病害與防治 21
2-5-1 甘藷的貯藏病害 21
2-5-2 甘藷貯藏病害農藥防治 23
第三章 材料與方法 25
3-1 實驗材料 25
3-2 實驗設備 26
3-2-1 熱風處理設備 26
3-2-2 熱水處理設備 26
3-2-3 蒸汽處理設備 26
3-2-4 癒傷處理設備 26
3-2-5 貯藏設備 27
3-2-6 溫溼度記錄器 30
3-2-7 記錄器軟體 30
3-3 甘藷熱處理實驗 30
3-3-1 熱風加熱實驗 30
3-3-2 熱水加熱實驗 31
3-3-3 蒸汽加熱實驗 31
3-4 加熱模擬 31
3-4-1 模擬軟體 31
3-4-2 加熱模擬的統御方程式 32
3-4-3 加熱模擬的邊界條件 33
3-5 熱處理與貯藏實驗設計 34
第四章 結果與討論 38
4-1 甘藷熱處理實驗 38
4-1-1 熱風加熱實驗 38
4-1-2 熱水加熱實驗 38
4-1-3 蒸汽加熱實驗 39
4-2 加熱模擬 40
4-2-1 熱風加熱模擬 40
4-1-2 熱水加熱模擬 44
4-1-3 蒸汽加熱模擬 48
4-3 熱處理與貯藏實驗 52
4-3-1 溫濕度監測 53
4-3-2 室溫貯藏實驗變異數分析 54
4-3-3 冷藏貯藏實驗變異數分析 57
4-3-4 甘藷腐爛的病因 61
第五章 結論 65
參考文獻 67
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