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研究生:許雄軒
研究生(外文):Hsiung-Hsuan Hsu
論文名稱:無線射頻被動式標籤之容許碰撞識別法
論文名稱(外文):Collision-tolerable Tag Identification for Passive RFID
指導教授:葉丙成葉丙成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ping-Cheng Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電信工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:無線射頻技術封包正確率反碰撞搜尋法二元樹演算法二元搜尋法時隙ALOHA演算法標籤個數估測卡爾曼濾波器
外文關鍵詞:RFIDpacket correct rate(PCR)anti-collisionbinary tree algorithmbinary search algorithmframed slotted ALOHAtag estimationKalman filter
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隨著無線射頻識別技術的進步,逐漸改變了人們的生活型態。由於無線射頻技術的讀取速度以及便利性,可以有效地提高工作效率,縮短管理時間。目前,更有逐漸取代條碼的趨勢,對大量的人力、貨品進行管理。因此,多標籤的識別技術顯得特別重要。
為了更有效提高無線射頻識別技術在多標籤讀取的運作速度,有許多問題必須解決。本篇論文將會針對當中影響識別速度最嚴重的「標籤碰撞」問題提出可行的解決方法。目前針對碰撞問題的研究,大部分都是設法去「避免」碰撞。不同於目前大部分的反碰撞演算法,我們將嘗試讀取出碰撞的訊號。利用領航訊號建立碰撞位元的樣本波形,並加以比對碰撞位元的波形,將原本完全無法識別的碰撞訊號,改良為在兩個標籤碰撞下,仍有35%的機率將兩個標籤都讀取出來,而有60%的機率能讀取出一個標籤。
除此之外,也將針對目前的反碰撞搜尋法提出改良的演算法,其讀取多個被動式標籤的時間最多可以縮短50%。而在時隙ALOHA系統中,本篇論文也對被動式標籤個數的估測提出更準確的方法。在準確的個數估測之下,可以決定最適合的訊框長度,並能提升20%以上的系統效能。
Development of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is changing our life style. Better efficiency and less time can be achieved due to the fast reading speed and convenience of RFID. Recently, barcode is substituted by RFID in the applications of the management of large amount of products and people. Therefore, the identification technique of multiple tags becomes more significant.
In order to enhance the identification speed of multiple tags, there are many problems to be solved. In this thesis, the solution of collision, which impacts identification speed most, is proposed. Instead of avoiding collisions which most researches focus on, the identification of collision signals is another feasible method. The samples of collision signals are used to compare with later collision signals for identification. Hence, the probabilities of one-tag and two-tag successful identification are 60% and 35% respectively in case of two tags collision.
Besides, improved anti-collision algorithms are presented. Up to 50% time reduction of multiple tags identification can be achieved among these methods. In Framed Slotted ALOHA system, better tag estimation methods are proposed. Most suitable frame size can be acquired by acute tag estimation and further increases system efficiency by 20%.
目錄

Chapter 1. 1
緒論 1
Chapter 2. 6
背景 6
2.1. 無線射頻系統下被動式標籤與讀取器之操作原理 6
2.2. 碰撞種類 7
2.2.1. 標籤-標籤之碰撞 7
2.2.2. 讀取器-標籤之碰撞 8
2.2.3. 讀取器-讀取器之碰撞 9
2.3. 反碰撞搜尋法(Anti-collision) 10
2.3.1. 二元樹(Binary Tree)演算法 10
2.3.2. 時隙ALOHA(Framed Slotted ALOHA)演算法 11
2.3.3. 查詢樹(Query Tree)演算法 12
2.3.4. 二元搜尋(Binary Search)演算法 12
2.3.5. 其他反碰撞搜尋法之研究 13
2.4. 研究動機 14
Chapter 3. 15
無線射頻被動式標籤之容許碰撞識別法 15
3.1. 系統架構 15
3.2. 調變設計 16
3.3. 演算法架構 20
3.4. 模擬結果分析與比較 25
3.5. 結論 31
Chapter 4. 32
反碰撞搜尋法之改良 32
4.1. 查詢樹演算法之改良 32
4.1.1. 系統架構與問題 32
4.1.2. 解決方法 32
4.1.3. 模擬分析 33
4.1.4. 結論 34
4.2. 時隙ALOHA系統效能之最佳化 34
4.2.1. 時隙ALOHA之效能表現 35
4.2.2. 容許碰撞演算法在時隙ALOHA系統之效能表現 36
4.2.3. 模擬分析 37
4.2.4. 結論 39
4.3. 在時隙ALOHA系統下被動式標籤個數之估測 39
4.3.1. 系統架構與問題 39
4.3.2. 改良方法--最大可能性估測(ML Estimation) 41
4.3.3. 改良方法--卡爾曼濾波器(Kalman Filter) 42
4.3.4. 模擬結果分析 47
4.3.5. 結論 51
Chapter 5. 52
容許碰撞識別法在反碰撞搜尋法中的模擬 52
5.1. 無線射頻被動式標籤之容許碰撞識別法在二元樹系統之模擬分析 52
5.2. 容許碰撞識別法在時隙ALOHA系統之模擬分析 53
5.3. 結論 54
Chapter 6. 55
結論 55
附錄 56
參考資料 59
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