跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.22.242) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/03 19:59
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:許立昭
研究生(外文):Li-chao Hsu
論文名稱:英語複合詞及片語重音研究:比較台灣高等英語學習者與以英語為母語的外國人
論文名稱(外文):A Study of English Compound and Phrasal Stress: A Comparison between Taiwanese Advanced English Speakers and Native English Speakers
指導教授:江文瑜江文瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-yu Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:複合詞重音片語重音聲學特色第二語言韻律台灣學生
外文關鍵詞:compound stressphrasal stressacoustic featuressecond language prosodyTaiwanese speakers
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:256
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
本研究的所探討的問題有三個,第一,比較英語複合詞及片語重音在聲學上的差異,尤其是在重音節(more prominent rhymes)上的比較;第二,比較台灣高等英語學習者在英語複合詞及片語重音上與以英語為母語的外國人有什麼聲學上的差異,此聲學上的差異又分為三大類:音高(F0)、音量(intensity)、音長(duration),下又細分成14個參數;第三,我們也探討台灣高等英語學習者是否能在聲學特質展現區別複合詞與片語的現象。因為中文和英文有很不一樣的音調特色,如:中文是個偏向聲調的語言 (a tone language),英文是個偏向重音和音調的語言 (a stress-and-intonation language),中文的每個音節傾向於等長,然而英文是非重音節即弱化,因為這些差異,我們認為台灣英語學習者會有若干的語言困擾。
研究中共有51位台灣高等英語學習者與50位外國母語人士,男女幾乎均等,全部受試者個別接受實驗,念出30個句子,其中有20個句首隨機安插我們要觀察的10個複合詞和10個片語。聲譜圖用Praat切割後,跑統計ANOVA來依依檢視每個參數。
針對三個研究問題的發現有:(1) 由於複合詞與片語的主重音(more prominent rhymes)與非主重音(less prominent rhymes)的排列不同,造成兩種結構的聲學表現在音高、音量、音長上有顯著不一樣;(2)台灣高等英語學習者與外國母語人士在複合詞與片語的聲學表現有許多差異,首先,音高方面:台灣學生在複合詞與片語的音高範圍(F0 range)都和母語人士不同,複合詞的音高調準(F0 alignment)則是明顯比母語人士來得晚,其次,音長方面:台灣學生在複合詞的非重音節(less prominent rhymes)的長度及複合詞與片語的兩音節中間停頓都比母語人士長,至於音量上兩組在重音節(more prominent rhymes)沒有顯著差異 (3)台灣學生的口語表現無法明確區分出複合詞與片語兩種不同的重音模式。本研究除了指出台灣學生與母語人士的聲學上差異外,尤其台灣學生無法明顯弱化非重音節(less prominent rhymes),也推測是母語為中文所造成的影響,對第二語言學習與教學有重大貢獻。
Extensive foreign accent studies have long recognized the crucial role of second language (L2) prosody to successfully convey linguistic and pragmatic meaning in exchanges with native speakers. However, much less work has been dedicated to the prosodic differences in fundamental frequency (F0), intensity, and duration between Taiwanese advanced English speakers (NNG) and native English speakers (NG). In order to bridge the gap, the present thesis (1) compares the acoustic features between compounds and phrases, (2) compares the acoustic correlates in English compound and phrasal stress between NNG and NG, and (3) examine if NNG can differentiate compounds from phrases. We hypothesize that Taiwanese advanced English speakers might encounter L1 interference as Mandarin Chinese and English belong to two different language systems, with the former being more like a syllable-timing and a tone language and the latter being more like a stress-timing and a stress-and-intonation language.
In the thesis, an experiment was conducted with the participation of 51 Taiwanese speakers and 50 native English speakers. Each participant was asked to speak 30 sentences in which the tested compounds or phases are imbedded in the initial position with the rest being exactly the same. The prosodic values were first extracted from the speech data by using Praat, and then mixed two-way ANOVA tests were carried out to identify the significant disparity between the two groups.
The major findings are as follows. (1) Compounds and phrases differ significantly in all F0, intensity, and duration parameters. (2) NNG’s performance differs significantly from NG’s in some F0 parameters, such as a different F0 range in both compounds and phrases and a later F0 alignment in compounds, and in some duration parameters, such as a longer duration for the less prominent rhymes in compounds and a longer pause duration in compounds and phrases. However, NNG resembles NG in most intensity parameters. (3) NNG does not demonstrate distinct acoustic correlates to differentiate compounds from phrases. Observing from the results, we stipulate Taiwanese speakers have not mastered English prosodic characteristics and are interfered by L1. We assume the concept of prominence is not emphasized in Mandarin Chinese, and thus NNG is weaker at manipulating the less prominent rhymes. The thesis underlines the impact of L1 interference and further suggests pedagogical implications of highlighting the placement of primary stress and appropriate F0, intensity, and duration values for less prominent rhymes in English.
Acknowledgment i
Chinese abstract ii
English abstract iii
Table of contents iv
List of figures vii
List of tables x

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Literature Review 4
1.2.1 Background information 4
1.2.1.1 The definition of stress 4
1.2.1.2 Compound stress and phrasal stress 8
1.2.1.3 Prosodic characteristics in English and Mandarin Chinese 12
1.2.2 Theoretical considerations 14
1.2.2.1 Second language phonology studies 14
1.2.2.2 L1 interference 17
1.3 Aims of the thesis 19
1.4 Method 21
1.4.1 Participants 22
1.4.2 Speech materials 24
1.4.3 Procedure and audio recordings 28
1.4.4 Acoustic parameters and statistical tests 30
1.5 Significance 43
1.6 Organization 45

Chapter 2 Results and Discussion on F0 Aspect
2.1 Results on F0 aspect for female speakers 46
2.1.1 F0 peak 48
2.1.2 F0 valley 50
2.1.3 F0 range 51
2.1.4 F0 alignment 53
2.1.5 F0 mean difference 54
2.2 Results on F0 aspect for male speakers 56
2.2.1 F0 peak 58
2.2.2 F0 valley 60
2.2.3 F0 range 61
2.2.4 F0 alignment 63
2.2.5 F0 mean difference 64
2.3 Discussion and summary of F0 aspect 67

Chapter 3 Results and Discussion on Intensity Aspect
3.1 Results on intensity aspect for female speakers 76
3.1.1 Intensity peak 78
3.1.2 Intensity valley 80
3.1.3 Intensity range 81
3.1.4 Intensity alignment 83
3.1.5 Intensity mean difference 84
3.2 Results on intensity aspect for male speakers 86
3.2.1 Intensity peak 88
3.2.2 Intensity valley 90
3.2.3 Intensity range 91
3.2.4 Intensity alignment 93
3.2.5 Intensity mean difference 94
3.3 Discussion and summary of intensity aspect 97

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion on Duration Aspect
4.1 Results on duration aspect for female speakers102
4.1.1 Duration of the more prominent rhyme 104
4.1.2 Duration of the less prominent rhyme 106
4.1.3 Duration of pause between the rhymes 108
4.1.4 Duration difference between the rhymes 110
4.2 Results on duration aspect for female speakers112
4.2.1 Duration of the more prominent rhyme 114
4.2.2 Duration of the less prominent rhyme 116
4.2.3 Duration of pause between the rhymes 118
4.2.4 Duration difference between the rhymes 120
4.3 Discussion and summary of duration aspect 122

Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 Major findings 128
5.2 Pedagogical implications 132
5.3 Further research 133

References 135

Appendices 143
Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Adams, C. (1979). English Speech Rhythm and the Foreign Leaner. The Hague, New York: Mouton.
Adams, C. & Munro, R. (1978). In search of the acoustic correlates of stress: fundamental frequency, amplitude, and duration in the connected utterance of some native and nonnative speakers of English. Phonetica, 35(3): 125-56.
Archibald, J. (1997). The acquisition of second language phrasal stress. In S. J. Hannahs & M. Young-Scholten (eds). Focus on Phonological Acquisition (pp.263-289). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Ashby, M. & Maidment, J. (2005). Introducing Phonetic Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Asher, J. J. & Garcia, R. (1969). The optimal age to learn a foreign language. The Modern Language Journal, 53: 334-341.
Beckman, M. (1986). Stress and Non-stress Accent. Dordrecht: Foris.
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2008). Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer (version 5.0.32). [Computer program]. Retrieved from http://www.praat.org/.
Bolinger, D. (1958). A theory of pitch accent in English. Word, 14: 109-149.
_____. (1989). Intonation and Its Uses: Melody in Grammar and Discourse. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Bouzon, C. & Hirst, D. (2002). The influence of prosodic factors on the duration of words in British English. In Bel, B. & Marlien, I. (eds.), Proceedings of the Speech Prosody 2002 Conference, Aix-en-Provence.
Brend, R. M. (1975). Male-female intonation patterns in American English. In Barrie Thorne and Nancy Henley, eds., Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance, pp. 84-87. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. (4th ed.). Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Brown, Jr. W. S. & McGlone, R. E. (1974). Aerodynamic and acoustic study of stress in sentence productions. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 56(3): 971-974.
Chen, H.-C. (2006). Interlanguage phonetic timing patterns and their effects on native listeners’ perceptions. Doctoral dissertation, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung.
Chen, P.-Y. (2005). The study of focus words in English sentences: Taiwanese learning English as a foreign language. Master thesis, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
Chen, Y., Robb M., Gilbert H. R., & Lerman J. W. (2001). A study of sentence stress production in Mandarin speakers of American English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(4): 1681-1690.
Cheng, L. (1987). Assessing Asian Language Performance: Guidelines for Evaluating Limited-English-Proficient Students. Rockville, MD: Aspen.
Chikako, S. (2000). English stress shift and the hierarchy of constraints on prosodic structure. Tokyo: Liber Press.
Chomsky, N. & Halle, M. (1991). The Sound Pattern of English. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Cooper, W. E., Eady, S. J. & Muller, P. R. (1985). Acoustical aspects of contrastive stress in question-answer contexts. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 77(6): 2142-2156.
Cruttenden, A. (2002). Intonation. (2nd ed.). Beijing : Peking University Press.
Eady S. J. & Cooper, W. E. (1986). Speech intonation and focus location in matched statements and questions. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 80(2): 402-415.
Flege, J. E. (1993). Production and perception of a novel, second-language phonetic contrast. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93(3): 1589-1608.
_____. (1995). Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In Strange, W. (ed.), Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience, Baltimore: New York Press.
Fokes, J. & Bond, Z. (1989). The vowels of stressed and unstressed syllables in nonnative English. Language Learning, 39, 341-373.
Fon, J. Y.-J. (1997). What are tones really like? : An acoustic-based study of Taiwan Mandarin tones. Unpublished thesis, National Taiwan University.
Fry, D. B. (1955). Duration and intensity as physical correlates of linguistic stress. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 27: 765-68.Giergerich, H. J. (1992). English Phonology: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Giegerich, H. J. (1992). English Phonology: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Guion, S., Fledge, J., Liu, S., & Yeni-Komshian, G. (2000). Age of learning effects on the duration of sentences produced in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21: 205-228.
Gussenhoven, C. (2004). The Phonology of Tone and Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Halle, M. & Clements, G. N. (1983). Problem Book in Phonology: A Workbook for Introductory Courses in Linguistics and in Modern Phonology. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Hayes, B. (1995). Metrical Stress Theory: Principles and Case Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hayes, B., Kirchner, R. & Steriade, D. (2004). Phonetically Based Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hsu, H.-L. (2003). The study of intonation in English interrogatives: Taiwanese learning English as a foreign language. Master thesis, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
Iwasaki, Y. E. (1999). Japanese speakers and American English vowels: Spectrographic analysis of learners at three different stages of acquisition. The ORTESL Journal, 20:21-50.
Kager, R. (1995). The metrical theory of word stress. In J. A. Goldsmith (ed.), The Handbook of Phonological Theory (pp. 367-402). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Kreidler, C. W. (2004). The Pronunciation of English: A Course Book. (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Kuo, F. J. (2004). The relationship between stress teaching and high or low achievers. Unpublished master’s thesis of National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
Ladd, R. (1996). Intonational Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ladefoged, P. (2001). A Course in Phonetics. (4th ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
_____. (2001b). Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across Cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Lehiste, I. & Peterson, G. (1959). The acoustical nature of accent in American speech. American Speech, 2: 49-56.
Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological Foundations of Language. New York: Wiley.
Li, W. C. (2001). Where have all the neutral tones gone? A paper presented at the 21st Meeting of the American Society of America, 51, 2018-2024. Toronto, Canada.
Liberman, M. & Prince, A. (2001). On stress and linguistic rhythm. In Kreidler, C. W (ed.), Phonology: Critical Concepts, Volume V, The Interface with Morphology and Syntax. London, NY: Routledge.
Liberman, M. & Sproat, R. (1992). The stress and structure of modified noun phrases in English. In Aronoff, M. & Oehrle R. (eds.), Language Sound Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lieberman, P. (1960). Some acoustic correlates of word stress in American English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 32: 451-454.
Lightbown, P. & Spada, N. (1999). How Languages are Learned. (2nd ed.).Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
MacKay, I. R. A. (1987). Phonetics: The Science of Speech Production. (2nd ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
McGory, J. T. (1997). Acquisition of intonational prominence in English by Seoul Korean and Mandarin Chinese speakers. Unpublished Ph.D., Ohio State University.
Mennen, I. (2004). Bi-directional interference in the intonation of Dutch speakers of Greek. Journal of Phonetics, 32: 543-563.
Nguyen, T. A. T., Ingram, J., & Pensalfini, J. R. (2008). Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns. Journal of Phonetics, 36: 158-190.
Online Yahoo Dictionary. Retrieved from http://tw.dictionary.yahoo.com/
Ortleb, R. (1935). An objective study of emphasis on oral reading of emotional and unemotional material by trained and professional readers. Ph.D. dissertation, State Univ. Iowa.
Peng, S. H., Chan, M. K. M., Tseng, C. Y., Huang, T., Lee, O. J. & Beckman, M. E. (2005) Towards a Pan-Mandarin system for prosodic transcription. In Jun, S. A. (ed.), Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing (pp. 230-270). New York: Oxford University Press.
Pike, K.L. (1945). The Intonation of American English. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Plag, I. (2006). The variability of compound stress in English: structural, semantic, and analogical factors. English Languages and Linguistics, 10(1): 143-172.
Riazantseva, A. (2001). Second language proficiency and pausing: A study of Russian speakers of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23: 497-526.
Prince, A. (1983). Relating to the grid. Linguistic Inquiry, 14: 19-100.
Roca, I., & Johnson, W. (1999). The phenomenon of stress. A Course in Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Schmerling, S. F. (1971). A stress mess. Studies in the Linguistic Science, 1:52-65.
Schramm, W. L. (1937). The acoustical nature of accent in American speech. American Speech, 2: 49-56.
Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10: 201-231.
Shen, W. (ed.). (1997). Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Hong Kong: Longman.
Shih, C.-L. (1988). Tone and Intonation in Mandarin. Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory, 3: 83-109.
Sinclair, J. (ed.). (2001). Collins Cobuild English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. (3rd ed.). Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers.
Stewart, Jr. T. W. and Vaillette, N. eds. (2001). Language Files: Materials for an Introduction to Language & Linguistics. (8th ed.). Columbus: The Ohio State University Press.
Tajima, K., Port, R. & Dalby, J. (1997). Effects of temporal correction on intelligibility of foreign accented English. Journal of Phonetics, 25: 1-24.
Teschner, R. V. & Whitley, M. S. (2004). Pronouncing English: A Stress-Based Approach with CD-ROM. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Thompson, I. (1991). Foreign accents revisited: The English pronunciation of Russian immigrants. Language Learning, 41: 177-204.
Titze, I. R. (1988). Regulation of vocal power and efficiency by subglottal pressure and glottal width. In Fujimura O. (ed.), Vocal Fold Physiology: Voice Production, Mechanisms, and Functions, (pp. 227-238). New York: Raven.
Ueyama, M. (1996). Phrase-final lengthening and stress-timed shortening in the speech of native speakers and Japanese learners of English, In 4th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing ICSLP-1996, 610-613.
Viger, T. L. (2007). Fundamental Frequency in Mandarin Chinese and English: Implications for Second-Language speakers. Ph.D. dissertation, the City University of New York.
Vogel, I. & Raimy, E. (2002). The acquisition of compounds vs. phrasal stress: the role of prosodic constituents. Journal of Child Language, 29: 225-250.
Wang, P.-Y. B. & Chiang, W.-Y. (2008). Prosodic Categorization of Tone Sandhi for the Negator BU in Chinese-English Code-mixing. Paper represented in The Eleventh International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics, National Chiao Tung University, R.O.C. May 23-25.
Wardhaugh, R. (1970). The contrastive analysis hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly, 4: 123-130.
Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems. NY: Publication Number 1 of the Linguistic Circle of New York.
Wells, J. C. (2006). English Intonation: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
William, C, Stephen, E. & Pamela, M. (1985). Acoustical aspects of contrastive stress in question-answer contexts. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 77(6): 2142-2156.
Yoon, Y., & Derwing, B. (2001). A language without a rhyme: syllable structure experiments in Korea. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 46(3/4), 187-237.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top