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研究生:蔡黛華
研究生(外文):Dai-Hua Tsai
論文名稱:都會區空氣污染:交通相關排放源之形成機制、暴露評估與其健康影響
論文名稱(外文):Urban Air Pollution: Formation, Exposure and Health Effects of Traffic Emission
指導教授:詹長權詹長權引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職業醫學與工業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:光化測站揮發性有機化合物心血管疾病死亡率懸浮微粒通勤者暴露粒數濃度超細懸浮微粒
外文關鍵詞:Photochemical Assessment Monitoring StationVolatile Organic CompoundCardiovascular MortalityParticulate MatterCommuter ExposureParticle Number ConcentrationsUltrafine Particles
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交通排放為都市中的空氣污染首要成因,本論文旨在探討都會交通的排放對臭氧形成的機制、暴露狀況及健康效應的影響。中部地區的臭氧問題為台灣過去幾年來常被探討的議題,多數研究著重在探討造成臭氧在事件日與非事件日的差異,並無法進一步探討各種揮發性有機化合物 (Volatile Organic Compounds, VOC) 的排放對臭氧形成的貢獻,本論文的第一部分則利用中部地區的三座光化學監測站資料,探討都會區的排放對郊區臭氧形成的貢獻,研究結果發現在春季與秋季時,風速及日照的因素有利於臭氧的形成,並進一步利用氣團老化指標說明臭氧峰值與光化作用的密切關係。本研究也利用光化測站的VOC連結監測資料,研究交通排放相關的VOC對中部地區心血管疾病死亡率的影響,過去的研究多著重在粒狀污染物或傳統的氣態污染物與心血管疾病死亡率的關係,本研究發現六種交通相關的VOC對當日死亡率的上升,有顯著的影響。此外,交通排放中,懸浮微粒 (Particulate Matter, PM) 佔了空氣污染的五成以上,而過去的研究早已證實懸浮微粒造成的健康效應,因此,評估大氣中交通污染造成的懸浮微粒濃度,也是重要的一環。本研究在台北地區進行了通勤者在交通尖峰通勤時段,搭乘不同交通工具,如汽車、公車、捷運與機車時,其暴露到懸浮微粒的濃度情況,並收集空品測站的資料,以分析測站濃度對於通勤者的暴露是屬於高估或低估的情形。本論文的最後一部分則探討在公車、火車及捷運站等微環境中的微米懸浮微粒 (submicrometer particles) 與細懸浮微粒 (ultrafine particles)的濃度分佈及粒徑分佈特性,結果發現公車站的交通尖峰時間濃度曲線明顯,而且,公車站的微粒粒徑分佈特性明顯,公車的柴油引擊排放特徵是在粒徑為3至30nm時,佔總濃度的百分之六十六,比火車站及捷運站的比率更高,由此可知,離柴油排放源愈近時,細小的懸浮微粒濃度愈高。
Traffic emissions contribute importantly to air pollution and are reported to negatively affect human health. This study aimed to investigate formation, exposure and health effects of traffic emissions. The ozone problem has drawn attention during the past years. However, most studies focused so far on ozone event and non-event days while less attention was given to ozone formation potentials. Therefore, the first part aimed to collect volatile organic compounds data from photochemical assessment stations in central Taiwan to analyze ozone formation potentials in urban, suburban and rural areas. The results showed that transported ozone and precursors, i.e. volatile organic compound (VOC) from upwind to downwind producing elevated ozone levels in the suburban and rural areas. We also used the VOC data to investigate the relationship between mortality and traffic-related VOCs, which was a novel approach. Our findings indicated that daily cardiovascular mortality is associated with acute exposure to traffic-related VOCs. Moreover, fuel combustion and road transport were identified as the dominant sources of particulate matters (PM). The third part of this study assessed the particle levels when commuters use different transportation modes during rush hours. Motorcycle commuters were exposed to the highest concentrations of PM and they also the highest exposure dose even though they had the shortest travel time. By contrast, car commuters were exposed to the lowest PM concentrations and doses. The last part of this study compared number concentrations of submicron and ultrafine particles in public transportation stations, i.e. bus station, train station and mass rapid transportation station. The highest average particle number concentration was found in Taipei bus station, where more diesel engine buses were driving by, and the lowest average particle number concentration was found in Taipei MRT station. In conclusion, our study findings provided evidence for traffic-related emission, health effects and exposure data.
中文摘要 I
Abstract III
1. Background 1
1.1. Basic concepts of ozone and its precursors 1
1.2. Traffic-related air pollution 4
2. Purpose and objectives 8
3. Study Design 10
4. Chapter 1 A study of ground-level ozone pollution, ozone precursors and subtropical meteorological conditions in central Taiwan 11
4.1 Introduction 11
4.2 Experiment 13
4.3 Results and discussion 17
4.4 Conclusion 25
5 Chapter 2 Traffic-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are better indicators for cardiovascular mortality than particle mass 36
5.1 Introduction 36
5.2 Methods 38
5.3 Results 43
5.4 Discussion 46
6. Chapter 3 Comparisons of Commuter’s Exposure to Particulate Matters While Using Different Transportation Tools 55
6.1 Introduction 55
6.2 Method 56
6.3 Results 60
6.4 Discussion 64
6.5 Conclusion 67
7. Chapter 4 Characterization and comparison of submicron and ultrafine particles in public transportation stations 74
7.1 Introduction 74
7.2 Method 75
7.3 Results and discussion 77
7.4 Conclusion 81
8. Overall conclusions 87
8.1 Overall findings 87
8.2 Limitations 89
9. Reference 90
10. Appendix 99
10.1 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) 99
10.2 Published manuscripts 102
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