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研究生:范揚棋
研究生(外文):Yang-Chi Fan
論文名稱:大安氟奎林羧酸、硫酸銅與高錳酸鉀在養殖台灣鯛與石斑之藥物殘留與毒性試驗
論文名稱(外文):Residues and Toxicity of Danofloxacin, Copper Sulfate and Potassium Permanganate Individually to Tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Grouper (Epinepheus coioides)
指導教授:郭宗甫郭宗甫引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:獸醫學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:氟奎諾酮類大安氟奎林羧酸硫酸銅高錳酸鉀
外文關鍵詞:fluoroquinolonedanofloxacincopper sulfatepotassium permanganate
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隨著水產養殖漁業的發展迅速,養殖密度大幅度增加,疾病的危害也日趨嚴重,造成龐大的經濟損失。為了控制與預防魚病,除了養殖環境與飼養方式的改善外,各種化學藥劑均被廣泛使用。大安氟奎林羧酸 (Danofloxacin) 屬於氟奎諾酮類之抗生素,該藥物具有抗菌範圍廣且對生物體副作用低,已在許多國家批准使用在治療牛、豬及雞等動物細菌性疾病。硫酸銅與高錳酸鉀可以有效的驅除養殖魚隻之外寄生蟲、細菌、藻類及其他水中有害生物。但是目前在國內大安氟奎林羧酸、硫酸銅與高錳酸鉀仍為非法定水產養殖用藥,且國內的藥物使用濃度多為參考國外文獻報告,為提供給養殖業者使用依據,本研究以台灣鯛與石斑分別針對此三種藥物進行殘留與毒性試驗。
在口服投與10 mg/kg b.w.大安氟奎林羧酸後,經由高效能液相層析儀分析後之數據結果顯示,大安氟奎琳羧酸在台灣鯛之血液、腎臟及肝臟的濃度在口服 6 小時後即達到最高點,其濃度分別為 1.438 μg/mL、13.178 μg/g、12.477 μg/g,而肌肉的濃度在口服 12 小時後達到最高點,其濃度為 2.153 μg/g。就大安氟奎琳羧酸濃度與時間的趨勢而言,大安氟奎琳羧酸在肝臟與腎臟的濃度為最高,其次為肌肉,最低為血液。大安氟奎琳羧酸在血液、肌肉、腎臟及肝臟的消退半衰期分別為 28.76小時、33.48小時、43.58小時及48.46小時。在石斑方面,大安氟奎琳羧酸在血液、腎臟及肝臟的濃度,在口服 1 小時後即達到最高點,其濃度分別為 2.781 μg/mL、5.020 μg/g及0.753μg/g,而肌肉的濃度在口服 4 小時後達到最高點,其濃度為 0.450 μg/g。就大安氟奎琳羧酸濃度與時間的趨勢而言,大安氟奎琳羧酸在腎臟與血液的濃度為最高,其次為肝臟,最低為肌肉。大安氟奎琳羧酸在血液、肌肉、腎臟及肝臟消退半衰期分別為 47.14小時、28.06小時、32.08小時及41.50小時。而給予魚隻口服高濃度大安氟奎琳羧酸三日與七日後,進行組織病理學檢查,再經由Van der Waerden法計算,對台灣鯛之ED50為37.5 ppm與81.67 ppm;對石斑之ED50為173.33 與94.33 ppm。另一方面利用原子吸收光譜儀分析重金屬銅與錳含量,以檢測魚體中硫酸銅與高錳酸鉀之殘留量。在進行24小時硫酸銅之藥浴後,移至清水池中蓄養十日後,重金屬銅之殘留量在台灣鯛的魚肉和肝臟分別為0.2087 ppm與2.5373 ppm,而在石斑的魚肉和肝臟分別為0.1769與2.4583 ppm。在進行4小時高錳酸鉀之藥浴後,清水池中蓄養十日後,重金屬錳之殘留量在台灣鯛的魚肉和肝臟分別為0.2836 ppm與1.9741 ppm,而在石斑的魚肉和肝臟分別為0.2024 ppm與1.7524 ppm。以高濃度硫酸銅與高錳酸鉀處理,經由組織病理學檢查,再以Van der Waerden法計算。硫酸銅在台灣鯛與石斑其96小時LC50分別為30.5 ppm與1.36 ppm。高錳酸鉀在台灣鯛與石斑其96小時LC50分別為3.60 ppm與1.42 ppm。
The fish aquaculture was rapid development in Taiwan and the high density caused the highly risks for suffering several diseases. In order to treatment the diseases of fish, not only improving the cultivating environments and techniques, but also tried various chemical therapy drugs widely. Danofloxacin is an antibacterial drug of the fluoroquinolone group developed for use in veterinary medicine. Copper sulfate and potassium permanganate were enabled to use for keeping away the harmful organism as surface parasite, bacteria, alga and other harmful living organisms in water. The danofloxacin, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate were non- legal aquaculture drugs for fishery at present in Taiwan, but in fact the drugs were used commonly in aqua-cultured field and they used them mostly consult the foreign literature report. The purpose of this research provided the residues and acute toxicity of danofloxacin, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate individually to tilapia and grouper for fishery references.
After single oral administration (10 mg/kg b.w.), the plasma, kidney, liver and muscle were collected, then the danofloxacin concentration of samples was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. In tilapia, the result indicated that the maximal plasma, kidney and liver concentration were 1.438 μg/mL, 13.178 μg/g and 12.477 μg/g, respectively, at 6 h after administration. The maximal muscle concentration was 2.153 μg/g at 12 h after administration. The elimination half-time of plasma, muscle, kidney and liver were 28.76 h, 33.48 h, 43.58 h and 48.46 h, respectively. In grouper, the result indicated that the maximal plasma, kidney and liver concentration were 2.781 μg/mL, 5.020 μg/g and 0.753 μg/g, respectively, at 1 h after administration. The maximal muscle concentration was 0.450 μg/g at 4 h after administration. The elimination half-time of plasma, muscle, kidney and liver were 47.14 h, 28.06 h, 32.08 h and 41.50 h, respectively. The ED50 of danofloxacin in tilapia and grouper were respectively determined after examined by histopathological section. The ED50 of danofloxacin in tilapia were 37.5 ppm and 81.67 ppm, after administration for 3 days and 7days, respectively. The ED50 of danofloxacin in grouper were 173.33 ppm and 94.33 ppm, after administration for 3 days and 7days, respectively.
By utilizing the atomic absorption spectrophotometer to determine the fish''s body residues of amount of copper and manganese. After 24h drug bath of copper sulfate and then transferred to clean water for 10 days, the residues of copper in muscle and liver of tilapia were 0.2087 ppm and 2.5373 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the residues of copper in muscle and liver of grouper were 0.1769 ppm and 2.4583 ppm, respectively. After 4h drug bath of potassium permanganate and then transferred to clean water for 10 days, the residues of manganese in muscle and liver of tilapia were 0.2836 ppm and 1.9741 ppm, respectively. On the contrary, the residues of manganese in muscle and liver of grouper were 0.2024 ppm and 1.7524 ppm, respectively. The 96h LC50 of copper sulfate in tilapia and grouper were 30.5 ppm and 1.36 ppm, respectively. The 96h LC50 of potassium permanganate in tilapia and grouper were 3.60 ppm and 1.42 ppm, respectively.
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II
英文縮寫對照表--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III
目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV
圖次-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V
表次-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IX
第1章 緒言------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
第2章 文獻探討------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
第3章 材料與方法---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
第1節 台灣鯛和石斑口服大安氟奎琳羧酸之藥物動力學試驗-------------------------6
第2節 台灣鯛和石斑口服大安氟奎琳羧酸之藥物毒性試驗----------------------------9
第3節 硫酸銅在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之殘留試驗------------------------------------------10
第4節 硫酸銅在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之急毒性試驗---------------------------------------12
第5節 高錳酸鉀在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之殘留試驗---------------------------------------13
第6節 高錳酸鉀在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之急毒性試驗------------------------------------15
第4章 結果----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17
第1節 台灣鯛和石斑口服大安氟奎琳羧酸之藥物動力學試驗結---------------------17
第2節 台灣鯛和石斑口服大安氟奎琳羧酸之藥物毒性試驗結------------------------17
第3節 硫酸銅在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之殘留試驗結果------------------------------------18
第4節 硫酸銅在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之急毒性試驗結果---------------------------------19
第5節 高錳酸鉀在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之殘留試驗結果---------------------------------19
第6節 高錳酸鉀在台灣鯛和石斑藥浴之急毒性試驗結果------------------------------20
第5章 討論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
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