跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.110.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/27 19:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:伍世揚
研究生(外文):Shih-Yang Wu
論文名稱:Benazepril於慢性退行性心臟瓣膜疾病患犬之臨床療效
論文名稱(外文):Clinical Efficacy of Benazepril in Dogs with Chronic Degenerative Valvular Diseases
指導教授:黃慧璧黃慧璧引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-Pi Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:獸醫學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:心臟超音波指數放射線學心臟指數慢性退行性心臟瓣膜疾病benazepril
外文關鍵詞:benazeprilchronic degenerative valvular diseaseechocardiographic indicesradiographic heart scale
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:286
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要
Benazepril屬於血管加壓素轉化酶抑制劑,有抑制腎素-血管加壓素-醛固酮系統的能力,已被廣泛使用在人和犬的高血壓、心臟病及腎臟病。經臨床研究證實,benazepril對於鬱血性心衰竭患犬有改善臨床症狀和增加運動耐受度的效果,並可改善血液動力學參數及延長存活時間。另外,benazepril可減緩慢性腎臟病的惡化。此論文包含三個研究,評估benazepril對於慢性退行性瓣膜疾病引起的心衰竭之患犬在於血壓、心臟超音波學指數及放射線學心臟大小指數的臨床療效。第一個研究的結果指出,benazepril不影響全身血壓,但具有改善臨床症狀的效果。低血壓為benazepril最常見也最被關注的副作用,此研究結果表示benazepril可被安全的使用,不會有造成低血壓的副作用。第二個研究的結果顯示,benazepril具有改善心臟內血液循環及心臟收縮力的效果,並對於縮小過大的心臟也有一定療效。心臟病患犬常有心臟內血液滯留造成之心臟擴大的情況,本研究結果表示benazepril藉由使心臟輸出的壓力減低來增進心臟內及心臟周邊血液循環的效果。第三個研究的結果顯示,benazepril不影響左心室肌肉局部的舒張或收縮及形變的情況。心臟肌肉在心衰竭時會有重塑的病變,此研究結果表示benazepril可減緩此心肌重塑的病變。
Abstract
Benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, potently suppresses renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is widely used in humans and dogs with hypertension, cardiac diseases, and renal diseases. In clinical studies, benazepril has been proven to have beneficial effect on hemodynamic parameters, clinical conditions, exercise endurance and survival times in dogs with congestive heart failure. Moreover, effect of benazepril on slowing down the progression of renal disease in patients with chronic renal insufficiency has been demonstrated. This thesis includes 3 studies, examinating clinical efficacy of benazpril on systemic blood pressure, conventional echocardiographic indices, speckle tracking echocardiographic variables and radiographic heart scale in small breed dogs with mild to severe heart failure caused by chronic degenerative valvular disease. Result of the first parf of study showed that benazepril improved clinical condition but did not change systemic blood pressure. Result of the second part of study indicated that benazepril had significant effect on improving left atrial indices, end-systolic ventricular indices, and ventricular contractility assessing using M-mode echocardiography, and on reducing radiographic heart scale. Result of the third part of study revealed that benazepril did not have beneficial effect on improving left ventricular segmental myocardial systolic and diastolic function.
Acknowledgement i
Abstract ii
中文摘要 iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables v
Key to Abbreviations vi
Aims and Scope of the Thesis vii
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
Reference 19
Chapter 2. Effect of benazepril on systemic blood pressure in small breed dogs with chronic degenerative valvular diseases 31

Reference 39
Chapter 3. Effect of benazepril on echocardiographic indices and radiographic heart scale in dogs with chronic degenerative valvular diseases 44


Reference 52
Chapter 4. Effect of benazepril on quantitative left ventricular function in dogs with chronic degenerative valvular diseases 58

Reference 66
Chapter 5. Summarizing discussion 76
Reference 81
Chapter 1
Reference:
1.Sisson D. Acquired valvular heart disease in dogs and cats. In: Bonagura JD ed. Cardiology, Contemporary Issues in Small Animal Practice. New York, NY, Churchill Livingston, 1987: 59-116.
2.Haggstrom J, Kvart C, Pedersen H. Acquired valvular heart disease, in Ettinger SJ ed. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 6nd edi. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 2005: 1022-1039.
3.Fox PR. Canine myocardial disease. In: Fox PR, ed. Canine and Feline Cardiology. New York, NY: Churchill Livingston, 1988: 467-482.
4.Whitney JC. Observations on the effect of age on the severity of heart valve lesions in the dog. J Small Animal Pract 1974; 15: 511-522.
5.Ettinger SJ, Benitz AM, Ericsson GF, et al. Effects of enalapril maleate on survival of dogs with naturally acquired heart failure. The Long-Term Investigation of Veterinary Enalapril (LIVE) Study Group. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 213: 1573-1577.
6.International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council. Appendix 1: Recommendations for the diagnosis of heart disease and treatment of heart failure in small animals. In: Tilley LP, Goodwin JP, eds. Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2001: 459-489.
7.Kvart C, Häggström J, Pedersen HD, et al. Efficacy of enalapril for prevention of congestive heart failure in dogs with myxomatous valve disease and asymptomatic mitral regurgitation. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16: 80-88.
8.Fuentes VL, Corcoran B, French A, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of pimobendan in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16: 255-261.
9.The BENCH (Benazepril Hydrochloride in Canine Heart Disease) Study Group. The effect of benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heart failure: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, long-term clinical trial. J Vet Cardiol 1999; 1: 7-18.
10.The IMPROVE Study Group. Acute and short-term hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and clinical effects of enalapril maleate in dogs with naturally acquired heart failure: results of the Invasive Multicenter Prospective Veterinary Evaluation of Enalapril Study. J Vet Intern Med 1995; 9: 234-242.
11.Ware WA, Lund DD, Subieta AR, et al. Sympathetic activation in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by chronic mitral disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 197: 1475-1481.
12.Braunwald E. ACE inhibitors-A cornerstone of the treatment of heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 351-353.
13.Ribner HS, Sagar KB, Glasser SP, et al. Long-term therapy with benazepril in patients with congestive heart failure: Effects on clinical status and exercise tolerance. J Clin Pharmacol 1990; 30: 1106–1111.
14.Davis R, Ribner H, Keung E, et al. Treatment of chronic congestive heart failure with captopril, an oral inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme. N Engi J Med 1979; 301: 117-121.
15.Chen D-S, Dotson RA, Burrell RD. Watkins BE. Two potent angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: CGS 14824A and CGS 14831. Pharmacologist 1983; 25: 240.
16.Miller D, Hopkins MF, Tonnesen ST, et al. Antihypertensive assessment of CGS 14824A, an orally effective angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Pharmacologist 1983; 25: 102.
17.Watthey JWH, Stanton JL, Desai M, et al. Synthesis and biological properties of (carboxyalkyl) amino-substituted bicyclic lactam inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme. J Med Chem 1985; 28: 1511-1516.
18.Nakazawa M, Suwanobori T, Iwasaki K, et al. Hemodynamic effects of benazeprilat in the anesthetized dog with acute ventricular failure. Jpn J Pharmacol 1991; 56: 369-375.
19.Pouchelon JL, King JN, Martignoni L, et al. Long-term tolerability of benazepril in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Cardiol 2004; 6: 7–13.
20.Williams GH. Converting-enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 1517–25.
21.Kostis JB. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Emerging differences and new compounds. Am J Hypertens 1989; 2: 57–64.
22.Brown NJ, Vaughan DE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Circulation 1998; 97: 1411–20.
23.Jackson EK. Renin and angiotensin. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, eds. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 10th ed. New York; 2001: 809–841.
24.Hoyer J, Schulte KL, Lenz T. Clinical pharmacokinetics of angiotensin converting enzyme (AC) inhibitors in renal failure. Clin Pharmacokinet 1993; 24: 230–54.
25.Lonn EM, Yusuf S, Jha P, et al. Emerging role of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in cardiac and vascular protection. Circulation 1994; 90: 2056–69.
26.Zimmerman BG, Sybertz EJ, et al. Interaction between sympathetic and renin-angiotensin system. J Hypertens 1984; 2: 581–92.
27.Hornig H, Kohler C, Drexler H. Role of bradykinin in mediating vascular effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in humans. Circulation 1997; 95: 1115–8.
28.Dzau VA. The relevance of tissue angiotensin-converting-enzyme: manifestations in mechanistic and endpoint data. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88: 1–20.
29.Giannettasio C, Grassi G, Seravalle G, et al. Investigation of reflexes from volume and baroreceptors during converting-enzyme inhibition in humans. Am Heart J 1989; 117: 740–5.
30.Francis GS, Benedict C, Johnstone DE, et al. Comparison of neuroendocrine activation in patients with left ventricular dysfunction with and without congestive heart failure. A substudy of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD). Circulation 1990; 82: 1724–9.
31.Swedberg K, Eneroth P, Kjekshus J, et al. Hormones regulating cardiovascular function in patients with severe congestive heart failure and their relation to mortality. CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Circulation 1990; 82: 1730–6.
32.Husain A. The chymase–angiotensin system in humans. J Hyperten 1993; 11: 1155–9.
33.Lee AF, MacFadyen RJ, Struthers AD. Neurohormonal reactivation in heart failure patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy: a longitudinal study. Eur J Heart Fail 1999; 1: 401–6.
34.Paul M, Ganten D. The molecular basis of cardiovascular hypertrophy: the role of the renin–angiotensin system. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1992; 19: S51–8.
35.Schiffrin E, Deng L. Comparison of effects of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition and b-blockade for 2 years on function of small arteries from hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1995; 25: 699–703.
36.Keane WF, Shapiro BE. Renal protective effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65: 49I–53.
37.Vaughan D. The renin–angiotensin system and fibrinolysis. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79: 12–6.
38.Visser LE, Stricker BH, Velden J, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study. J Clin Epidemiol 1995; 48: 851–7.
39.Charlon V, Dollow S, Fidel J, et al. Reproducibility of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor induced cough: a double-blind randomized study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 39: 125–9.
40.Israili ZH, Hall WD. Cough and angioneurotic edema associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 234–42.
41.Wynckel A, Ebikili B, Melin JP, et al. Long-term follow-up of acute renal failure caused by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Am J Hypertens 1998; 11: 1080–6.
42.Brown N, Ray W, Snowden M et al. Black Americans have an increased rate of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60: 8–13.
43.Sedman AB, Kershaw DB, Bunchman TE. Recognition and management of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Pediatr Nephrol 1995; 9: 382–5.
44.Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Danielson GK, et al. for the Task force on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology clinical expert consensus document on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 2003; 25: 1965–91.
45.Parmley, WW. Treatment of congestive heart failure state of the art and future trends. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol 1989; 28: 31–39.
46.Kitagawa H, Eguchi T, Kitoh K, et al. Plasma concentrations of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, and its active metabolite, benazeprilat, after repeated administrations of benazepril in dogs with experimental kidney impairment. J Vet Med Sci. 2000; 62: 179-85.
47.Waeber G, Fasanella T, Nussberger J, et al. Effect on blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system of repeated doses of the converting enzyme inhibitor CGS 14824A. Eur J Ciin Pharmacol 1987; 131: 643-646.
48.Toutain PL, Lefebvre HP, Laroute V. New insights on effect of kidney insufficiency on disposition of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: case of enalapril and benazepril in dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000; 292: 1094-103.
49.Whalen JJ. Gourley LA. Diurnal blood pressure response to benzazepril, new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in mild to moderate essential hypertension. Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hypertension, New York, NY, 1987: 16-21.
50.Whalen JJ. Definition of the effective dose of the converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril. Am Heart J 1989; 117: 728-734.
51.Lefebvre HP, Laroute V, Concordet D, et al. Effects of renal impairment on the disposition of orally administered enalapril, benazepril, and their active metabolites. J Vet Intern Med 1999; 13: 21-7.
52.Mizutani H, Koyama H, Watanabe T, et al. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of benazepril in the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency in cats. J Vet Intern Med 2006; 20: 1074-9.
53.Su X, Lee L, Li X, et al. Association between angiotensinogen, angiotensin II receptor genes, and blood pressure response to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Circulation 2007; 115: 725-32.
54.Colfer HT, Ribner HS, Gradman A, et al. Effects of once-daily benazepril therapy on exercise tolerance and manifestations of chronic congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1992; 70: 354-8.
55.King JN, Mauron C, Kaiser G. Pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of benazepril, benazeprilat, and inhibition of plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity after single and repeated administration to dogs. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56: 1620-1628.
56.Insel J, Mirvis DM, Boland MJ, et al. A multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of benazepril hydrochloride, a long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhbitor, in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Clin Pharmacol Therap 1989; 45: 312-320.
57.The COVE Study Group. Controlled clinical evaluation of enalapril in dogs with heart failure: Results of cooperative veterinary enalapril study. J Vet Intern Med 1995; 9: 243–252.
58.Weinberg MC. Renal effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure: A clinician’s guide to minimizing azotemia and diuretic-induced electrolyte imbalances. Clin Therap 1993; 15: 3-17.
59.Garcia NH, Baigorria ST, Juncos LI. Hyperkalemia, renal failure, and converting-enzyme inhibition an overrated connection. Hypertension 2001; 38: 639-644.
60.Roudebusch P, Allen TA, Kuehn NF, et al. The effect of combined therapy with captopril, furosemide, and a sodium-restricted diet on serum electrolyte concentrations and renal function in normal dogs and dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Intern Med 1994; 8: 337-342.
61.Chetboul V, Lefebvre HP, Sampedrano CC, et al. Comparative adverse cardiac effects of pimobendan and benazepril monotherapy in dogs with mild degenerative mitral valve disease: a prospective, controlled, blinded, and randomized study. J Vet Intern Med 2007; 21: 742-53.
62.Pouchelon JL, Jamet N, Gouni V, et al. Effect of benazepril on survival and cardiac events in dogs with asymptomatic mitral valve disease: a retrospective study of 141 cases. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22: 905-14.
63.Atkins CE, Keene BW, Brown WA, et al. Results of the veterinary enalapril trial to prove reduction in onset of heart failure in dogs chronically treated with enalapril alone for compensated, naturally occurring mitral valve insufficiency. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 1061–1069.
64.Atkins CE, Brown WA, Coats JR, et al. Effects of long-term administration of enalapril on clinical indicators of renal function in dogs with compensated mitral regurgitation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221: 654–658.
65.Kvart C, Haggstrom J, Pedersen HD, et al. Efficacy of enalapril for prevention of congestive heart failure in dogs with myxomatous valve disease and asymptomatic mitral regurgitation. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16: 80–88.
66.Begg EJ, Bailey RR, Lynn KL, et al. The pharmacokinetics of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with renal impairment. J Hypertens 1989; 7: S29–S32.
67.Hoyer J, Schulte KL, Lenz T. Clinical pharmacokinetics of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in renal failure. Clin Pharmacokinet 1993; 24: 230–254.
68.Kaiser G, Ackermann R, Sioufi A. Pharmacokinetics of a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril hydrochloride, in special populations. Am Heart J 1989; 117: 746–751.
69.Kelley J, Doyle G, Donohoe J, et al. The pharmacokinetic profile of enalaprilat in normal subjects and patients with renal impairment. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984; 18: 274.
70.Kelly J, Doyle G, Donohoe J, et al. Chronic dose pharmacokinetic of enalapril in renal impairment. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1985; 20: 264–P265.
71.Brown SA, Brown CA, Jacobs G, et al. Effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril in cats with induced renal insufficiency. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62: 375-383.
72.Hou FF, Zhang X, Zhang GH, et al. Efficacy and safety of benazepril for advanced chronic renal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 131-40.
73.Ihle BU, Whitworth JA, Shahinfar S, et al. Angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibition in nondiabetic progressive renal insufficiency: a controlled double-blind trial. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 27: 489-95.
74.Ruggenenti P, Perna A, Mosconi L, et al. Urinary protein excretion rate is the best independent predictor of ESRF in non-diabetic proteinuric chronic nephropathies. Kidney Int 1998; 53: 1209-16.
75.Peterson JC, Adler S, Burkart JM, et al. Blood pressure control, proteinuria, and the progression of renal disease: the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 754-62.
76.Tomlinson B, Woo J, Thomas GN, et al. Randomized, controlled, parallel-group comparison of ambulatory and clinic blood pressure responses to amlodipine or enalapril during and after treatment in adult Chinese patients with hypertension. Clin Ther 2004; 26: 1292-304.
77.Whalen J, Skalky C. DeSilva J, et al. Peak and trough effects of three once daily dose levels of benazepril in mild-moderate hypertension. Am J Hyperten 1989; 2: 45A.
78.Whalen JJ, McKernan SL, Davidov M, et al: Effectiveness of twice daily CGS 14824A for control of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Data on file, CIBA-GEIGY Corp., 1988. (abstract)
79.Schaller MD, Nussberger J, Waeber B. et al. Haemodynamic and pharmacological effects of the converting enzyme inhibitor CGS 14824A in normal volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1985; 28: 267-272.
80.Waeber G, Fasanella T, Nussberger J, et al. Effect on blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system of repeated doses of the converting enzyme inhibitor CGS 14824A. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1987; 131: 643-646.
81.Frishman WH, RAM CV, McMahon FG, et al. Comparison of amlodipine and benazepril monotherapy to amlodipine plus benazepril in patients with systemic hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. The Benazepril/Amlodipine Study Group. J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 35: 1060-6.
82.Frishman WH, Landau A, Cretkovic A. Combination drug therapy with calcium-channel blockers in the treatment of systemic hypertension. J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 33: 752-755.
83.White WB, Viadero JJ, Lane TJ, et al. Effects of combination therapy with captopril and nifedipine in severe or resistant hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1986; 39: 43-48.
84.Bellet M, Sassano P, Guyenne T, et al. Converting-enzyme inhibition buffers the counter-regulatory response to acute administration of nicardipine. Br J CIin Pharmacol 1987; 24: 465-472.


=============================================================
Chapter 2
Reference:
1.Ribner HS, Sagar KB, Glasser SP, et al. Long-term therapy with benazepril in patients with congestive heart failure: Effects on clinical status and exercise tolerance. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1990; 30: 1106–1111.
2.The COVE Study Group. Controlled clinical evaluation of enalapril in dogs with heart failure: Results of cooperative veterinary enalapril study. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 1995; 9: 243–252.
3.Ettinger SJ, Benitz AM, Ericsson GF, et al. Effects of enalapril maleate on survival of dogs with naturally acquired heart failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc . 1998; 213: 1573–1577
4.Pouchelon JL, Martignoni L, King JN, et al. The BENCH Study Group. The effect of Benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heat failure: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled, long-term clinical trial. J Vet Cardiol 1999; 1: 7–18.
5.Kvart C, Ha¨ggstro¨m J, Pedersen HD, et al. Efficacy of enalapril for prevention of congestive heart failure in dogs with myxomatous valve disease and asymptomatic mitral regurgitation. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16: 80–88.
6.Nakazawa M, Suwanobori T, Iwasaki K, et al. Hemodynamic effects of benazeprilat in the anesthetized dog with acute ventricular failure. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 1991; 56: 369–375.
7.Miller D, Hopkins MF, Tonnesen ST, et al. Antihypertensive assessment of CGS 14824A, an orally effective angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Pharmacologist. 1983; 25: 102. (abstract).
8.Pouchelon JL, King JN, Martignoni L, et al. Long-term tolerability of benazepril in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Cardiol 2004; 6: 7–13.
9.Chetboul V, Lefebvre HP, Sampedrano CC, et al. Comparative adverse cardiac effects of pimobendan and benazepril monotherapy in dogs with mild degenerative mitral valve disease: a prospective, controlled, blinded, and randomized study. J Vet Intern Med. 2007; 21: 742-53.
10.Kitagawa H, Wakamiya H, Kitoh K, et al. Efficacy of monotherapy with benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in dogs with naturally acquired chronic mitral insufficiency. J Vet Med Sci. 1997; 59: 513-20.
11.Prosek R. Abnormal heart sounds and heart murmurs. In: Ettinger, S. J. and Feldman, E. C. ed. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 6th ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia. 2006; 195-200.
12.Brown NJ, Vaughan DE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Circulation 1998; 97: 1411–20.
13.Colfer HT, Ribner HS, Gradman A, et al. Effects of once-daily benazepril therapy on exercise tolerance and manifestations of chronic congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1992; 70: 354-358.


=============================================================
Chapter 3
Reference
1.Brown NJ, Vaughan DE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Circulation 1998;97:1411-20.
2.The COVE Study Group. Controlled clinical evaluation of enalapril in dogs with heart failure: Results of the Cooperative Veterinary Enalapril Study Group. J Vet Intern Med 1995;9:243-252.
3.The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Results of the Co-operative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS). N Eng J Med 1987;316:1429-1435.
4.The SOLVD investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. New Eng J Med 1991;325:293-302.
5.Nakazawa M, Suwanobori T, Iwasaki K, et al. Hemodynamic effects of benazeprilat in the anesthetized dog with acute ventricular failure. Jpn J Pharmacol 1991;56:369–375.
6.Colfer HT, Ribner HS, Gradman A, et al. Effects of once-daily benazepril therapy on exercise tolerance and manifestations of chronic congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:354-8.
7.Insel J, Mirvis DM, Boland MJ, et al. A multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of benazepril hydrochloride, a long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhbitor, in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Clin Pharmacol Therap 1989;45:312-320.
8.Ribner HS, Sagar KB, Glasser SP et al. Long-term therapy with benazepril in patients with congestive heart failure: effects on clinical status and exercise tolerance. J Clin Pharmacol 1990;30:1106-1111.
9.Hou FF, Zhang X, Zhang GH, et al. Efficacy and safety of benazepril for advanced chronic renal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 2006;354:131-40.
10.Kitagawa H, Wakamiya H, Kitoh K, et al. Efficacy of monotherapy with benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in dogs with naturally acquired chronic mitral insufficiency. J Vet Med Sci 1997;59:513-20.
11.Pouchelon JL, Jamet N, Gouni V, et al. Effect of benazepril on survival and cardiac events in dogs with asymptomatic mitral valve disease: a retrospective study of 141 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:905-14.
12.Prosek R. Abnormal heart sounds and heart murmurs. In: Ettinger, S. J. and Feldman, E. C. ed. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 6th ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia. 2006;195-200.
13.Buchanan JW, Bucheler J. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:194-199.
14.Pouchelon JL, Martignoni L, King JN, et al. The BENCH Study Group. The effect of benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heart failure: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, long-term clinical trial. J Vet Cardiol 1999;1:7-18.
15.The IMPROVE Study Group. Acute and short-term hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and clinical effects of enalapril maleate in dogs with naturally acquired heart failure: results of the Invasive Multicenter Prospective Veterinary Evaluation of Enalapril Study. J Vet Intern Med 1995;9:234-242.
16.Schmieder RE, Martus P, Klingbeil A. Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of randomized double-blind studies. J Am Med Assoc 1996;275:1507-13.


=============================================================
Chapter 4
Reference:
1.The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Results of the Co-operative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS). N Eng J Med 1987; 316: 1429-1435.
2.The SOLVD investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. New Eng J Med 1991; 325: 293-302.
3.The COVE Study Group. Controlled clinical evaluation of enalapril in dogs with heart failure: Results of cooperative veterinary enalapril study. J Vet Intern Med 1995; 9: 243–252.
4.Ettinger SJ, Benitz AM, Ericsson GF, et al. Effects of enalapril maleate on survival of dogs with naturally acquired heart failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 213: 1573–1577.
5.Braunwald E. ACE inhibitors-A cornerstone of the treatmentofheartfai1ure. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 351-353.
6.Nakazawa M, Suwanobori T, Iwasaki K, et al. Hemodynamic effects of benazeprilat in the anesthetized dog with acute ventricular failure. Jpn J Pharmacol 1991; 56: 369–375.
7.Pouchelon JL, King JN, Martignoni L, et al. Long-term tolerability of benazepril in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Cardiol 2004; 6: 7–13.
8.Pouchelon JL, Martignoni L, King JN, et al. The BENCH Study Group. The effect of benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heart failure: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, longterm clinical trial. J Vet Cardiol 1999; 1: 7–18.
9.Urheim S, Edvardsen T, Torp H, et al. Myocardial strain by Doppler echocardiography. Validation of a new method to quantify regional myocardial function. Circulation 2000; 102: 1158-64.
10.Chetboul V, Carlos C, Blot S, et al. Tissue Doppler assessment of diastolic and systolic alterations of radial and longitudinal left ventricular motions in Golden Retrievers during the preclinical phase of cardiomyopathy associated with muscular dystrophy. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65: 1335–1341.
11.Chetboul V, Escriou C, Tessier D, et al. Tissue Doppler imaging detects early asymptomatic myocardial abnormalities in a dog model of Duchenne’s cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 1934-1939.
12.Helle-Valle T, Crosby J, Edvardsen T, et al. New noninvasive method for assessment of left ventricular rotation: Speckle tracking echocardiography. Circulation 2005; 112: 3149-3156.
13.Takeuchi M, Nishikage T, Nakai H, et al. The assessment of left ventricular twist in anterior wall myocardial infarction using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007; 20: 36-44.
14.Chetboul V, Serres F, Gouni V, et al. Radial strain and strain rate by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and the tissue velocity based technique in the dog. J Vet Cardiol 2007; 9: 69-81.
15.Brown NJ, Vaughan DE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Circulation 1998; 97: 1411–20.
16.Colfer HT, Ribner HS, Gradman A, et al. Effects of once-daily benazepril therapy on exercise tolerance and manifestations of chronic congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1992; 70: 354-8.
17.Kitagawa H, Wakamiya H, Kitoh K, et al. Efficacy of monotherapy with benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in dogs with naturally acquired chronic mitral insufficiency. J Vet Med Sci 1997; 59: 513-20.
18.Suffoletto M, Dohi K, Cannesson M, et al. Novel speckle tracking radial strain from routine black and white echocardiographic images to quantify dyssynchrony and predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Circulation 2006; 113: 960–968.
19.Hori Y, Sato S, Hoshi F, et al. Assessment of longitudinal tissue Doppler imaging of the left ventricular septum and free wall as an indicator of left ventricular systolic function in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68: 1051-7.
20.Greenberg NL, Firstenberg MS, Castro PL, et al. Doppler derived myocardial systolic strain rate is a strong index of left ventricular contractility. Circulation 2002; 105: 99–105.
21.Firstenberg MS, Greenberg NL, Smedira NG, et al. The effects of acute coronary occlusion on noninvasive echocardiographically derived systolic and diastolic myocardial strain rates. Curr Surg 2000; 57: 466–472.


=============================================================
Chapter 5
Reference:
1.Miller D, Hopkins MF, Tonnesen ST, et al. Antihypertensive assessment of CGS 14824A, an orally effective angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Pharmacologist 1983; 25: 102.
2.Chen D-S, Dotson RA, Burrell RD, et al. Two potent angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: CGS 14824A and CGS 14831. Pharmacologist 1983; 25: 240.
3.Watthey JWH, Stanton JL, Desai M, et al. Synthesis and biological properties of (carboxyalkyl) amino-substituted bicyclic lactam inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme. J Med Chem 1985; 28: 1511-1516.
4.The BENCH (Benazepril Hydrochloride in Canine Heart Disease) Study Group. The effect of benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heart failure: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, long-term clinical trial. J Vet Cardiol 2004; 6: 7-18.
5.Nakazawa M, Suwanobori T, Iwasaki K, et al. Hemodynamic effects of benazeprilat in the anesthetized dog with acute ventricular failure. Jpn J Pharmacol 1991; 56: 369–375.
6.Pouchelon JL, King JN, Martignoni L, et al. Long-term tolerability of benazepril in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Cardiol 2004; 6: 7–13.
7.Whalen JJ. Gourley LA: Diurnal blood pressure response to benzazepril, new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in mild to moderate essential hypertension. Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hypertension, New York, NY, 1987: 16-21.
8.Whalen JJ. Definition of the effective dose of the converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril. Am Heart J 1989; 117: 728-734.
9.Whalen J, Skalky C, DeSilva J, et al. Peak and trough effects of three once daily dose levels of benazepril in mild-moderate hypertension. Am J Hyperten 1989; 2: 45A.
10.Whalen JJ, McKernan SL, Davidov M, et al. Effectiveness of twice daily CGS 14824A for control of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Data on file, CIBA-GEIGY Corp., 1988. (abstract)
11.Schaller MD, Nussberger J, Waeber B, et al. Haemodynamic and pharmacological effects of the converting enzyme inhibitor CGS 14824A in normal volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1985; 28: 267-272.
12.Waeber G, Fasanella T, Nussberger J, et al. Effect on blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system of repeated doses of the converting enzyme inhibitor CGS 14824A. Eur J Ciin Pharmacol 1987; 131: 643-646.
13.Chetboul V, Lefebvre HP, Sampedrano CC, et al. Comparative adverse cardiac effects of pimobendan and benazepril monotherapy in dogs with mild degenerative mitral valve disease: a prospective, controlled, blinded, and randomized study. J Vet Intern Med 2007; 21: 742-53.
14.Ribner HS, Sagar KB, Glasser SP, et al. Long-term therapy with benazepril in patients with congestive heart failure: Effects on clinical status and exercise tolerance. J Clin Pharmacol 1990; 30: 1106–1111.
15.Brown NJ, Vaughan DE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Circulation 1998; 97: 1411-20.
16.Colfer HT, Ribner HS, Gradman A, et al. Effects of once-daily benazepril therapy on exercise tolerance and manifestations of chronic congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1992; 70: 354-8.
17.The IMPROVE Study Group. Acute and short-term hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and clinical effects of enalapril maleate in dogs with naturally acquired heart failure: results of the Invasive Multicenter Prospective Veterinary Evaluation of Enalapril Study. J Vet Intern Med 1995; 9: 234-242.
18.Kitagawa H, Wakamiya H, Kitoh K, et al. Efficacy of monotherapy with benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in dogs with naturally acquired chronic mitral insufficiency. J Vet Med Sci 1997; 59: 513-20.
19.Urheim S, Edvardsen T, Torp H, et al. Myocardial strain by Doppler echocardiography. Validation of a new method to quantify regional myocardial function. Circulation 2000; 102: 1158-64.
20.Helle-Valle T, Crosby J, Edvardsen T, et al. New noninvasive method for assessment of left ventricular rotation: Speckle tracking echocardiography. Circulation 2005; 112: 3149–3156.
21.Suffoletto M, Dohi K, Cannesson M, et al. Novel speckle tracking radial strain from routine black and white echocardiographic images to quantify dyssynchrony and predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Circulation 2006; 113: 960–968.
22.Greenberg NL, Firstenberg MS, Castro PL, et al. Doppler derived myocardial systolic strain rate is a strong index of left ventricular contractility. Circulation 2002; 105: 99–105.
23.Firstenberg MS, Greenberg NL, Smedira NG, et al. The effects of acute coronary occlusion on noninvasive echocardiographically derived systolic and diastolic myocardial strain rates. Curr Surg 2000; 57: 466–472.
24.Buchanan JW, Bucheler J. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995; 206: 194-199.
25.Lamb CR, Tyler M, Boswood A, et al. Assessment of the value of the vertebral heart scale in the radiographic diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs. Vet Rec 2000; 146: 687-690.
26.Pouchelon JL, Martignoni L, King JN, et al. The BENCH Study Group. The effect of benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heart failure: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, long-term clinical trial. J Vet Cardiol 1999; 1: 7–18.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top