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研究生:王朝成
研究生(外文):Chao Cheng Wang
論文名稱:覆晶黏著封裝技術應用於高功率發光二極體之研究
論文名稱(外文):The flip chip and die-attached technique applied on the package of high power LEDs
指導教授:陳文瑞陳文瑞引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立虎尾科技大學
系所名稱:光電與材料科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:覆晶封裝矽基板副載置片
外文關鍵詞:Flip-chipSi-submount
相關次數:
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本實驗以覆晶(Flip-chip)方式將高功率LED封裝在矽副載置片(Si Submount),用以解決傳統LED封裝中散熱不佳與無法陣列式封裝以減少封裝時所需面積。使用微機電系統(Micro-electromechanical Systems,MEMS)技術與氫氧化鉀(KOH)溶液在副載置片上蝕刻出想要的圖形與深度,再利用電子槍蒸鍍(E-GUN)與電鍍方式沉積所需之電極層。此實驗技術成熟後預計使用晶圓級技術封裝 (Wafer Level Packaging)可大量模組化製作副載置片並降低製作成本,而電鍍方法增厚電極層也可降低成本並且增加其可靠度。
實驗中我們分別研究電極未電鍍上銅與電鍍銅之差異,未鍍上銅之電極是以Ti/Au 250nm作為電極其電阻值會隨著距離而增加,最短電傳導距離電阻值高達4Ω,當高功率LED操作在350mA下則會有1.4V的壓降產生在電路中,導致LED起始工作電壓由3.8V提高至5.2~6.5V。 這使接面溫度量測中的K值與斜率偏移,導致計算出的接面溫度偏高。因此我們使用電鍍銅的方式將副載置片的電極增厚,不僅有效的降低LED的起始工作電壓並且可以增加熱由電極傳導出去時的截面積。並研究不同銅厚度是否影響其導電率與散熱速度。
In this experiment, the flip-chip technology is used to package the high power LED on the Si submount for solving the poor heat elimination in the traditional method and decreasing the package area by array package. The Micro-electromechanical Systems technology and KOH solution are used to etch the shape and depth on Si Submount, then the electron gun and electroplating are used to deposit the electron conduction layer thick. Once the packaging technology become mature, it expects to use wafer level packaging to mass produce submounts by modulization and reduce the manufacturing cost. Moreover, using electroplating method to increase the electron conduction layer thick could not only reduce the manufacturing cost but also increase the package reliability.
In this experiment, we research the difference between the electron conduction layer coated with and without Cu. The layer coated without Cu is made by electron gun with Ti/Au 250nm, and the electric resistance will increases along with the increase of distance. The electric resistance of the shortest electron conduction comes to 4Ω. When the high power LED operates at current 350mA, it generates 1.4V voltage drop in the circuit. And it makes LED operation voltage increase from 3.8V to 5.2~6.5V. The slope shift affects the K value of the junction temperature and leads to the calculated junction temperature value higher. For this reason, in this research the Cu electroplating is applied to increase the thickness of the electrode on Si submount. This can not only decrease the threshold voltage of LED at 3.8V but also increase the cross-sectional area when heat transmitted by electrode. We also research the impact of Cu thickness on electric conductivity and heat dissipation rate.
目錄
中文摘要 ...............................................................................................................i
英文摘要 ..............................................................................................................ii
誌謝 .....................................................................................................................iii
目錄 .....................................................................................................................iv
表目錄 .................................................................................................................vi
圖目錄 ................................................................................................................vii
第一章 簡介 ........................................................................................................1
1.1 前言 ..........................................................................................................1
1.2研究動機 ....................................................................................................3
第二章 LED副載置片與覆晶技術 ...................................................................9
2.1 矽副載置片的製作 ..................................................................................9
2.2 覆晶封裝之研究 …................................................................................17
第三章 實驗方法與量測介紹 .........................................................................23
3.1矽基板準備 ..............................................................................................23
3.1.1矽基板氧化保護層成長 ...................................................................23
3.1.2 KOH蝕刻液調配 .............................................................................24
3.2 蒸鍍與電鍍製程 ....................................................................................26
3.3 量測設備介紹 ........................................................................................28
3.3.1 α-step量測 ........................................................................................28
3.3.2 表面輪廓量測 .................................................................................28
3.3.3 電流電壓特性量測 .........................................................................28
3.3.4 表面溫度與界面溫度量測 .............................................................29
3.3.5 積分球量測 .....................................................................................33
第四章 結果與討論 .........................................................................................46
4.1 矽副載置片氧化與蝕刻特性分析 ........................................................46
4.1.1 氧化層成長速率 .............................................................................46
4.1.2 矽蝕刻速率與表面粗糙度分析 .....................................................47
4.1.3 Si<111>與Si<100>比較.............................................................48
4.2 矽副載置片鍍銅製程參數分析 ............................................................49
4.2.1 鍍銅速率分析 ..................................................................................49
4.2.2 電阻與厚度分析 ..............................................................................49
4.3 高功率LED覆晶封裝特性分析 ...........................................................51
4.3.1 電流-電壓(I-V)特性分析 ...............................................................51
4.3.2 界面溫度與表面溫度分析 ….........................................................51
4.3.3 白光CIE分析....................................................................................52
第五章 結論 .....................................................................................................71
參考文獻 ...........................................................................................................73
英文大綱 …................................................................................……………...75
表目錄
表1-1 各國禁用白熾燈時間表 .......................................................................5
表1-2 常見LED與基板材料熱膨脹係數與熱傳導系數表 ..........................6
表2-1 常見基板材質特性 .............................................................................19
表3-1 電鍍銅之溶液濃度、操作電壓、電流 .............................................36
表4-1 二氧化矽厚度與顏色對照表 .............................................................53
圖目錄
圖1-1 LED發展狀況 .......................................................................................7
圖1-2 各國禁用白熾燈時間圖示 ...................................................................8
圖1-3 預估LED照明產值圖示 ......................................................................8
圖2-1 鍍系統示意圖 .....................................................................................20
圖2-2 電子槍蒸鍍原理 .................................................................................20
圖2-3 (a)同形覆蓋(b)非同形覆蓋 ................................................................21
圖2-4 電鍍硫酸銅示意圖 .............................................................................21
圖2-5 LED傳統打線方式封裝 .....................................................................22
圖2-6 LED覆晶方式封裝 .............................................................................22
圖3-1 實驗與量測方法架構圖 .....................................................................37
圖3-2 實驗示意圖 ….....................................................................................38
圖3-3 高溫爐管乾氧化製程 .........................................................................39
圖3-4 恆溫循環水系統 .................................................................................39
圖3-5 (a) N層蝕刻圖形(b) P層蝕刻圖形(c)矽副載置片電極圖形(d)三層光罩重疊圖.............................................................................................40
圖3-6 E-gun .................................................................................................41
圖3-7 真空脫泡腔 .........................................................................................41
圖3-8 電鍍裝置...............................................................................................42
圖3-9 電鍍步驟示意圖(a)~(c)E-gun蒸鍍步驟並將所有電極以金線連接(d)將其連接至負極放入硫酸銅溶液電鍍(e)去除連接之金線 ........................................................................................................42
圖3-10 α-step量測示意圖 .............................................................................43
圖3-11 白光干涉示意圖 ...............................................................................43
圖3-12 I-V量測系統 .....................................................................................44
圖3-13 積分球示意圖 ...................................................................................44
圖3-14 CIE色度圖 ........................................................................................45
圖3-15 CIE standard observer .....................................................................45
圖4-1 矽基板氧化層生長速率 .....................................................................54
圖4-2 隨著二氧化矽厚度增加顏色改變 .....................................................54
圖4-3 BOE蝕刻速率 .....................................................................................55
圖4-4 Si<100>在35℃時表面輪廓 ...........................................................55
圖4-5 Si<100>在45℃時表面輪廓 ...........................................................56
圖4-6 Si<100>在55℃時表面輪廓 ...........................................................56
圖4-7 Si<100>在65℃時表面輪廓 ...........................................................57
圖4-8 Si<100>在75℃時表面輪廓 ...........................................................57
圖4-9 Si<111>蝕刻速率、表面粗糙度與溫度關係 ................................58
圖4-10 Si<100>蝕刻速率、表面粗糙度與溫度關係 ..............................58
圖4-11 Si<111>蝕刻圖形 ..........................................................................59
圖4-12 Si<100>蝕刻圖形 ..........................................................................59
圖4-13 電鍍銅電流200mA .........................................................................60
圖4-14 電鍍銅電流50mA ...........................................................................60
圖4-15 兩種不同電鍍液電鍍銅速率(50mA) ................................................61
圖4-16 未鍍銅與鍍銅不同距離電阻值 .......................................................61
圖4-17 鍍銅不同距離電阻值 .......................................................................62
圖4-18 高功率LED傳統封裝與覆晶封裝I-V曲線圖 ................................62
圖4-19 不同銅厚度副載置片熱電偶量測 ...................................................63
圖4-20 電極層銅厚度3.5μm熱影像圖 ......................................................63
圖4-21 電極層銅厚度5.5μm熱影像圖 ......................................................64
圖4-22 電極層銅厚度7.8μm熱影像圖 ......................................................64
圖4-23 FC-Cu(5μm)電壓與溫度特性 .........................................................65
圖4-24 FC-Cu(7μm)電壓與溫度特性 .........................................................65
圖4-25 FC-CUPRACID 210-Cu (3.5μm)電壓與溫度特性 ........................66
圖4-26 FC-CUPRACID 210-Cu (5.5μm)電壓與溫度特性 ........................66
圖4-27 FC-CUPRACID 210-Cu (7.8μm)電壓與溫度特性 ........................67
圖4-28 FC-Cu(5um)-Silicone resin電壓與溫度特性 ...................................67
圖4-29 Traditional Si submount電壓與溫度特性 ........................................68
圖4-30 各種界面溫度比較 ...........................................................................68
圖4-31 FC-CUPRACID 210-Cu (3.5μm)-Silicone resin電壓與溫度特性 69
圖4-32 FC-CUPRACID 210-Cu (7.8μm)-Silicone resin電壓與溫度特性 69
圖4-33 添加矽膠與未添加界面溫度比較 ...................................................70
圖4-34 以電泳法製作白光LED之CIE圖 ...................................................70
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