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研究生:陳介瑋
研究生(外文):Jie-wie Chen
論文名稱:廣告語言個案語用研究:以東森購物頻道為例
論文名稱(外文):A Pragmatic Study on Advertising Language: A Case Study of Eastern TV Home Shopping Channels
指導教授:李靜桂李靜桂引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-kwei Adrienne, Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:166
中文關鍵詞:關聯理論蘊含電視購物頻道廣告語言
外文關鍵詞:Relevance theoryImplicaturesTV home shopping channelsAdvertising language
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本論文以東森購物頻道為案例,對廣告語言進行語用研究。本論文主旨在於分析電視購物語言的句法結構及其促銷功能。除此之外,更重要的是本論文以Sperber and Wilson (1995) 所提出的關聯理論 (Relevance Theory) 探討電視購物語言中的蘊含 (implicatures) 以及分析了由蘊含所產生的促銷功能。
本論文的研究結果指出電視購物語言的型態可分為兩大類。第一類是完整句子,包含了直述句、比較句、修辭性疑問句、命令句。第二類是非完整句子,包括了第一人稱代名詞、名人之名字、品牌名稱、時間名詞片語、數量名詞片語、比較級及最高級形容詞、以及表示產地的英語形容詞片語。藉由上述句法結構所引起的促銷功能則有自我推銷、為潛在顧客做角色扮演、描述產品、做建議、以及表達堅定的信念及傳達隱含的意義。
本論文的結果也指出蘊含 (implicatures) 通常都是由下列六種句法結構所產生的:直述句、名人之名字、數量名詞片語、時間名詞片語、品牌名稱、表示產地的英語形容詞片語。而由蘊含 (implicatures) 所產生的四種促銷功能則包含:創造恐慌的氣氛、與其他相同之產品做比較、簡化產品挑選、與顯著的象徵做連結。
除了上述結果外,本論文也發現一些廣告語言中有趣的語言現象。第一,大部分的蘊含 (implicatures) 都是由非完整句子所引發的,例如數量名詞片語、時間名詞片語、名人之名字等。第二,某些句法結構可以行產生數個促銷功能,譬如直述句能夠用來做建議也能夠用來創造恐慌的氣氛。除此之外,某些促銷功能也可以經由數個句法結構來達成,比如創造恐慌的氣氛可以用數量名詞片語、時間名詞片語、以及直述句來達成。第三,比較句中的受詞或是主詞經常會被省略掉。第四,電視購物語言中經常有中英文語碼互換 (code-switching) 的現象。至於本研究所分析之語料以及原始語料樣本分別列於附錄A及B。
The study investigated a specific advertising language, the language of TV home shopping channels. The study aimed to analyze the TV home shopping language in view of pragmatics to see the various linguistic devices and promotional functions involved. Moreover, the study also aimed to investigate the implicatures brought about by the various linguistic devices and to analyze the promotional functions resulting from implicatures in terms of the Relevance Theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson (1995).
The results indicated that the linguistic devices in TV home shopping language could be categorized into two groups in terms of their syntactic forms, which were complete sentences and sentence fragments. Group one included declarative sentences, comparative sentences, rhetorical questions, and imperative sentences. Group two included first person pronouns, noun phrases, and adjectives. Noun phrases included Proper nouns of celebrity (names of famous people), proper nouns for brands (brand names), temporal noun phrases (noun phrases denoting the time left), and quantitative noun phrases (noun phrases denoting the quantity of products being promoted). Adjective phrases contained pure adjectives like comparative and superlative adjectives and participial phrases in English. As for the promotional functions from various linguistic devices, they were self-promoting and role-playing for potential customers, describing products, making suggestions, and expressing firm commitments and carrying implied meaning.
The results also indicated that the implicatures in the language of TV home shopping channels were usually brought about by the following six linguistic devices: declarative sentences, proper nouns of celebrity, quantitative noun phrases, temporal noun phrases, proper nouns for brands, and participial phrases denoting places of production. Furthermore, there were four promotional functions resulting from implicatures: creating the atmosphere of panic, comparing with other similar products, economizing on choosing products, and associating products with eminent symbols.
In addition to the aforementioned results, some interesting linguistic phenomena were also found. First, most of the implicatures were brought about by sentence fragments, such as quantitative noun phrases, temporal noun phrases, and proper nouns of celebrity. Second, some linguistic devices could be used to realize more than one promotional function, for example, declarative sentences could be used to make suggestions and create the atmosphere of panic; on the other hand, some promotional function of TV home shopping language could be realized by more than one linguistic device. For example, creating the atmosphere of panic could be realized by temporal noun phrases, quantitative noun phrases, and declarative sentences. Third, the objects or subjects in the comparative constructions of TV home shopping language could sometimes be deleted. Finally, there was code-switching between Mandarin Chinese and English in TV home shopping language.
The data analyzed and a sample of the original collected data were presented in Appendix A and B respectively.

Key words: Advertising language; Relevance theory; Implicatures; TV home shopping channels
Table of Contents
English Abstract……………………………………………………………………….v
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………………………..vii
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………..vii
Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Background…………………………………………………………………....2
1.2 The Definition of TV Home Shopping Channels..………………….................6
1.3 The Development of TV Home Shopping Channels..…………………………7
1.4 Motivations…………………………………………………………………...10
1.5 Importance of the Study……………………………………………………...12
1.6 Purposes of the Study………………………………………………………...13
1.7 Research Questions…………………………………………………………..14
Chapter 2 Literature Review…………….……………………………....................15
2.1 Grice’s Conversational Implicature and the Related Issues….…...………….15
2.2 Relevance Theory…………….………………………………………………17
2.3 Components of Communication……………………………………………...24
2.4 Studies on TV Home Shopping Channels…………………………………....25
2.4.1 The Study on Language of TV Home Shopping Channels…………….25
2.4.2 Other Relevant Studies………………………….……………………...29
2.5 Studies on Language of Advertisement…………….....…………………......31
2.5.1 Studies on the Language of TV Advertising………..………………….32
2.5.2 Studies on the Language of Other Media………..……………………..39
2.6 Linguistic Devices Related to Advertising Language………………………..43
2.6.1 Declarative Sentences ……………………..…………………………...43
2.6.2 Imperative Sentences ……………………..……………………………45
2.6.3 Comparative and Superlative Constructions …………………….…….47
2.6.4 First Person Pronouns…………………………………………………..49
2.7 Summary……………………………………………………………………..49
Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework and Methodology…………………………..….51
3.1 Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………51
3.2 Methodology…………………………………………………………………53
3.2.1 Data Collection…………………………………………………………53
3.2.2 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………..54
Chapter 4 Results…………………………………………………………………..58
4.1 Results of Linguistic Analysis of TV Home Shopping Language…………...58
4.1.1 Complete Sentences……………………………………………………59
4.1.1.1 Declarative Sentences………………………………………….59
4.1.1.2 Comparative Sentences………………………………………..61
4.1.1.3 Rhetorical Questions…………………………………………..63
4.1.1.4 Imperative Sentences…………………………………………..65
4.1.2 Sentence Fragments…………………………………………………….66
4.1.2.1 First Person Pronoun…………………………………………..66
4.1.2.2 Proper Nouns of Celebrity…………………………………….69
4.1.2.3 Proper Nouns for Brands...…………………………………….70
4.1.2.4 Temporal Noun Phrases……………………………………….71
4.1.2.5 Quantitative Noun Phrases……………………………………73
4.1.2.6 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives……………………..74
4.1.2.7 Code-switched Participial Phrases Denoting Places of Production…………………………………………………..76
4.1.3 Promotional Functions from Various Linguistic Devices……………...77
4.1.3.1 Self-promoting and Role-playing for Potential Customers……77
4.1.3.2 Describing Products…………………………………………...80
4.1.3.3 Making Suggestions…………………………………………...82

4.1.3.4 Expressing Firm Commitments and Carrying Implied Meaning…………………………………………………….83
4.2 Results of Pragmatic Analysis of TV Home Shopping Language: Implicatures…………………………………………………………………86
4.2.1 Implicatures in Various Linguistic Devices…………………………….86
4.2.1.1 Implicatures in Declarative Sentences………………………….90
4.2.1.2 Implicatures in Comparative Constructions…………………….91
4.2.1.3 Implicatures in Proper Nouns of Celebrity……………………...93
4.2.1.4 Implicatures in Proper Nouns for Brands…………………….….94
4.2.1.5 Implicatures in Quantitative Noun Phrases……………………..96
4.2.1.6 Implicatures in Temporal Noun Phrases………………………...97
4.2.1.7 Implicatures in Participial Phrases Denoting Places of Production……………………………………………………..98
4.2.2 Promotional Functions Resulting From Implicatures………………...100
4.2.2.1 Creating the Atmosphere of Panic……………………………100
4.2.2.2 Comparing with Other Similar Products……………………..102
4.2.2.3 Economizing on Choosing Products…………………………104
4.2.2.4 Associating Products with Eminent Symbols………………...106
4.3 Summary……………………………………………………………………..107
Chapter 5 Discussion……………………………………………………………...110
5.1 The Interaction between Implicatures and Linguistic Devices……………..110
5.2 The Interaction between Promotional Functions and Linguistic Devices: One to Many and Many to One……………………………………………117
5.2.1 The Same Linguistic Device Realizing More than One
Promotional Function……...………………………………………..117

5.2.2 The Same Promotional Function Realized by More than One
Linguistic Device……………..…………………………………….122
5.3 Comparative Constructions in TV Home Shopping Language……………..127
5.4 Code-switching in TV Home Shopping Language…………………………130
Chapter 6 Conclusion………...…………………………………………………...134
6.1 Summary of the Study……………………………………………………134
6.2 Implication of the Study………………………………………………….135
6.3 Limitations and Suggestions……………………………………………..136
References…………………………………………………………………………..142
Appendix A: Analyzed Data in the Present Study…………….……………….……146
Appendix B: A Sample of the Completely Transcribed Data……………………….152
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