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研究生:黃昭莉
研究生(外文):Chao-Li Huang
論文名稱:台灣兒童美語教室內的禮貌用語分析
論文名稱(外文):Politeness in Children’s Language Use in an EFL Classroom Context in Taiwan
指導教授:何德華何德華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Der-Hwa Victoria Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:禮貌行為禮貌策略禮貌
外文關鍵詞:politenesspoliteness strategypolite behavior
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台灣兒童美語教室內的禮貌用語分析
摘要
適當的語言使用在社交上是很重要的。社會語言學中,在不同性別、不同社會階層、及母語和非母語的語言使用上,禮貌用語都已經被廣泛的討論。早先的研究都以Brown and Levinson的理論為基礎,但主要著墨在歐美國家語系為主的禮貌用語,與成人外語學習時的課堂禮貌用語,因此本研究著重於討論台灣12歲以下的兒童,在美語學習時的課堂禮貌用語分析。目的在探討學生們在教室內的禮貌語言使用,以及表現禮貌的策略使用。
本研究以質化方法作為研究主軸,研究對象為台中縣私人美語學校中兩個不同的美語班級。語料收集由上課視訊錄影及課堂隨堂紀錄為主,且錄影內容依語言使用、肢體動作、面部表情、音調及語氣分別紀錄。本研究使用批判式言談分析(CDA)為工具來分析學生們在活動之間權力關係轉變的語言使用。語料以不同的主題被分成四個部份:第一,討論課室內的人稱使用;第二,探討教師在課室內的禮貌用語;第三,探討學生們的禮貌用語;第四,探討語言使用的衝突。學生除習慣使用直接的方式進行互動,且會以問句來修飾語言、使對話和緩。研究發現台語在這個社會群體被廣泛的使用,學生會使用母語(台語)來縮短說者與聽者間的距離,顯示學生在自我力量的展現。因此,禮貌用語使用除老師及同儕間的相互影響外,更反映社會群體間的社交情況。本研究結果顯示,教學者,語言環境、及學生的母語是影響禮貌用語學習以及使用的重要因素。
Politeness in Children’s Language Use in an EFL Classroom Context in Taiwan
Abstract
How to use language appropriately is an important issue in language learning. In terms of sociolinguistic domain, politeness has widely been discussed in different aspects, gender, social class, native and non-native language differences, and so on. The previous studies had contributed in politeness domain based on Brown and Levinson’s framework. However, most of relevant studies focused on US-European languages and politeness in adults’ second language classroom. Thus, in the present study, the researcher discussed children’s politeness usage in second language classroom. The purposes of this study are to investigate children’s politeness language usage and to discover the politeness strategies used by the teacher and students.
In order to gathering the natural data for the research setting, the researcher conducted this qualitative research in a private language institution in Taichung County. The data was collected by video-taping and field-notes in two different classes (Class B & Class F). All data was transcribed individually including the verbal and non-verbal languages. In order to investigate the interactions in different activities, the researcher used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a tool to interpretate power relationships among students and the teacher. The results were categorized in four themes about politeness usage in the classroom: terms of the address, teacher’s politeness language usage, students’ politeness language usage and violence and conflicts language usage. In the classroom, students tend to use their language in a direct and unmitigated way with their classmates and teachers when they were doing the activities. However, students also used questions to seek affirmation to present their politeness to the teacher. Moreover, in this study, the results showed that Taiwanese is widely used in one of the classes to not only present power but also shorten the distance between the teacher and students. Additionally, the politeness language use is not only influenced by the teacher and students interactions but also reflects the social interactions in these social groups. Instructors, context, and the native language of the learners are the important factors for young students’ learning and usage of politeness in the language classroom.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………..……………………………….…………. i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………….iv
CHINESE ABSTRACT………………………………………………………..…... vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENT …………………………………………………………...vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of this Study……………………………………………1
1.2. Purpose of this Study………………………………………………...3
1.3. Research Questions…..........................................................................4
1.4. Significance of this Study………..…………………..........................4
1.5. Definition of Terms ……………...…………………………………..5
1.6. Organization of this Study…………….……………………………..6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Theoretical Framework ………………………………………….... 8
2.1.1. Politeness Theory ……………………………….....……………8
2.1.2. Polite and Impolite Behaviors in English …………………… 13
2.1.3. Politeness in Chinese …………………………………...…… 15
2.1.4. Address Terms and Politeness……….……….………………..19
2.1.5. Power and Politeness…………………………………………..20
2.2. Relevant Research in Second Language Learning ……………..….21
2.2.1. Language Usage and Language Choice …………………...…. 22
2.2.2. Relevant Research on Politeness in Second Language Classroom Context….…………………………………………………………….....24
2.3. Politeness in Language Classroom Context………………………28
2.4. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) ………………………………..30
2.4.1. What is CDA? ...........................................................................30
2.4.2. CDA in the Educational Setting ………………………...….…33
2.5. Summary …………………………………………………….……..33
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Setting …………………………………………………...35
3.1.1. Language Usage ……...………………………...…….............36
3.1.2. Classes …………………………………………………...…... 36
3.2. Participants ………………………………………………………...38
3.2.1. Teacher and Researcher ………………………………….……38
3.2.2. Director ...………………………………………………..……38
3.2.3. Students …………………………….…………………….…...39
3.3. Data Collection…………………………………………….……….41
3.4. Data Analysis ………………………………………………………43
3.4.1. Coding ……...……………...………...………………………. 43
3.4.2. CDA Approach……………………………………………...…44
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS
4.1. The All Overarching Picture in Two Classes……………………….46
4.2. Terms of Address in the English Classroom ……..………………...48
4.2.1. English Name...………………...………………..………..…..48
4.2.2. Ways to Address Teachers ……… ……………....………....49
4.3. Teacher’s Politeness Language Usage……………………...............53
4.4. Students’ Politeness Language Usage …….………….................... 56
4.4.1. The Direct Style-Toward Positive politeness…...…………...57
4.4.2. Seeking Affirmation—Toward Negative politeness…………..64
4.5. Violence and Conflicts ………………………………..…………....72
4.6. The Language Usage: Taiwanese ……………….……..…………..79
4.7. Summary …………………………………………………………...87
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION
5.1. The Politeness Language Usage ………..………………………….90
5.1.1.Teacher’s Politeness Language Usage…………..……….……..90
5.1.2. Students’ Politeness Language Usage…………………..……...92
5.2. Politeness Strategy Usage ……………………… ……….………..94
5.3. The Social Influence of the Language Use………….…...…………96
5.4. Summary …………………………………………….……………..98
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS
6.1. Summary of the Major Findings…………………………………..100
6.2. The Contributions of this Study …………………………………..102
6.3. Pedagogical Implications of this Study…………….……………103
6.4. The Limitations of this study………………………………….…..104
6.5. Suggestion for Further Research………………………………….105




REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………….107
APPENDIX A ……………………..……………………………………………….114
APPENDIX B …………………………………………………….…………….... 115
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