跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.60.144) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/27 00:22
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:詹幼如
研究生(外文):Yu-Ru Chan
論文名稱:金錢薄荷萃取物之安全性、抗致突變性及抗氧化活性探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the safety, antimutagenicity and antioxidant activity of Glechoma hederacea
指導教授:周淑姿周淑姿引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:金錢薄荷抗氧化活性安全性試驗抗致突變試驗
外文關鍵詞:Glechoma headraceantioxidative activityAme tes
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:705
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
許多研究指出,草本植物為天然抗氧化物質的來源之ㄧ,而這些抗氧化物質在抑制突變及預防癌症的機轉可能具有相關性。金錢薄荷 (Glechoma hederacea) 為唇形花科植物,又名連錢草、活血丹、落地金錢等,為一傳統入藥與食用植物,民間傳用具有活血化瘀、解熱利尿等功效,但鮮少對其生理活性做探討。因此,本實驗的主要目的是以體外試驗探討金錢薄荷熱水萃取物 (HWG) 之抗氧化活性、安全性以及抗致突變能力。
體外抗氧化活性之結果顯示,HWG之花青素及總多酚含量分別為1.7 ± 0.02 μmol/g與79.7 ± 1.9 mg/g。隨著HWG濃度的增加,其清除自由基 (包括superoxide anion radical、α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl hydrazyl、2,2‘-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ) 、還原力與螯合亞鐵能力也隨之增加,且HWG清除超氧陰離子及螯合亞鐵的效力優於標準品Vit C與Trolox。此外,對於抑制Liposome系統之脂質過氧化中,與使用的標準品相比,HWG在低濃度下便能展現良好的抑制效果。
在安全性試驗中,HWG於測試濃度範圍內 (0.31~5.00 mg/plate) 對五種測試菌株 (Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102以及TA1535) 皆不具毒性及致突變性;另外,抗致突變的實驗結果中顯示,在不具S9酵素混和液的活化系統下,HWG (其測試濃度範圍0.31~5.00 mg/plate) 對各TA菌株不具抗致突變效果,在添加S9酵素混和液的反應系統下,HWG則展現其抗致突變效力。
綜合上述,金錢薄荷熱水萃取物具有良好抗氧化及抗致突變效力,但其真正生理活性成分及對活體中抗氧化抗致突變作用則需要更進一步研究。
Several research studies have demonstrated herbal plants contain various potential antioxidants, and these antioxidative components may be potential antimutagens or anticarcinogens. Glechoma hederacea is belong to Labiatae family. According to the archaic Chinese prescription, Glechoma hederacea is used for medication purpose, however, little literature on its biophysical functions is presently available. This study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidative, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of hot water extract from Glechoma hederacea (HWG). The total phenol and anthocyanin contents of extracts were also measured.
The result showed that HWG possessed antioxidative characteristics including α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl hydrazyl, 2,2‘-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulphonic acid) and superoxide anion radical-scavenging effects, Fe2+-chelating ability, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. It was also found that antioxidative activities of the extract increased with increasing concentractions.
The mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of the extracts were investigated using Ames test. The tester strains included Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 with / without the metabolic activator (S9 mix). The result showed that the extract had no toxicity and mutagenicity effect toward all tester strains. The extracts (0.31~5.00 mg/plate) had marked inhibition effect against the mutagenicity of the diagnostic mutagens, 2-aminofluorene, 2-anthramine and tert-butylhydrogen peroxide, in all tester strains with the S9 mix system.
The results suggest that the hot water extracts of Glechoma headrace have antioxidative activity and it is safe in genotoxicity and exhibit the antimutagenic potential.
目錄
頁次
表目錄……………………………………………………………………….IV
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………..V
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………...1
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………...2
第一章 前言.....................................................................................................3
第二章 文獻回顧.............................................................................................4
第一節 薄荷簡介.............................................................................................4
第二節 金錢薄荷簡介.....................................................................................5
第三節 氧化壓力與抗氧化防禦系統.............................................................7
一. 自由基、活性氧與活性氮物質...............................................................7
1. 超氧自由基.................................................................................................8
2. 過氧化氫.....................................................................................................9
3. 氫氧自由基.................................................................................................9
4. 單重態氧....................................................................................................10
5. 活性氮物質………………………………………………………………10
二. 自由基與活性氧對生物體之氧化傷害...................................................11
三. 氧化壓力與疾病.......................................................................................12
1. 氧化壓力與癌症………………………………………………………...12
2. 氧化壓力與心血管疾病………………………………………………...12
3. 氧化壓力與缺血再灌流……………………………………………………….14
4. 氧化壓力與風濕性關節炎………………………………………………14
5. 氧化壓力與糖尿病………………………………………………………15
6. 氧化壓力與神經失調……………………………………………………15
7. 氧化壓力與阿茲海默症…………………………………………………15
8. 氧化壓力與帕金森氏症…………………………………………………16
9. 氧化壓力與老化…………………………………………………………16
四、抗氧化物質……………………………………………………………...17
1. 抗氧化物質..................................................................................................18
(1) 維生素C................. ....................................................................................19
(2) β-胡蘿蔔素..................................................................................................19
(3) 維生素E......................................................................................................19
(4) 麩胱甘肽………………..…………………………………………….….19
(5) ubiquinone…………………………......…………………………….……19
(6) 硒………….……………………..……….......…………………………..20
2. 抗氧化酵素..................................................................................................20
(1) 超氧歧化酶................................................................................................20
(2) 麩胱甘肽過氧化酶....................................................................................20
(3) 觸酶...........................................................................................................20
五、抗氧化劑作用機轉.................................................................................21
1. 自由基終止型............................................................................................21
2. 氧清除者或還原劑....................................................................................21 3. 螯合劑……………………………………………………………………21
4. 單重態氧抑制劑…………………………………………………………21
六、天然抗氧化物質之介紹.........................................................................21
第四節 致突變與抗致突變性之相關探討………………………………...23
一、食物所含的致突變成份……………………………………………….23
(1) 天然毒素……………………………………………………………..….23
(2) 食品添加物……………………………………………………….……..23
(3) 加工或烹調處理過程中產生的致突變物…………………….………..24
二、致突變作用機轉………………………………………………...……..24
(1) 直接型致癌劑……………………………………………………..…….24
(2) 間接型致癌劑……………………………………………………..…….25
(3) 氧化致突變劑………………………………………………..………….26
三、食物所含的抗致突變成份……………………………….…………….27
四、抗致突變作用機轉……………………………………………………..28
(1) 去致突變物的作用機轉…………………………………….…………..29
(2) 生物抗致突變物的作用機轉…………………………………...………30
五、菌株之介紹…………………………………………………………….30
六、菌株的鑑定……………………………………………………...……..32
第三章 研究目的……………………………………………………….…35
第四章 實驗流程………………………………………………………….36
第五章 材料與方法……………………………………………………….37
一、藥品………………………………………………………………...…..37
二、一般之製備…………………………………………………………….38
三、金錢薄荷萃取物之製備……………………………………...………..39
四、實驗方法………………………………………………………...……..39
(一) 體外抗氧化之測試………………………………………………..…...39
1. 金錢薄荷水萃取物總多酚含量測定……………………………...…….39
2. 金錢薄荷水萃取物花青素含量測定……………………………………40
3. 金錢薄荷熱水萃取物清除DPPH自由基之能力…………………..…..40
4. 金錢薄荷熱水萃取物清除ABTS自由基之能力………………………42
5. 金錢薄荷熱水萃取物清除超氧陰離子能力……………………………43
6. 金錢薄荷熱水萃取物之還原力測定…………………………...……….44
7. 金錢薄荷熱水萃取物螯合亞鐵能力……………………………...…….45
8. 金錢薄荷熱水萃取物抑制脂質氧化之測定…………………...……….46
(二) 安全性、毒性及抗突變試驗................................................................48
1. 菌株的來源與取得…………………………………………………..….48
2. 菌株的保存…………………………………………………….……….48
3. 試藥配製……………………………………………..…………………49
4. 毒性試驗…………………………………………………..……………52
5. 致突變性測試…………………………………………………………..53
6. 抗致突變性測試…………………………………………………….….54
第六章 統計分析.......................................................................................56
第七章 結果與討論...................................................................................57
一、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物之製備條件…………………………..……….57
二、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物之萃取率、總多酚與花青素含量…...………59
三、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物清除DPPH自由基之效力……………...……61
四、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物清除超氧陰離子之效力…………………...…63
五、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物清除ABTS自由基之效力………………...…65
六、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物之還原力……………………………………...67
七、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物之螯合亞鐵能力………………………..…….68
八、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物抑制脂質過氧化能力……………...…………70
九、毒性試驗……………………………………………………..……….75
十、致突變與抗致突變試驗致癌劑種類及劑量的選用………...………77
十一、致突試驗……………………………………………………...……79
十二、抗致突變試驗…………………………………………………..….81
第八章 結論………………………………………………………….…..87
第十章 參考文獻……………………………………………..………….89

表目錄
頁次
表一、氧化損傷指標與疾病之關係………………………………………..17
表二、各菌株histidine突變位置及特性…………………………………..31
表三、沙門氏菌回復突變所使用之菌系及其基因型..................................33
表四、TA菌株自然回復突變數目………………….....................................34
表五、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物之萃取率及其總多酚與花青素含量………..59
表六、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物之半數清除濃度(IC50).....................................74
表七、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物對Salmonella typhimurium TA97,TA98,
TA100,TA102與 TA1535之毒性……………………………….....76
表八、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物對Salmonella typhimurium TA97,TA98,
TA100,TA102與 TA1535之致突變性…………………………….80
表九、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物對Salmonella typhimurium TA97,TA98,TA100,TA102與 TA1535之抗致突變性……………………….…86

圖目錄
頁次
圖一、金錢薄荷…………………………………………………………….6
圖二、活性氧物質之生成途徑………………………………………….....8
圖三、一氧化氮之生成途徑........................................................................11
圖四、心血管系統中ROS主要的生成徑……………................................13
圖五、缺血再灌流黃嘌呤自由基生成途徑……………………………....14
圖六、抗氧化防禦系統之交互作用............................................................18
圖七、AF經酵素活化形成最終致癌物途徑……………………….…......25
圖八、t-BHP誘導氧化緊迫之可能機轉…………………………………..26
圖九、突變物與抗致突變物之交互作用…………………………..….….27
圖十、抗致突變機制…………………………………………………...….29
圖十一、三種不同萃取方式所得金錢薄荷萃取物清除DPPH自由基之
效力……………………………………………………………..58
圖十二、金錢薄荷水萃物清除DPPH自由基之效力……………………..62
圖十三、金錢薄荷水萃物清除超氧陰離子之效力…………………...….64
圖十四、金錢薄荷水萃物清除ABTS自由基之效力..................................66
圖十五、金錢薄荷水萃物之還原力……………........................................67
圖十六、金錢薄荷水萃物之螯合亞鐵能力………………………….…...69
圖十七、金錢薄荷水萃物對抑制FeCl3/ascorbic acid 所誘導微脂粒
(liposome) 過氧化之力.................................................................72
圖十八、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物 (HWG) 體外抗氧化之可能機轉………73
圖十九、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物對Salmonella typhimurium TA97,TA98,
TA100,TA102 與 TA1535之抗致突變性.……………….......84
圖二十、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物於含S9混和液系統中對Salmonella
typhimurium TA97,TA98,TA100,TA102與 TA1535之抗
致突變性………………………………………………………...85
圖二十一、金錢薄荷熱水萃取物 (HWG) 抗致突變之可能機轉……….88
1. Martfnez-Cayuela M. (1995) Oxygen free radicals and human disease. Biochimie.
77: 147-161.
2. Ramarathnam, N., Osawa, T., Och, H. & Kawakishi, S. (1995) The contribution
of plant food antioxidants to human health. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 6: 75-82.
3. Hertog, M. G. L., Feskens, E. J. M., Kromhout, D., Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C.
H., Hertog, M. G. L. & Katan, M. B. (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk
of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet. 342: 1007-1011.
4. Hollman, P. C. H. & Katan, M. B. (1999) Dietary Flavonoids: Intake, Health
Effects and Bioavailability. Food Chem Toxicol. 37: 937-942.
5. http://forums.plant-seeds.idv.tw/archive/index.php/t-9012.html
6. 新編中國藥典,中國要點委員會編。
7. 台灣原住民藥用植物彙編,行政院衛生署中醫藥委員會。
8. 中藥風險速查手冊,宋子成主編,中華書局。
9. 鍾愛嵐。(2001)。青草植物抗氧化力及抗氧化功能性之研究。中國文化大學生活應用科學研究所。
10. 楊燕吟。(2004)。青草植物萃取物中之抗氧化力及其對淋巴球DNA氧化損傷的保護作用。中國文化大學生活應用科學研究所。
11. 天然彩色台灣藥草,吳進錩著,南村書局。
12. 章偉浩。(2006)。仙草癒合組織與十種唇形花科植物之迷迭香酸、熊果酸含量、抗氧化力與酪胺酸酶抑制力比較研究。大同大學生物工程研究所。
13. Tokuda, H., Ohigashi, H., Koshimizu, K. & Ito, Y. (1986) Inhibitory effects of ursolic & oleanolic ancid on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-
tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Cancer Lett. 33: 279-285.
14. An, H. J., Jeong, H. J., Um, J. Y., Kim, H. M. & Hong, S. H. (2006) Glechoma hederacea inhibits inflammatory mediator release in IFN-γ and LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 3: 418-424.
15. Jacob, H. A. (1995) The integrated antioxidant system. Nutr. Res. 15: 755 -766.
16. Anderson, D. & Phillips, B. J. (1999) Comparative in vitro and in vivo
effects of antioxidants. Food Chem. Toxic. 37: 1015-1025.
17. McCoy, E. E. & Enns, L. (1978) Sodium transport, oubain binding, and
(Na+/K+)-ATPase activity in down’s syndrome platelets . Pediatr. Res. 12: 685-689.
18. 許元勳。(1999)。微生物來源天然抗氧化劑之篩選研究。生物產業。10 (1): 12-18.
19. 黃賢華,潘火英,何蔚,熊小琴。(2007)。山薄荷水提取液對小鼠免疫功能的影響。中國組織工程研究與臨床康復。11: 6808-6810。
20. Kwak, W. J., Han, C. K. & Kin, H. S. (1998) Eur Pat Appl EP832652.
21. Chen, J. H. & Ho, C. T. (1997) Antioxidant activities acid and its related hydroxycinnamic acid compounds [J]. J Agric Food Chem. 45: 578-582.
22. 王鵬,吳忠。(2000)。熊果酸在藥用植物中的分布及藥理作用[J]。中藥材,23 (11): 717-721。
23. Liu, J. (1995) Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid [J]. J Ethnopharmacol. 49: 61-64.
24. Somova, L. I., Shode, F. O. & Ramnanan, P. (2003) Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies Africana leaves [J]. J Ethnopharmacol. 84: 299 -305.
25. 夏國豪,章永紅,王瑞平。(2002)。熊果酸抗腫瘤作用研究進展[J]。國外醫學腫瘤分冊,29 (6): 420-422。
26. 熊斌,雷志勇,陳虹。(2004)。熊果酸藥理學的研究進展[J]。國外醫學藥學分冊,31 (3): 133-135。
27. 馮英杰,任會勛,袁育康,申斐,范桂香。(2006)。熊果酸免疫調節作用的初步研究。西安交通大學學報(醫學版),27 (6): 541-543。
28. Halliwell, B. & Gutteridge, J. M. C. (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.
29. Miller, D. M., Buettner, G. R. & Aust, S. D. (1990) Transition metals as catalysts
of “autoxidation” reactions. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 8: 95-108.
30. Valko, M.,Morris, H. & Cronin, M. T. D. (2005) Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr. Med. Chem. 12: 1161-1208.
31. Cadenas, E. & Sies, H. (1998) The lag phase. Free. Radic. Res. 28: 601-609.
32. Muller, F. L., Liu, Y. & Remmen, V. H. (2004) Complex III releases
superoxide to both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane. J. Biol. Chem.
279: 49064-49073.
33. Valko, M., Izakovic, M., Mazur, M., Rhodes, C. J. & Telser, J. (2004) Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 266: 37-56.
34. Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M., Mazur, M. & Telser, J. (2007)
Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39: 44-84.
35. Coursey, D. T. E. & Ligeti, E. (2005) Regulation and termination of NADPH oxidase activity. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 62: 2173-2193.
36. Fridovich, I. (1997) Superoxide anion radical, superoxide dismutases, and related matters. J Biol Chem. 272: 18515-18517.
37. Fridovich, I. (1997) Superoxide anion radical, superoxide dismutases, and related
matters. J Biol Chem. 272:18515-18517.
38. Schafer, F. Q. & Buettner, G. R. (2001) Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. Free Radic
Biol Med. 30: 1191-1212.
39. Pastor, N., Weinstein, H., Jamison, E. & Brenowitz, M. (2000) A detailed
interpretation of OH radical footprints in a TBPDNA complex reveals the role of
dynamics in the mechanism of sequencespecific binding. J. Mol. Biol. 304: 55-68.
40. Liochev, S. I. & Fridovich, I. (1994) The role of O2 in the production of OH: In
vitro and in vivo. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 16: 29-33.
41. Kakhlon, O. & Cabantchik, Z. I. (2002) The labile iron pool: Characterization,
measurement, and participation in cellular processes. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33:
1037-1046.
42. Ghafourifar, P. & Cadenas, E. (2005) Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase.
Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 26: 190-195.
43. Tousoulis, D., Böger, R., Antoniades, C., Siasos, G., Stefanadi, E. & Stefanadis,
C. (2007) Mechanisms of Disease: L-arginine in coronary atherosclerosis-a
clinical Perspective. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 4: 274-283.
44. Chiueh, C. C. (1999) Neuroprotective properties of nitric oxide. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 890: 301-311.
45. Bergendi, L., Beenes, L., Durackova, Z. & Ferencik, M. (1999) Chemistry, physiology and pathology of free radicals. Life Sci. 65: 1865-1874.
46. Ohshima, H. & Bartsh, H. (1994) Chronic infections and inflammatory processes as cancer risk factors: possible role of nitric oxide in carcinogenesis. Mutat. Res. 305: 253-264.
47. Carr, A., McCall, M. R. & Frei, B. (2000) Oxidation of LDL by myeloperoxidase and reactive nitrogen species-reaction pathways and antioxidant protection. Arerioscl. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20: 1716-1723.
48. Klatt, S. A., Kwangho, L., Minhas, K. M., Gonzales, D. R., Raju, S. V. Y. & Tejani, A. D. (2004) Neuronal nitric oxide synthase negatively regulates xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitoin of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101: 15944-15948.
49. Halliwell, B. & Gutteridge, J. M. C. (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.
50. Frankel, E. N. (1991) Recent advances in lipid oxidation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 54: 495-511.
51. Esterbauer, H. & Cheeseman, K. (1990) Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods Enzymol. 186: 407-421.
52. Fink, S. P., Reddy, G. R. & Marnett, L. J. (1997) Mutagenicity in Escherichia
coli of the major DNA adduct derived from the endogenous mutagen malondialdehyde. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94: 8652-8657.
53. Mao, H., Schnetz-Boutaud, N. C., Weisenseel, J. P., Marnett, L. J. & Stone, M. P.
(1999) Duplex DNA catalyzes the chemical rearrangement of a malondialdehyde
deoxyguanosine adduct. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 6615-6620.
54. Marnett, L. J. (1999) Lipid peroxidation—DNA damage by malondialdehyde.
Mut. Res-Fund. Mol. Mech Mutagen. 424: 83-95.
55. Gerrity, R. G.(1981) The role of the monocyte in atherogenesis transition of blood-borne monocytes into foam cells in fatty lesion. Am. J. Pathol. 103: 181
-190.
56. Stadtman, E. R. (2004) Role of oxidant species in aging. Curr. Med. Chem.: 11:
1105-1112.
57. Dalle-Donne, I., Giustarini, D., Colombo, R., Rossi, R. & Milzani, A. (2003)
Protein carbonylation in human diseases. Trends Mol. Med. 9: 169-176.
58. Davies, K. J. A. (1987) Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals. In general aspects. J. Biol. Chem. 262: 9895-9901.
59. Dalle-Donne, I., Rossi, R., Colombo, R., Giustarini, D. & Milzani, A. (2006)
Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clin. Chem. 52: 601-623.
60. Dhalla, N. S.,Temsah, R. M. & Netticadan, T. (2000) Role of oxidative stress in
cardiovascular diseases. J. Hypertens. 18: 655-673.
61. Sayre, L. M., Smith, M. A. & Perry, G. (2001) Chemistry and biochemistry of
oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Curr. Med. Chem. 8: 721-738.
62. Dalle-Donne, I., Rossi, R., Colombo, R., Giustarini, D. & Milzani, A. (2006)
Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clin. Chem. 52: 601-623.
63. Marnett, L. J. (2000) Oxyradicals and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis. 21: 361-
370.
64. Leonard, S. S., Harris, G. K. & Shi, X. (2004) Metal-induced oxidative stress and
signal transduction. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 37:1921-1942.
65. Dhalla, N. S.,Temsah, R. M. & Netticadan, T. (2000) Role of oxidative stress in
cardiovascular diseases. J. Hypertens. 18: 655-673.
66. Kukreja, R. C. & Hess, M. L. (1992) The oxygen free-radical system-From
equations through membrane-protein interactions to cardiovascular injury and
protection. Cardiovasc. Res. 26: 641-655.
67. Berry, C. E. & Hare, J. M. (2004) Xanthine oxidoreductase in the cardiovascular
system: Molecular mechanisms and pathophysiologic implications. J. Physiol.
555: 589-606.
68. Perez, N. G., Gao, W. D. & Marban, E. (1998) Novel myofilament Ca2+-
sensitizing property of xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Circul. Res. 83: 423-430.
69. Yuan, X. M. & Li, W. (2003) The iron hypothesis of atherosclerosis and its
clinical impact. Ann. Med. 35: 578-591.
70. Podrez, E. A., Abu-Soud, H. M. & Hazen, S. L. (2000) Myeloperoxidase-
generated oxidants and atherosclerosis. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28: 1717-1725.
71. Li, H. G. & Forstermann, U. (2000) Nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. J. Pathol. 190: 244-254.
72. Romero, J. C. & Reckelhoff, J. F. (1999) Role of angiotensin and oxidative stress in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 34: 943-949.
73. Sowers, J. R. (2002) Hypertension, angiotensin II, and oxidative stress. New Engl
.J. Med. 346: 1999-2001.
74. Kasparova, S., Brezova,V.,Valko, M., Horecky, J., Mlynarik,V. & Liptaj, T. (2005) Study of the oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic brain hypoperfusion. Neurochem. Int. 46: 601-611.
75. Granger, D. N., Stokes, K. Y., Shigematsu, T., Cerwinka,W. H., Tailor, A. & Krieglstein, C. F. (2001) Splanchnic ischaemia-reperfusion injury: Mechanistic
insights provided by mutant mice. Acta Physiol. Scand. 173: 83-91.
76. Schreck, R., Rieber, P. & Baeuerle, P. A. (1991) Reactive oxygen intermediates as apparently widely used messengers in the activation of the NF-kB transcription factor and HIV-1. EMBO J. 10: 2247-2258.
77. Michael, M. M. & Moore, R. M. (2004) Ischemia-reperfusion injury pathophysiology, part I. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 14: 231-241.
78. Bauerova, K. & Bezek, S. (1999) Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in
etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 18: 15-20.
79. Brownlee, M. & Cerami, A. (1981) The biochemistry of the complications of
diabetes-mellitus. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 50: 385-432.
80. VanderJagt, D. J., Harrison, J. M., Ratliff, D. M., Hunsaker, L. A. & Vander
Jagt, D. L. (2001) Oxidative stress indices in IDDM subjects with and without
long-term diabetic complications. Clin. Biochem. 34: 265-270.
81. Butterfield, D. A., Castegna, A., Lauderback, C. M. & Drake, J. (2002) Evidence
that amyloid beta-peptide-induced lipid peroxidation and its sequelae in
Alzheimer’s disease brain contribute to neuronal death. Neurobiol. Aging. 23:
655-664.
82. Sayre, L. M., Smith, M. A. & Perry, G. (2001) Chemistry and biochemistry of
oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Curr. Med. Chem. 8: 721-738.
83. Jenner, P. (2003) Oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease. Ann. Neurol. 53: S26
-S36.
84. Tretter, L., Sipos, I. & Adam, V. V. (2004) Initiation of neuronal damage by
complex I deficiency and oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease. Neurochem.
Res. 29: 569-577.
85. Andersen, J. K. (2004) Oxidative stress in neurodegeneration: Cause or
consequence? Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5: S18-S25.
86. Cadenas, E. & Davies, K. J. A. (2000). Mitochondrial free radical generation,
oxidative stress, and aging. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 29: 222-230.
87. Barnett, Y. A. & King, C. M. (1995) Investigation of antioxidant status.DNA-
repair capacity and mutation as a function of age in humans. Mut. Res. 338:
115-128.
88. Cadenas, E. (1997) Basic mechanisms of antioxidant activity. Biofactors, 6: 391
-397.
89. Fang, Y. Z., Yang, S. & Wu, G. (2002) Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition.
Nutrition. 18: 872-879.
90. Niki, E. (1992) Active oxygens and free radicals in biology. J. Jpn. Oil Chem.
Soc. 41: 768-773.
91. Yuan Y. V. & Kitts D. D. (1997) Endogenous antioxidants: Role of antioxidant
enzymes in biological system. In “Natural Antioxidants Chemistry, Health
Effects, Applications.” Shahidi, F., Ed., New foundland, Canada. pp. 258-270.
92. Shahidi, F. (1997) Natural antioxidants: An Overview. In” Natural Antioxidants
Chemistry, Health Effects, and Applications.” Shidi, F. Eds., pp. 1-11. New
foundland, Canada.
93. Papas, A. M. (1999) Diet and antioxidant status. Food Chem. Toxicol. 37: 999-
1007.
94. Marchioli, R. (1999) Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of cardiovascular
disease: laboratory, epidemiological and clinical trial data. Pharmacol. Res. 40:
227-238.
95. Burton, G. W. (1994) Vitamin E: molecular and biological function. Proc. Nutr.
Soc. 53: 251-262.
96. Masella, R., Di Benedetto, R., Vari, R., Filesi, C. & Giovannini, C. (2005) Novel
mechanisms of natural antioxidant compounds in biological systems: Involvement
of glutathione and glutathionerelated enzymes. J. Nutr. Biochem.16: 577-586.
97. Shen, D., Dalton, T. P., Nebert, D. W. & Shertzer, H. G. (2005) Glutathione redox
state regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen production. J. Biol. Chem. 280:
25305–25312.
98. Cadenas, E. (1995) Mechanisms of oxygen activation and reactive oxygen species
detoxification. In”Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defenses in Biology.”Ahmad,
S. Chapman and Hall, Eds., International Thomaon Publishing Inc., New York.
pp. 1-25.
99. Nogueira, C. W., Zeni, G. & Rocha, J. B. T. (2004) Organoselenium and
organotellurium compounds: Toxicology and pharmacology. Chem. Rev. 104:
6255-6285.
100. Jones, D. P., Carlson, J. L., Mody, V. C., Cai, J. Y., Lynn, M. J. & Sternberg, P.
(2000) Redox state of glutathione in human plasma. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28:
625-635.
101. Masella, R., Di Benedetto, R., Vari, R., Filesi, C. & Giovannini, C. (2005)
Novel mechanisms of natural antioxidant compounds in biological systems:
Involvement of glutathione and glutathionerelated enzymes. J. Nutr. Biochem.
16: 577-586.
102. Larson, R. A.(1988) The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochem. 27: 969-978.
103. Singh, R. B., Niaz, M. A., Rastogi, V. & Rastogi, S. S. (1998) Coenzyme Q in
ardiovascular disease. Journal Assoc Physicians India Mar. 46: 299-306.
104. Steenvoorden, D. P. T., Beijersbergen, V. & Henegouwen, G. M. J. (1997) The
use of endogenous antioxidants to improve phototection. J. Photochem.
Photobiol. Biol. 41: 1-10.
105. Waston, R.R.(1986) Selenium and vitamins A, E and C: Nutrients with
cancer prevention properties. J. Am. Diet Assoc. 86: 505-510.
106. Cirelli, A. (1991) Serum selenium concentration and disease progress in patients
with HIV infection. Clin. Biochem. 24: 211-214.
107. Fridovich, I. (1988) Superoxide radical: an endogenous toxicant. Ann. Rev.
Pharmacol. Toxicol. 23: 239-257.
108. Parker, L., Kraemer, K. & Rimbach, G. (2001) Molecular aspects of lipoic
acid in the prevention of dibetes complications. Nutrition. 17: 888-895.
109.呂鋒洲。(1993)。抗氧化酵素之介紹。自由基生物學與醫學。1:1-17。
110. Turrens, J. F., Crapo, J. D. & Freeman, B. A. (1984) Protection against oxygen
toxicity by intravenous injection of liposome-entrappde catalase and superoxide
dismutase. J. Clin. Invest. 73: 87-95.
111. Aruoma, O. I., Halliwell, B. & Williamson, G. (1998) In vitro methods for
characterizing potential prooxidant and antioxidant actions of nonnutritive
substrance in plant foods. In”Antioxidant Methodology in vivo and in vitro
Concepts.” Aruoma, O. I.and Cuppett, S. L., Eds., AOCS press, Champagin,
Illinois. pp. 173-204.
112. Dziezak, J. D. (1986) Preservatives: antioxidants. Food Technol. 40: 94-102.
113. Schildermann, P. A. E. L., Ten Hoor, F. & Kleinjas, J. C. S. (1995) Indoction of
oxidative DNA damage and early lesions in rat gastro-intestinal epithelium in
relation to prostaglandin H synthase-mediated metabolism of butylated
hydroxyanisole. Food Chem. Toxicol. 33: 99-109.
114. Oguni, I., Nasu, K., Yamamoto, S. and Nomura, T. (1988) On the Antitumor
Activity of Fresh Green Tea Leaf. Agric. Biol. Chem. 52:1879-1880.
115. Muramatsu, K., Fukugo, M. and Hara, Y.(1986) Effect of green tea catechins on
plasma cholesterol level in cholesterol-fed rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 32: 613
-622.
116. Osawa. T. (1992) Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health II:
Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention. American Chemical Society, Washington,
DC, USA . pp. 135-149.
117. Shirki, M., Hara, Y., Osawa, T., Kumon, H., Nakayama, T. & Kawakishi, S.
(1994). Antioxidative and antimutagenic effects of theaflavins from black tea.
Mutat. Res. 323: 29-34.
118. Osawa, T., Kumon, H., Namiki, M., Kawakishi, S. & Fukuda, Y. (1990)
Antimutagenic heat stable antioxidants. Mutagens and Carcinogens in the Diet.
pp. 223.
119. Katsuzaki, H., Kawasumi, M. & Osawa, T. (1992) Structure of novel
antioxidative lignan glucosides isolated from sesame seed. Biosci, Biotechnol
Biochem. 56: 2087-2088.
120. Fitzpatrick, D.F., Hirschfield, S. L. & Coffey, R.G. (1993) Endothelium dependent vasorelaxing activity of wine and other grape products. Am J Physiol. 265: H774-778.
121. Saito, M., Hosoyama, H. & Yamaji, N. (1998) Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:1460-1464.
122. 謝衣鵑。(2001)。花青素簡介。食品工業月刊。33:6-10。
123. Tsuda, T., Osawa, T., Nakayama, T., Kawakishi, S. & Oshima, K. (1993) Antioxidant activity of pea bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extract. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70: 909-913.
124. Kitta, K., Hagiwara, Y. & Shibamoto, T. (1992) Antioxidative activity of an isoflavonoid, 2’-o-glycosylisovitexin isolated from green barley leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40: 1843-1845.
125. Nishiyama, T., Hagiwara, Y., Hagiwara, H. & Shibamoto, T. (1993) Inhibition of malonaldehyde formation from lipids by an isoflavonoid isolated from young green barley leaves J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70: 811-813.
126. Wu, K., Zhang, W., Addis, P. B., Epley, R.J., Salih, A.M. & Lehrfeld, J. (1994) Antioxidant Properties of Wild Rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 34.
127. Weisburger, J. H. (1999) Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity testing, then and
now, Mutat. Res. 437: 105-112.
128. Miller, J. A. (1994) Brief history of chemical carcinogenesis, Cancer Lett. 83:
9-14.
129. Nagao, M. & Sugimura, T. (1993) Carcinogenic factors in food with relevance
to colon cancer development. Mutat. Res. 290: 43-52.
130. Sugimura, T. & Wakabayashi, K. (1990) Mutagens and carcinogens in food.
In”Mutagens and Carcinogens in the Diet” M. W. Pariza, J. S. Felton, H. U.
Aeschbacher and S. Sato, Eds., Wiley-Liss Inc. New York. pp.1-18.
131. Williams, G. M. (1994) Interventive prophylaxis of liver cancer, Eur. J. Cancer
Prev. 3: 89.
132. Hirnor, I., Shimizu, M., Fushimi, K., Mori, H. & Kato, K. (1973) Carcinogenic
activity of Petasites japonicus Maxim., a kind of coltsfoot. Gann. 64: 527-528.
133. Hirnor, I., Mori, H., Yamada, K., Hirata, Y., Haga, M., Tatematsu, H. & Kanie,
S. (1976) Carsinogenic activity of petasitenine, a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid
isolated from Petasites japonicus Maxim. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58: 1155-1157.
134. Culvernor, C. C. J.,Edgar, J. A., Smith, L. W. & Hirono, I. (1976) The
occurrence of senkirkine in Tussilago farfara. Aust. J. Chem. 29: 229-230.
135. Yamada, K., Tatematsu, H., Suzuki, M., Hirata, Y., Haga, M. & Hirono, I.
(1976) Isolation and the structures of two new alkaloids, petasitenine and
neopetasitenine, from Petasites japonicus Maxim. Chem. Lett. 64: 527-528.
136. Rubiolo, P., Pieters, L., Calomme, M., Bicchi, C., Vlietinck, A & Vanden, B. D.
(1992) Mutagenicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Salmonella Typhimurium
/mammalian microsome system. Mutat. Res. 281:143-147.
137. Brown, J. P.(1980) A review of the genetic effects of naturally occurring
flavonoids, anthraquniones and related compounds. Mutat. Res. 75: 243-277.
138. Nagao, M., Naokata, M., Yahagi, T., Shimizu, M., Kuroyanagi, M., Fukuoka,
M., Yoshihira., Natori, S. H. Fujino, T. & Sugimura, T. (1981) Mutagenicities of
61 flavonoids and 11 related compounds. Environ. Mutagen. 3: 401-419.
139. Rivera, I. G. & Martins, M. T. (1994) Genotoxicity assessment through the
Ames test of medical plants commonly used in Brazil. Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual. 9: 87-93.
140. Riggs, N. V. (1956) Glucosyloxyazoxymethane, a constituent of the seeds of
Cycas circinalis L. Chem. Ind. (London) pp. 926.
141. Niwa, H., Ojika, M., Wakamatsu, K., Yamada, K., Hirono, I. & Matsushita, K.
(1983) Ptaqulioside, a novel norsesquiterpene glucoside from bracken, Pteridium
aqulinum var. Latinusculum. Tetrahedron Lett. 24: 4117-4120.
142. Hirono, I. Aiso, S., Yamagi, T., Mori, H., Yamada, K., Niwa, H., Ojika, M.,
Wakamastsu, K., Kigoshi, H., Niiyama, K. & Uosaki, Y.(1984) Carcinogenicity
in rats of ptaquiloside isolated from bracken. Gann. 75: 833-836.
143. Matoba, M., Saito, E., Saito, K., Koyama, K., Natori, S., Matsushima, T. &
Takimoto, M. (1987) Assay of ptaquiloside, the carcinogenic principle of
bracken, Pteridium aquilium, by mutahenicity testing in Salmonella
typhimurium. Muttagenesis. 2: 419-423.
144. Wright, A.V. & Suortti, T. (1983) Prelimainary characterization of the
mutagenic properties of “necatorin”, a strongly mutagenic compound of the
mushroom Lactarius necator. Mutat. Res. 121:103-106.
145. Zeiger, E. (1993) Mutagenicity of chemicals addad to foods. Mutat. Res. 290:
53-61.
146. Bjeldanes, L. F., Morris, M. M., Felton, J. S. & Healy, S. K. (1982) Mutagens
from the cooking of food III: Secondary source of cooked dietary protein. Food
Chem. Toxicol. 20:365-369.
147. Felton, J. S. & Gentile, J. M. (1997) Mutagenic/carcinogenic N-substituted aryl
compounds, Mutat. Res. 376: 1-276.
148. Ito (Ed.), N. (1999) In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on
Carcinogenic and Mutagenic N-Substituted Aryl Compounds, Cancer Lett. 143:
99-266.
149. Penning, T. M., Ohnishi, T. & Harvey, R. G. (1996) Generation of reactive
oxygen species during the enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 9: 84-92.
150. Colapietro, A. M., Boodell, A. L. & Smart, R. C. (1993) Characterization of
benzo[a]pyrene-initiated mouse skin papillomas for Ha-ras mutations and protein
kinase C levels. Carcinogenesis. 14: 2289-2295.
151. Mass, M. J., Jeffers, A. J., Ross, J. A., Nelson, G., Galati, A. J., Stoner, G. D. &
Nesnow, S. (1993) K-ras oncogene mutations in tumors and DNA adducts
fromed by benz[j]aceanthrylene and benzo[a]pyrene in the lungs of strain A/J
mice. Mol. Carcinog. 8: 182-186.
152. Denissenko, M. F., Pao, A., Tang, M. & Pfeifer, P.G. (1996) Preferentail
formation of benzo[a]pyrene adducts at lung mutational hotspotsin P53. Science.
274: 430-432.
153. Puisieux, A., Lim, S., Groopman, J. & Ozturk, M. (1991) Selective targeting of
p53 gene mutational hotspots in human cancers by etiologically defined
carcinogens.Cancer Res. 51: 6185-6189.
154. Hotchkiss, J. H. (1989) Relative exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitroso
compounds from endogenous and exogenous sources. In” Food Toxicology, A
Perspective on the Relative Risk”, S. L. Taylor and R. A. Scanlan, Eds., Marcel
Dekker, New York. pp. 57-100.
155. Birt, D. F. & Bresnik, E. (1991) Cgemoprevention by nonnutrients of vegetables
and fruits. “Cancer and Nutrient”, R. B. Alfin-Slater and D. Kritchewsky, Eds.,
Plenum Press, New York. pp. 221-260.
156. Prassad, K. N. (1990) Nutrition and cancer. In” Nutritions and cancer
Prevention”, K. N. Prasad and F. L. Meyskens, Eds., The human press, Clifton,
NJ. pp. xi-xvi.
157. Packer, L. (1992) Interaction among antioxidants in health and disease: vitamin
E and its redox cycle. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 202: 699-706.
158.Wefer, H. & Sies, H (1988) Antioxidant defense: vitamins E and C, and
beta-carotene. In” Oxy-Radicals in Molecular Biology and Pathdogy.” R. Alan,
P. A . cerutti, J. M. Mc Cord and Fridorich, Eds., Alan Liss, New York. pp.
481-490.
159. Busk, L., Sjostrom, B. & Ahlborg, U. G. (1984) Effects of vitamin A on
cyclophosphamide mutagenicity in vitro (Ames test) and in vivo (mouse
micronucleus test). Food Chem. Toxicol. 22: 725-730.
160. Castonguay, A., Pepin, P., Alaoui-Jamali, M. A. & Rossignol, G. (1990)
Dietary modulation of tobacco-specific carcinogen activation. In “Nutrition and
Cancer Prevention”, K. N. Prasad and F. L. Meysken, Eds., The Humana Press,
Clifton, NJ. pp. 135-153.
161. Tanaka, T., Yoshimi, N., Sugie, S. & Mori, H (1992) Protective effects against
liver, colon and tongue carcinogenesis by plant phenols. In “Phenolic
Compounds in Food and Their Effects in Health II” No. 507. M. T. Huang, C. T.
Ho and C. Y. Lee, Eds., ACS. Symp. Ser. American Chemical Society,
Washington, D. C. pp. 326-337.
162. Stoner, G. D. & Mukhtar, H. (1995) Polyphenols as cancer chemopreventive
agents. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 22: 169-180.
163. Greenwald, P. (1992) Colon cancer overview. Cancer. 70: 1206-1215.
164. Kato, T., Takahashi, S. & Kikugawa, K. (1991) Loss of heterocyclic amine
mutagens by insoluble hemicellulose fiber and high-molecular-weight soluble
polyphenolics of coffee. Mutat. Res. 246: 169-178.
165. Messina, M. & Barnes, S. (1991) The role of soy products in reducing risk of
cancer. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 83: 541-546.
166. Barnes, S. (1995) Effect of genistein on in votro and in vivo models of cancer.
Am. Inst. Nutr. 777S-783S.
167. Bronzetti, G. (1994) Antimutagens in food. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 5: 390
-395.
168. Osawa, T. (1990) Mutagen formation in foods and its inhibition. Nippon
Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 37: 311-319.
169. Hakkinen, S., Heinonen, M., Karenlampi, S., Mykkanen, H., Ruuskanen, J. &
Torronen, T. (1999) Screening of selected flavonoids and phenolic acid in 19
berries. Food Res. Int. 32: 345-353.
170. Hossain, M. Z., Wilkens, L. R., Methta, P. P., Loewenstein, W. & Bertram, J. S. (1989) Enhancement of gap junctional communication by retinoids correlates with their ability to inhibit neoplastic transformation.Carcinogenesis. 10:1743
-1748.
171. Bond, T. J., Young K. L. & Andrus T. T. (1970) Characteristics of growth inhibition of Lactobacillus casel by 4-nitroquinoline-n-oxide.[J]. Applid
Microbiology. 10: 536-538.
172. 李選能。(2005)。不同突變劑對Sphingobacterium sp.誘導變異之研究。輔仁大學化學系碩士論文。
173. Weber, W. W. & Hein D. W. (1985) N-acetylation pharmacogenetics. Pharnacological Reviews. 37: 25-79.
174. Hein, D. W. (1988) Acetylator genotype and arylamine-induced carcinogenesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 948: 37-66.
175. Levy, G. N. (1993) DNA-carcinogen adducts in circulating leukocytes as indicators of arylamine carcinogen exposure. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology. 21: 23-30.
176. Levy, G., Chung. N. & Weber, W. W. (1994) 2-aminofluorene metabolism and DNA adduct formation by mononuclear leukocytes from rapid and slow acetylator mouse strains. Carcinogenesis.15: 353-7.
177. Hix, S., Da, Siva., Morais, M. & Augusto, M. (1995) DNA methylation by tert-buty hydroperoxide-iron (II). Free Radic Biol Med. 19: 293-301.
178. Coleman, J., Gilfor, D. & Farber, J. L. (1989) Dissociation of the accumulation of single-strand breaks in DNA from the killing of cultured heap tocytes by an oxidative stress. Mol Pharmacol. 36: 193-200.
179. Tseng, T. H., Wang, C. J. Kao, E. S. & Chu, H. Y. (1996) Hibiscus protocatechuic acid protects against oxidative damage induced by tert- butylhydroperoxide in rat primary hepatocytes. Chem. Biol. Interact. 101: 137-148.
180. Aherne, S. A. & O’Brien, N. M. (2000). Mechanism of protection by the flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, against tert-butylhydeoperoxide and menadione -induced DNA single strand breaks in Caco-2 cells. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 29: 507-514.
181. Jiratanan, T. & Liu, R. I. (2004) Antioxidant activity of processed table
beets (Betvulgaris var, conditiva) and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J.
Agric. Food Chem. 52: 2659-2670.
182. Yilmaz, Y. & Toledo, R. T. (2004) Health aspects of functional grape seed
constituents. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15: 422-433.
183. Julkunen-Titto, R. (1985) phenolic constituents in the leaves of Northern
Willows: Methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 33: 213-217.
184. Willians, W. B., Cuvelier, M. E. & Berset, C. (1995). Use of free radical method
to evaluate antioxidant activity. Technol. 28: 25-30.
185. Ames, B. N. & McCann, J. (1981) Validation of the salmonella test: A reply to
Rinkus and Legator. Cancer Res. 41: 4192-4196.
186. 王叔苑。(2000)。Ames test 之原理及其於產品安全性評估之應用。食品工業,32: 8-17。
187. Mortelmans, K. & Zeiger, E. (2000) The Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Mutat. Res. 455: 29-60.
188. Ames, B. N., McCann, J. & Yamasaki, E. (1975) Methods for detecting
carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome
mutagenicity test, Mutat. Res. 31, 347-364.
189. Kier, L. E., Brusick, D. J., Auletta, A. E., Von Halle , E. S., Brown, M. M.,
Simmon, V. F., Dunkel, V., McCann, J., Mortelmans, K., Prival, M. Rao, T. K.
& Ray, V. (1986) The Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsomal assay. A
report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program, Mutat.
Res. 168: 69-240.
190. Maron, D. & Ames, B. N. (1983) Revised methods for the Salmonella
mutagenicity test, Mutat. Res. 113: 173-215.
191. Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K. & Nakamura, T. (1992) Antioxidative
properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin
emulsion. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40: 945-948.
192. Mancinelli, A. L., Huang, Y. C. P., Lindquist, P., Anderson, O. R. & Rabino, I.
(1975) Photocontrol of anthocyanin synthesis . The action of streptomycin Ⅲ on
the synthesis of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. Plant Physiol. 55: 251-257.
193. Fridovich, I. & Picker, S. D. (1984) On the mechanism of production of superoxide radical by reaction mixtures containing NADH, phenazine methosulfate, and nitroblue tetrazolium. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 228: 155-158.
194. Butacer, R. G. & Van Noorden, C. J. F. (1989) The involvement of superoxide anions in the nitroblue tetrazolium chloride reduction mediated by NADH and phenazine methosulfate. Anal. Biochem. 176: 170-174.
195. Oyaizu, M. (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn. J. Nutri. 44: 307.
196. Halliwell, B., Murcia, M. A., Chirico, S. & Aruoma., O. I. (1995) “Free radicals and antioxidants in food and in vivo: What they do and how they work”, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.,35, pp.7-20.
197. Yamaguchi et al. (1988) “Effect of metal salts and fructose on the autoxidation of methyl linoleate in emulsions”, Agric. Biol. Chem., 52, pp.849-850.
198. Yin, M. C., Faustman, C., Riesen, J. W. & Williams, S.N. (1993) α-Tocopherol and ascorbate delay oxymyoglobin and phospholipids oxidation in vitro. J Food Sci. 58:1273-1276.
199. Sato, M. et al. (1996) Varietal differences in the phenolic content and superoxide radical scavenging potential of wines from different sources. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 37-41.
200. Padmavati, M. Sakthivel, N., Thara, K. V. & Reddy, A. R. (1997) Differential sensitivity of rice pathogens to growth inhibition by flavonoids. Phytochemistry. 46: 499-502.
201. Yamaguchi, T., Takamura, H., Matoba, T. & Terao, J. (1998) HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods by using 1,1-
diphenol-2-picrylhydrazyl. Biosci. Biotecnol. Biochem. 62: 1201-1204.
202. Robak, J. & Grygelewski, I. R. (1988) Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem. Pharma. 37: 8.
203. Yen, G. C. & Chen, H. Y. (1995) Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 27-32.
204. Dinis, T. C. P, Madeira, V. M. C. & Almedia, L. M. (1994) Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of memberane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 315:161-169.
205. Liao, K. L. & Yin, M. C. (2000) Individual and combined antioxidant effects of seven phenolic agents in human erythrocyte membrance ghosts and phosphatidylcholine liposome systems: importance of the partition coefficient. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 2266-2270.
206. Maron & Ames (1983) Revised methods for the salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutat. Res. 113: 173-215.
207. Mortelmans, K. & Zeiger, E (2000) The Ames Salmonella / microsome mutagenicity assay. Mutat. Res. 455: 29-60.
208. Levin, D. E., Hollstein, M., Christman, M. F., Schwiers, E. A. & Ames, B. N. 1982. A new Salmonella tester strain (TA102) with A. T base pairs at the site of mutation detects oxidative mutagens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 79: 7445-7449.
209. Lotscher HR, Winterhalter KH, Carafoli E, & Richter D. Hydroperoxides can modulate the redow state of pyridine nucleotides and the calcium balance in rat liver mitochondria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 1979; 76: 4340-4344.
210. Terahara, N., Callebaut, A., Ohba, R., Nagata., T, Ohnishi, K. & Suzuki, M. (1996) Triacylated anthocyanins from Ajuga reptans and cell cultures. Phytochemistry. 42: 199-203.
211. Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F. & Dorfman, P. (1990) tert-
Butylhydroperoxide induced injury in isolated rat hepatocytes. A model for studying antihepatotoxic crude drugs. Planta Medica. 56: 171-174.
212. Yagi, K. (1987) Lipid peroxidation and human disease. Chem. Phys. Lipids. 45: 337-351.
213. Cheng, T. J. (1992) Protective action of seed oil Hippophae rhamoides L.against experimental liver injury in mice. Chinese J. Pre. Med. 26: 513-552.
214. William, H.H., Michael, J. P. & William, B. J. (1974) Glutathion S-transferas. The journal of Biological Chemistry. 249: 7130-7139.
215. Aebi, H. (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 103: 121.
216. Paglia, D. E. & Valentine, W. N. (1967) Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med. 70: 158-169.
217. 洪千雅。(2001)。仙草抗氧化機能性之研究。國立中興大學食品科學研究所博士論文。
218. 廖春蘭。(2001)。山楂果抗氧化活性及其機制之研究。中山醫學院生物化學研究所碩士論文。
219. Rice-Evans, C. A., Miller, N. J. & Paganga, G.(1996)Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 20: 933-56.
220. 王雪芳、柯佩慈、喬長誠、毛正倫、高美丁 (2000) 欖仁樹葉精油組成其抗氧化性。台灣農業化學與食品科學,38 (1) : 27-35。
221. Chun, S. S., Vattem, D. A., Lin, Y. T. & Shetty, K. (2005) Phenolic antioxidants from clonal oregano (Origanum vulgare) with antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori. Process Biochemistry. 40: 809-816.
222. Kovatcheva, E., Pavlov, A., Koleva, I., Ilieva, M. & Mineva, M. (1996) Rosmarinic acid from Lavandula vera MM cell culture. Phytochemistry. 43: 1243-1244.
223. Chen, H. & Chen, F. (1999a) Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on cell growth and cryptotanshinone formation in Ti transformed Salvia miltiorrhiza cell suspension cultures. Biotechnology letter. 21: 803-807
224. Jie, L. (1995) Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. J. Ethnopharmacol. 49: 57-68
225. Recio, C. M., Giner, R. M., Manez, S., Gueho, J., Julien, H. R., Hostettmann, K. & Rios, J. L. (1995) Investigation on the steroidal anti-inflammatory activity of triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas. Planta medica. 61:279-285
226. Kashiwada, Y., Wang, H. K., Nagao, T., Kitanaka, S., Yasuda, I., Fujioka, T.,
Yamagishi, T., Cosentino, M. L., Kozuka, M., Okabe, H., Ikeshiro, Y., Hu, C.Q., Yeh, E. & Lee, K. H.(1998) Anti-HIV activity of oleanolic acid , pomolic acid and structuraly related triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod. 61:1090-1095.
227. Kintzios, S., Nikolaou, A. & Skoula, M. (1999) Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures. Plant cell report. 18: 462-466.
228. Cuvelier, M.E., Richard, H. & Berset, C. (1996) Antioxidative activity and phenolic composition of pilot-plant and commercial extracts of sage and rosemary. JAOCS. 73: 645-652.
229. Hohmann, J., Zupko, I., Redei, D., Csanyi, M., Falkay, G., Mathe, I. & Janicsak, G. (1999) Protective effects of the aerial parts of salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme
-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta medica. 65: 576 -578.
230. Masaki, H., Sakaki, S., Atsumi, T. & Sakurai, H. (1995) Active-oxygen
scavenging activity of plant extracts. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 18:162-166
231. Ternes, W. & Schwarz, K. (1995) Antioxidat constituents of Rosmarinus
officinalis and Salvia officinalis Ⅳ. determination of carmosic acid in different
foodstuffs. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 201: 548-550
232. 李宜娟。(2004)。洛神花多酚酸及花青素萃取物對含有突變粒線體DNA之人類腫瘤細胞生長之研究。中山醫學大學生物化學研究所碩士論文。
233. Tsuda. T., Shiga, K., Ohshima, K., Kawakishi, S. & Osawa, T. (1996)
Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the active oxygen radical scaventging effect of anthocyanin pigments isolated from Phaseolus vulagaris L.Biochem. Pharmacol. 52: 1033-1039.
234. Palumbo, R. (2001) Antioxidant effects of red wine anthocyanins in normal
and catalase-inactive human erythrocytes. J. Nutr. Biochem. 12: 505-511.
235. 蔡正宗、陳中文、葉碧櫻。(1992)。花青素安定性之研究 紅鳳菜花青素,
葡萄花青素與洛神花萼花青素。東海學報 33:1086-100。
236. 曾仁傑。(2002)。葡萄皮中花青素最佳萃取條件之評估及其經驗模式之建立。屏東科技大學食品科學系碩士論文。
237. 陳淑茹。(2003)。石蓮萃取物之抗氧化活性及抗致突變性研究。靜宜大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
238. 簡錦慈。(2004)。刺蔥之抗氧化性及安全性探討。靜宜大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
239. 詹鴻得。(2004)。以中草藥萃取物研發天然抗真菌試劑及其在抑制植物致病菌之應用。元培科學技術學院生物技術研究所碩士論文。
240. Miller, L. N., Rice-Evans, C. A., Davis, M. J., Gopinathan, V. & Milner, A. (1993) A novel method for measuring antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin Sci. 84: 407-412.
241. Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. & Rice-Evans, C. (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med. 26:1231-1237.
242. van den Berg, R., Haenen, G. R. M. M., van den Berg, H., & Bast, A. (1999) Applicability of an improved Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay for evaluation of antioxidant capacity measurements of mixtures. Food Chem. 66: 511-517.
243. 朱淯維。(2003)。荷葉乙醇萃取物抗氧化性之探討。國立臺灣大學食品科技研究碩士論文。
244. Halliwell, B., Murcia, M. A., Chirico, S. & Aruoma, O. I. (1995) Free radicals and antioxidants in food and in vivo: What they do and how they work. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2: 7-20.
245. Hallliwell, B. (1994) Free radicals and antioxidants: A personal view. Nutr. Rev. 52 : 253-265.
246. Robak, J. & Gryglewski, R. J. (1988) Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem. Pharmacol. 37 : 837-841.
247. Chen, Y., Zheng, R., Jia, Z. and Ju, Y. (1990) Flavonoids as superoxide scavengers and antioxidants. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 9: 19-21.
248. Liu, J. (1995) Pharmacology of olanolic acid and ursolic acid .J. Ethnopharmacol
. 49: 57-68.
249. Chung, Y. C., Chang, C. T., Chao, W. W., Lin, C. F. & Chou, S. T. (2002) Antioxidative activity and safety of the 50% ethanolic extract from red bean fermented by Bacillus subtilis IMR-NK1. J.Agric. Food Chem.50: 2454-2458.
250. 羅珮文。(2001)。台灣數種特有水果抗氧化活性及清除自由基能力之評估。輔仁大學食品營養學系究碩士論文。
251. Papas, A. M. (1999) Diet and antioxidant status. Food Chem. Toxicol. 37:
999-1007.
252. Chun, S. S., Vattem, D. A., Lin, Y. T. & Shetty, K. (2005) Phenolic antioxidants
from clonal oregano (Origanum vulgare) with antimicrobial activity against
Helicobacter pylori. Process Biochemistry. 40: 809-816.
253. Ho, C. T., Wang, M. F., Wei, G. J., Huang, T. C. & Huang, M. T. (2000)
Chemistry and antioxidative factors in rosemary and sage. Bio Factors 13: 161-
166.
254. Larson, R. A. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochem. 27: 969-978.
255. Larson, R. A. 1995. Antioxidant mechanisms of secondary natural products. In
“Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in biology” Edited by Ahmad. S.
Chapter 6. 210- 237. Chapman & Hall: London and New York.
256. Martinez, L., Rios, J. L., Paya, M. & Alcaraz, M. (l992) Inhibition of
nonenzyinic lipid peroxidation by benzylsoquinoline alkaloids. Free Radical
Biol.Med. 12: 287-292.
257. Matsudo, T., Orita, K., Sato, E., Nobori, K., Inoue, B. & Utsumi, K.(1987)
Inhibition of metabolic response of polymorphonuclear leukocyte by
biscoclaurine alkaloids. Biochem. Pharm. 36: 1613-1616.
258. Kumarasamy, Y., Cox Philip, J., Jaspars, M., Nahar, L. & Sarker Satyajit, D.
(2003) Isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of hederacine A and
B, two unique alkaloids from Glechoma hederaceae. Tetrahedron 59: 6403-
6407.
259. 黃聖雯。(2002)。大蒜中四種含硫化合物在非酵素系統中抗氧化活性之試驗。
中山醫學大學營養科學研究所碩士論文。
260. Afanas, E.V., Dorozhko, I. G., Brodskii, A. I., Kostyuk, A. V. & Potapovitch, A. I. (1989) Chelating and free radical scavenging mechanisms of inhibitory action of rutin and quercetin in lipid peroxidation. Biochem. Pharmacol. 38 : 1763-
1769.
261. 童麗霞。(2000)。蜂膠抗氧化性之研究。中山醫學院營養科學研究所碩士論文。
262. Ansah, C. h., Khan, A. & Gooderham, J. N. (2005) In vitro genotoxicity of the west African anti-malarian herbal Crytolepsis sanguinolenta and its major alkaloid crytolepine. Toxicology. 208: 141-147.
263. Fernandes, J. B. F. & Vargas, V. M. F. (2003) Mutagenic and antimutagenic potential of the medicinal plants M. Laevigata and C. Xanthocarpa. Phytother Res. 17: 269-273.
264. Beuchat, L. R. & Golden, A. D. (1989) Antimicrobials occuring naturally in
foods. Food Technol. 1: 134-142.
265. 朱燕華。(2000)。植物類機能性成分介紹。食品工業, 第32卷第9期,48~52頁。
266. Gould, G. W. (1996 c) Natural antimicrobials from plants. In” New Method of Food Preservation”. pp.58-89.
267. Duh, P. D. & Yen, G. C. (1997) Antioxidative activity of three herbal water
extracts. Food Chem. 60: 639-645.
268. Lee, N. J., Choi, J. H., Koo, B. S., Ryu, S. Y., Han, Y. H., Lee, S. I. & Lee, D.U. (2005) Antimutagenicity and cytotoxicity of the constituents from the aereal parts of Rumex acetosa. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28: 2158-2161.
269. Reid, K.A., Maes, J., Maes, A., van Staden, J., De Kimpe, N., Mulholland,
D.A. & Verschaeve, L. (2006) Evaluation of the mutagenic and antimutagenic
eVects of South African plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 106: 44-50.
270. Gonzalez-Avila, M., Arriaga-Alba, M., de la Garza, M., Hernandez-Pretelin,
M.C., Dominguez-Ortiz, M.A., Fattel-Fazenda, S. & Villa-Trevino, S. (2003) Antigenotoxic, antimutagenic and ROS scavenging activities of Rhoeo discolor ethanolic crude extract. Toxicology in Vitro. 17: 77-83.
271. Reyes-Lopez, M., Villa-Trevino, S., Arriaga-Alba, M., Aleman-Lazarini, L., Rodriguez-Mendiola, M., Arias-Castro, C., Fattel-Fazenda, S. & de la Garza, M. (2005) The amoebicidal aqueous extract from Castela texana possesses antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties. Toxicology in Vitro. 19: 91-97.
272. Carino-Cortes, R., Hernandez-Ceruelos, A., Torres-Valencia , J. M., Gonzalez -Avila , M., Arriaga-Alba , M. & Madrigal-Bujaidar, E. (2007) Antimutagenicity of Stevia pilosa and Stevia eupatoria evaluated with the Ames test. Toxicology in Vitro. 21: 691-697.
273. van der Merwe, J. D., Joubert , E., Richards, E. S., Manley, M., Snijman,
P. W., Marnewick, J. L. & Gelderblom, W. C. A. (2006) A comparative study on the antimutagenic properties of aqueous extracts of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos), different Cyclopia spp. (honeybush) and Camellia sinensis teas. Mutat. Res. 611: 42-53.
274. Westhuizen, V. D., Francois, H., Rensburg, J. V. Catharina, S., George, S., Jeanine, L., Loots, D. T., Huysamen, C., Louw, R., Pretorius, P. J. & Erasmus, E. (2008) In vitroAntioxidant, Antimutagenic and Genoprotective Activity of Rosa roxburghii Fruit Extract. Phytotherapy research Phytother. Res. 22: 376-383.
275. Horn, R. C. & Ferrao, V. V. M. (2003) Antimutagenic activity of extracts of natural substances in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Mutagenesis. 18: 113-
118.
276. Zani, F., Cuzzoni, M. T., Daglia, M., Benvenuto, S., Vampa, G. & Mazza, P. (1993) Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium by Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids. Planta Medica. 59: 502-507.
277. Ferguson, R.L., Philpott, M. & Karunasinghe, N. (2004) Dietary cancer and
prevention using antimutagens. Toxicology. 198: 147-159.
278. Ikuma, N. E. M., Passoni, H. M., Biso, I. F., Longo, C. M., Cardoso, P. R. C.,
Campaner, S. L. & Varanda, A.E.(2006) Investigation of genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of Melampodium divaricatum in Salmonella typhimurium. Toxicology in Vitro. 20: 361-366.
279. Steele, V. E. & Kello, V. G. J. (2005) Development of cancer chemopreventive drugs based on mechanistic approaches. Mutat. Res. 591: 16-23.
280. Horn, R. C. & Ferrao, V. V. M. 2003. Antimutagenic activity of extracts of natural substances in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Mutagenesis. 18: 113-
118.
281. Marnewick, L. J., Gelderblom, C. A. W. & Joubert, E. (2000) An investigation on the antimutagenic properties of South African teas. Mutat. Res. 471: 157-166.
282. Galati, G., & O’Brien, J. P. (2004) Potential toxicity of Xavonoids and others dietary phenolics: signiwcance for their chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 37: 287-303.
283. Okawa, M., Kinjo, J., Nohara, T. & Masateru, O. (2001) DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-
picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of Xavonoids obtained from some
medicinal plants. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 24: 1202-1205.
284. Payet, B., Sing, Ch, S. & Smadia, J. (2005) Assessment of antioxidant activity of
cane sugars by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays: determination of
their polyphenolic and volatile constituents. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 10074-
10079.
285. Shon, M.Y., Choi, S. D., Kahng, G. G., Nam, H. S. & Sung, J. N. (2004)
Antimutagenic, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate
extracts from white, yellow and red onions. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42: 659-666.
286. Marnewick, J. L., Gelderblom, W. C. A. & Joubert, E. (2000) An investigation on the antimutagenic properties of South African herbal teas, Mutat. Res. 471:
157-166.
287. Kamara, B. I., Brandt, E. V., Ferreira, D. & Joubert, E. (2003) Polyphenols from honeybush tea (C. intermedia), J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 74-879.
288. Richards, E. S. (2003) Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Cyclopia species and activity guided fractionation of C. intermedia, MSc in Food Science,
Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
289. van der Merwe, J. D. (2004) A Comparative study on protection of Cyclopia spp.
(honeybush), Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) and Camellia sinensis teas against
aflatoxin B1 induced mutagenesis in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay: possible
mechanisms involved, MSc in Food Science, Stellenbosch University, South
Africa.
290. Mukhtar, H., Wang, Z. Y., Katiyar, S. K. & Agarwal, R. (1992) Tea components:
antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects, Prev. Med. 21: 351-360.
291. Weisburger, J. H., Hara, Y., Dolan, L., Luo, F., Pittman, B. & Zang, E. (1996) Tea polyphenols as inhibitors of mutagenicity of major classes of carcinogens, Mutat. Res. 371: 57-63.
292. Chen, H. Y. & Yen, G. C. (1997) Possible mechanisms of antimutagens by various teas as judged by their effects on mutagenesis by 2-amino-3-
methylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline and benzo[a]pyrene, Mutat. Res. 393 :115-122.
293. Kuroda, Y. & Hara, Y. (1999) Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea
polyphenols, Mutat. Res. 436: 69-97.
294. Siess, M. H., Le Bon, A. M., Canivenc-Lavier, M. C. & Suschetet, M. (2000) Mechanisms involved in the chemoprevention of flavonoids, BioFactors. 12: 193-199.
295. Joubert, E., Otto, F., Gr¨uner, S. & Weinreich, B. (2003) Reversed-phase HPLC
determination of mangiferin, isomangiferin and hesperidin in Cyclopia and the
effect of harvesting date on the phenolic composition of C. genistoides, Eur.
Food Res. Technol. 216:270-273.
296. Schulz, H., Joubert, E. & Sch¨utze, W. (2003) Quantification of quality parameters for reliable evaluation of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), Eur. Food Res. Technol. 216: 539-543.
297. Re, R., Pellegrative, N., Peoteggente, A.,Pannala, A.Yang, M. & Rice-Evans, C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26:1231-1237.
298. Chen, H. Y., Lin,Y. C. & Hsieh, C. L. (2007) Evaluation of antioxidant activity
of aqueous extract of some selected nutraceutical herbs. Food Chem. 104: 1418-1424.
299. Kinnula, V. L. & Crapo, J. D. (2003) Superoxide Dismutases in the Lung and
Human Lung Diseases. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167: 1600-1619.
300. Buettner, G. R. & Jurkiewicz, B. A. (1996) Catalytic Metals, Ascorbate and Free
Radicals: Combinations to Avoid. Radiat. Res. 145: 532-541.
301. Buettner, G. R. (1988) In the absence of catalytic metals ascorbate does not
autoxidize at pH 7: ascorbate as a test for catalytic metals. J.Biochem. Biophys.
Meth. 16: 27-40.
302. Buettner, G. R. (1990) Ascorbate oxidation: UV absorbance of ascorbate
and ESR spectroscopy of the ascorbyl radical as assays for iron. Free
Rad. Res. Commu. 10: 5-9.
303. Buettner, G. R. (1986) Ascorbate autoxidation in the presence of iron and
copper chelates. Free Rad. Res. Commun.1: 349-353.
304. Borsook, H., Davenport, H. W., Jeffreys, C. E. P. & Warner, R. C. (1937) The
oxidation of ascorbic acid and its reduction in vitro and in vivo. J. Biol. Chem.
117: 237-279.
305. Weissberger, A., LuValle, J. E. & Thomas, D. S. (1943) Oxidation processes. VI.
The autoxidation of ascorbic acid. J. Chem. Soc . 65: 1934-1939.
306. Halliwell, B. & Foyer, C. H. (1976) Ascorbic acid, metal ions and the superoxide
radical. Biochem. J. 155: 697-700.
307. Williams, N. H. & Yandell, J. K. (1982) Outer-sphere electron-transfer reaction
of ascorbate anions. Aust. J. Chem. 35: 1133-1144.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top