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研究生:蔡琦
研究生(外文):Chi Tsai
論文名稱:液晶保濕乳液之製備及其性質之探討
論文名稱(外文):Preparation and Properties of Liquid Crystal Humectant Emulsion
指導教授:官常慶官常慶引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-Chin Kwan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:應用化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:200
中文關鍵詞:表面張力液晶界面電位導電度計螢光掃瞄式電子顯微鏡乳液維生素C磷酸鈉鹽穿透式電子顯微鏡紅酒多酚偏光顯微鏡微胞原子力顯微鏡多重相乳液微乳化乳液接觸角鞣花酸海藻多醣紫草
外文關鍵詞:Multiple emulsionEmulsionContact angleMicroemulsionConductivityFluorescenceRed wine polyphenolZeta potentialLithospermi Radix extractSodium ascorbyl phosphateSurface tensionEllagic acidSeaweed polysaccharideLquid crystalViscosityFTIR(ATR) Newtonian fluidsnon-Newtonian fluidsMicelle Polarized optical microscopyAtomic Force MicroscopeScanning electron microscopeTransmission electron microscopy
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第一部份本研究是以液晶保濕乳液為研究的主要方向,是以不同配方,添加油相原料不同比例,不同的溫度比較探討液晶型態與結構,是以O/W型乳化液晶保濕乳液及O/W型微乳化液晶保濕乳液及WO/W型液晶保濕乳液多重相乳液作探討結果為層列型液晶(Smectic liquid crystals)以ceteareth-22,palmeth-2、polyglyceryl-3 methyl glucose distearate二種不同的乳化劑結合及配合實驗條件(水相控溫在70℃;油相控溫在70℃)及適度的均質時間及才能取乳化系統成品圖在偏光顯微鏡下1200倍才能明顯觀察到液晶相乳化圖。
第二部份本研究主要利用適量的界面活性劑所形成的液晶乳液與美白成分-維生素C磷酸鈉鹽(Sodium Ascorbyl phosphate)相互結合,透過改變乳液中的美白劑及抗氧化劑(Red wine polyphenol)的比例不同,探討濃度改變對乳液是以偏光顯微鏡(Optical microscopy)觀察液晶乳液型態與乳化穩定度。在乳液的製備過程中有幾項因素需要列入考量,包括乳化劑中界面活性劑的比例、油水相的乳化溫度,液晶美白乳液的分子構造以傅立葉轉換紅外光譜儀-減弱全反射 (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - attenuated total reflection, FTIR-ATR)分析法確認。
第三部份是利用以海藻多醣、紫根、鞣花酸、維生素C磷酸鈉鹽、紅酒多酚五種不同配方的液晶保濕乳液,比較手部、臉部之保濕程度。本實驗結果顯示,液晶在化妝品中數量的多寡,將會影響到滲透皮膚的保濕效果。剪切應力對剪切速率作圖,乳液之流變曲線為直線,而且皆經過原點顯示這些乳液只須微小之外力作用即可引起其流動,實驗得到證明以上6%乳液皆為牛頓型流體,4%與2%為非牛頓型流體。黏度隨著濃度的增加而減少,在濃度達6%時具有最高的黏度值;多重相乳化 (W/O/W型) 是油包水再放入另一水相,以往文獻是二次乳化 (two-step emulsification) 本次研究最大貢獻是利用一次乳化方式 (one-step emulsification )取得多重相乳化,以ceteareth-22,palmeth-2、polyglyceryl -2 diisostearate、polyglyceryl-3 methyl
glucose distearate ,三種不同的乳化劑結合及配合實驗條件 (水相控溫在70℃;油相控溫在40℃) 及適度的均質時間才能取得多重相乳化系統成品圖在偏光顯微鏡下2000倍才能明顯觀察到多重相乳化圖 ,均質時間及配方添加的順序及在剪應力下也是影響成功的關鍵,在此研究添加活性成分紫草根本身是紅色的,在偏光顯微鏡下,較易觀察。界面電位、表面張力、傅立葉轉換紅外光譜儀-減弱全反射(Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - attenuated total reflection, FTIR-ATR)接觸角及螢光光譜等儀器來測試,以不同比例濃度來探討界面性質的差異,並以偏光顯微鏡、掃瞄式電子顯微鏡、穿透式電子顯微鏡、測定儀探討液晶保濕乳液 之型態與結構鑑定。
第四部份海藻多醣液晶保濕乳液在測試接觸角之後,最小的數值在濃度0.1%的60.67∘,表示此濃度的海藻多醣具有較良好的濕潤性。而在測試表面張力之後,海藻多醣最小的數值在濃度0.1%的52.3(dyne/cm),表示在這個濃度的海藻多醣其界面活性較好切應力對剪切速率作圖,乳液之流變曲線為直線,而且皆經過原點,顯示這些乳液只須微小之外力作用即可引起其流動,實驗得證以上6%乳液皆為牛頓型流體,4%與2%為非牛頓型流體﹐度隨著濃度的增加而減少在濃度達6%時具有最高的黏度。
第五部份紫根液晶保濕乳液經實驗結果顯示,面張力會形成水包油之微胞,當濃度增加到1%時,其界面活性越好適合添加於化妝品當中。表面張力濃度在25~30 dyne/cm及接觸角角度在20∘~50∘,有較佳的表面活性及濕潤效果,螢光光譜所使用的指示劑為親水性的玫瑰紅B,螢光愈強親水效果越好,且適用添加在化妝保養品當中。接觸角角度<90˚表示濕潤性越好,反之,接觸角角度>90˚表示濕潤性越差,可從接觸角的數據圖上看見,角度越小濕潤性越好,而在1%時,接觸角度越趨向於20∘,其界面活性越好。螢光所釋放的能量強度越強,在添加0.1g紫根時具較高強度,表示所處環境愈具極性,界面活性越好。剪切應力對剪切速率作圖,乳液之流變曲線為直線,而且皆經過原點顯示這些乳液只須微小之外力作用即可引起其流動,實驗得證以上8%乳液皆為牛頓型流體,6%與4%與2%為非牛頓型流體。黏度隨著濃度的增加而減少,在濃度達8%時具有最高的黏度。
第六部份由鞣花酸液晶保濕乳液經實驗結果顯示: 表面張力在NaCl濃度為0.5wt% (1小時) 其值為 (16dyne/cm),時,其接觸角為,表示此時的液體較為穩定,且界面活性較好;而接觸角在NaCl濃度為0.35wt%時,有微胞濃度形成,其值為77.18°<90°,表示其濕潤性較好,且較為親水;在螢光測試方面,我們以親水性的玫瑰紅B試劑,加入不同濃度的NaCl來測試鞣花酸界面性質的微胞變化,結果顯示並不會影響螢光強度及親水性。
The first part of this study is based on liquid crystal moisturizer main direction for the study is based on different formulas, add the oil phase of raw materials in different scales, different temperature comparative study of liquid crystal patterns and structure, based on O / W type emulsion liquid security wet emulsion and O / W type liquid crystal microemulsifying moisturizer and W/O / W type liquid crystal multi-phase emulsion moisturizer for the result of the study for the nematic liquid crystal layer (Smectic liquid crystals) to ceteareth-22, palmeth-2, polyglyceryl-3 two kinds of methyl glucose distearate different emulsifier combination and with the experimental conditions (water temperature at 70 ℃; oil temperature in the 70 ℃) and appropriate time and in order to obtain homogeneous emulsion system finished plan in 1200 under a polarizing microscope times can clearly observed emulsified liquid crystal phase diagram.
The second part of this study was to use an appropriate amount of surfactants formed by liquid crystal emulsion with whitening ingredients - vitamin C sodium salt (Sodium Ascorbyl phosphate) combined with each other through the change of whitening agents and emulsion antioxidants (Red wine polyphenol) the proportion of different, to explore changes in the concentration on the emulsion is a polarizing microscope (Optical microscopy) to observe patterns and emulsified liquid crystal emulsion stability. In the emulsion process needs a number of factors into consideration, including the emulsifier in the ratio of surfactant, oil-water emulsion phase temperature, liquid crystal molecular structure whitening emulsion to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - weakened ATR ( Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - attenuated total reflection, FTIR-ATR) analysis confirmed.
The third part is the use of seaweed polysaccharides, Lithospermi Radix extract, ellagic acid, vitamin C sodium salt, Five different formulations of red wine polyphenols liquid crystal moisturizer, more hands, the face of the degree of moisture. The The experimental results showed that liquid in the amount of cosmetics, will affect the infiltration of the skin moisturizing Effect. Shear stress on the shear rate diagram, emulsion of the flow curve for a straight line, but after all the original Points show that only micro-emulsion can be caused by external force of its flow, the experiment proved to be more than 6% emulsion are Newtonian fluids, 4 percent and 2 percent for non-Newtonian fluids. With the increased concentration of viscosity decrease in the concentration of 6% when the highest viscosity value; multiple-phase emulsion (W / O / W type) is the oil add the water and then another water phase, in the past, literature is the second emulsion (two-step eulsification) this study the most Major contribution is to use an emulsified way (one-step eulsification) to obtain multi-phase emulsion to ceteareth-22, palmeth-2, polyglyceryl -2 diisostearate, polyglyceryl-3 methyl - Glucose distearate, emulsifier combination of three different and better cope with the experimental conditions (water temperature at 70 ℃; oil temperature in the 40 ℃) and appropriate time to achieve homogeneous multiple-phase emulsion system finished plan in 2000 under a polarizing microscope times can be clearly observed that the multi-phase emulsion map, homogeneous time and add the order of prescription and under shear stress affects the key to success in this study to add the active ingredient Purple grass is red, in the polarizing microscope, the more easily observed. Interfacial potential, surface tension, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - weakened ATR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - attenuated total reflection, FTIR-ATR), contact angle and fluorescence spectrometry and other equipment to test different concentrations to explore the proportion of differences in the nature of the interface, and polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, to explore detector liquid crystal moisturizer identification of patterns and structures.
The fourth part of liquid seaweed polysaccharides moisturizer contact angle test, the smallest value in the concentration of 0.1% 60.67 ∘, said that such a concentration of seaweed polysaccharides have better wettability. When the tests of surface tension, the seaweed polysaccharide smallest value in the concentration of 0.1% 52.3 (dyne / cm), said that the concentrations of seaweed polysaccharides its surfactants better shear stress on the shear rate diagram, emulsion, and the like curve for a straight line, and all through the origin indicating that these micro-emulsion of external force can only cause of its flow, the experiment may permit more than 6% emulsion are Newtonian fluids, 4 percent and 2 percent for non-Newtonian fluids, With the increasing degree of concentration and reduce the concentration of 6% when the highest viscosity.

The fifth part of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract moisturizer by the experimental results show that surface tension of water will form micelles oil, when the concentration increased to 1 percent, the surfactant added to cosmetics, the better for them. The concentration of surface tension in the 25 ~ 30 dyne / cm and the contact angle of the perspective in 20 ∘ ~ 50 ∘, better surface activity and humid effect fluorescence spectrometry used indicator for the hydrophilicity of Rose Red B, fluorescent more Strong Hydrophilic the better, and add the application of skin care products in the makeup of them. Point of contact angle &lt;90 ˚ said wettability as possible, on the contrary, the perspective of the contact angle&gt; 90 ˚ said wettability worse, from the contact angle of the data maps to see the perspective of the smaller the better wettability, and in 1%, tend to be more contact with the perspective of 20 ∘, the better its surfactants. Fluorescence intensity of the energy released the more intense and add 0.1g Lithospermi Radix extract when a higher intensity, and that the more a polar environment, the better surfactants. Shear stress on the shear rate diagram, emulsion of the flow curve for a straight line, and all through the origin of these micro-emulsion of external force can only cause of its flow, the experiment may permit more than 8 percent emulsion are Newtonian fluids , 6% and 4% and 2% for non-Newtonian fluids. With the increased concentration of viscosity reduction in the concentration of 8% when the highest viscosity.
The sixth part of ellagic acid by liquid crystal moisturizer by the experimental results showed that: the surface tension of the NaCl concentration of 0.5wt% (1 hour) of its value (16dyne/cm), when the contact angle for that at this time of the liquid more stable and better surfactants; and contact angle in the NaCl concentration of 0.35wt% when the concentration of the formation of micelles, and its value is 77.18 ° &lt;90 °, said its wettability is better, and more hydrophilic; in fluorescent test, we Hydrophilicity Rose Red B reagents, by adding different concentrations of NaCl to test the nature of ellagic acid interface micro-cellular changes, the results show and will not affect the fluorescence intensity and hydrophilicity
第一章 緒 論......................1頁
1-1 前言.................... 1-4頁
1-2 文獻探討................. 5頁
1-2-1 液晶................... 5頁
1-2-1-1 液晶發現................. 5-6頁
1-2-1-2 液晶分類................. 6-7頁
1-2-1-3 液晶特性..................7-8頁
1-2-1-4 液晶的鑑定方法........... 9-11頁
1-2-2 海藻多醣............... 12-16頁
1-2-2-1 海藻多醣藥理特性.........16-19頁
1-2-2-2 海藻在化妝品之應用目的及功能20-22頁
1-2-3 紫草根.................. 23頁
1-2-3-1 紫草根的來源 ............23-24頁
1-2-3-2 紫草根的藥理活性........ 25-30頁
1-2-4 鞣花酸.................... 31-34頁
1-2-5 乳化方法................... 35-38頁
1-2-6 化粧品的流變學.................. 39-42頁
1-3 研究目的...................... 43-44頁
第二章 實驗部份......................... 45頁
2-1 實驗用試藥 ...................... 45頁
2-1-1 實驗材料......................... 45頁
2-1-2 油性原料與水性原料.............. 45-55頁
2-1-3 主要原料..................... 56-60頁
2-1-4 試藥............................ 61頁
2-2 主要實驗設備................... 62-64頁
2-3 實驗方法.........................65-78頁
2-3-1 液晶保濕乳液製備................. 65-67頁
2-3-1-1 海藻多醣液晶乳液................. 65-67頁
2-3-1-2 美白液晶乳液................... 68-71頁
2-3-1-3 紫草根液晶乳液................ 72-75頁
2-3-1-4 鞣花酸液晶乳液....................74-78頁
2-3-2 性質測定.......................... 79頁
2-3-2-1 偏光顯微鏡
(Polarizing Optical Microscope,). 79-80頁
2-3-2-2 表面張力測定儀
(Surface Tension Meter)..............81頁
2-3-2-3 接觸角測定儀
(Face Contact Angle meter)............82頁
2-3-2-4 螢光測定儀
Aminco-Bowman Series2
Luminescence Spectrometer.............83頁
2-3-2-5 全反射式傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀
(Attenuated Total Reflectance -Fourier Transform
Infrared spectrometer)………………………………84頁
2-3-2-6 黏度計測定儀(Ostwald viscometer)………85頁
2-3-2-7 穿透式顯微鏡
(Transmission Electron Microscopy)…85-87頁
2-3-2-8 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡
(Scanning Electron Microscope,
SEM 型號:Hitachi S-3000N)………………88-90頁
2-3-2-9 界面電位/導電度計(Colloidal Dynamics,
Model Zeta Probe)/ (Cond 20) ………91-93頁
2-3-2-10 原子力顯微鏡(Atomic Force Microscope)
AFM 型號 GPM…………………………………93-96頁
第三章 結果與討論....................... ..... 97頁
3-1 美白液晶乳液.......................97-106頁
3-1-1 偏光顯微鏡............................107頁
3-1-2 結論.................................108頁
3-2 海藻多醣液晶乳液.......................109頁
3-2-1 偏光顯微鏡............... .........110-111頁
3-2-2 保濕測試..........................111-113頁
3-2-3 界面電位..............................114頁
3-2-4 導電度計..........................115-116頁
3-2-5 穿透式顯微鏡.......................117-118頁
3-2-6 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡.......................119頁
3-2-7 表面張力..........................120-122頁
3-2-8 接觸角.............................. .123頁
3-2-9 黏度..................................124頁
3-2-10 剪切應力..............................125頁
3-2-11 結論..................................127頁
3-3 紫草根液晶乳液.........................128頁
3-3-1 偏光顯微鏡…………………………………............... 128-131頁
3-3-2 保濕測試………………………………………........... 132-136頁
3-3-3 界面電位……………………………………..….......... 137-138頁
3-3-4 導電度計…………………………………................... 139-140頁
3-3-5 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡...................... 141-143頁
3-3-6 穿透式顯微鏡………………………………….…..... 144-146頁
3-3-7 原子力顯微鏡………………………………….................. 147-149頁
3-3-8 全反射式傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜.............. 150-153頁
3-3-9 黏度.....................................154-155頁
3-3-10 剪切應力................................ 155-156頁
3-3-11 螢光.................................... 157-158頁
3-3-12 結論.................................... 159-163頁
3-4 鞣花酸液晶乳液................................164頁
3-4-1 界面電位.....................................164頁
3-4-2 導電度計.....................................164頁
3-4-3 穿透式顯微鏡..................................166頁
3-3-4 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡..............................166頁
3-4-5 表面張力.....................................167頁
3-4-6 接觸角…………………………………………..……. 168-171頁
3-4-7 全反射式傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜...................172頁
3-4-8 結論....................................178-179頁
第四章 總結論......................................180頁
第五章 參考文獻................................181-191頁
圖目錄……………………………………X-XVIII
Figure1-1 Liquid crystal molecules of phase-transfer
diagram...............................5頁
Figure1-2 Diagram the various features of liquid crystal
texture.............................. 9頁
Figure 1-3 Newtonian fluid and non-Newtonian fluid flow
curve...............................40頁
Figure 2-1 Determination of Surface Tension…… 81頁
Figure 2-2 Schematic diagram of
contactangle........................82頁
Figure 2-3 Determination of contact Angle……… 82頁
Figure 2-4 Determination of fluorescence
detector............................84頁
Figure 2-5 Determination of ATR-type Fourier transform
infrared Spectroscopy..............84頁
Figure 2-6 Determination of Polarizing Optical
Microscope ........................85頁
Figure 2-7 Scanning electron microscope of the structure
diagram........................... 89頁
Figure 2-8 Determination of Scanning electron microscope ....................................90頁
Figure 2-9 Determination of Colloid Dynamics
ZetaProbe...........................92頁
Figure 2-10 The Zeta Potential Principle
diagram............................ 92頁
Figure 2-11 The Zeta Potential diagram..........92頁
Figure 2-12 Principle diagramdiagram of atomic
force microscope....................96頁
Figure 2-13 Determination of Atomic Force Microscope
diagram........................... 96頁
Figure 3-1 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid
crystal Dynamisante emulsion images
formula 4 (×250)....................99頁
Figure 3-2 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
Dynamisante emulsion images formula 4 (×600)
................................... 100頁
Figure 3-3 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
Dynamisante emulsion images formula 4 (×600)
.....................................100頁
Figure 3-4 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
Dynamisante emulsion images formula 4 (×600)
.....................................101頁
Figure 3-5 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
Dynamisante emulsion images formula 4 (×1000)
.................................... 101頁
Figure 3-6 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
Dynamisante emulsion images formula 4 (×1000)
.....................................102頁
Figure 3-7 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
Dynamisante emulsion images formula 4 (×1000)
..................................... 102頁
Figure 3-8 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
Dynamisante emulsion images formula 4 (×1000)
................................... 103頁
Figure 3-9 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
whitening emulsion at 50 ℃constant temperature
is not homogeneous images (×100)... 103頁
Figure 3-10 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
whitening emulsion at 30 ℃ room temperature
is not. homogeneous images (×100).... 104頁
Figure 3-11 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
whitening emulsion at 30 ℃ room temperature is
homogeneous images (×600)........... 104頁
Figure 3-12 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid
crystal whitening emulsion at 40 ℃constant
temperature is homogeneous images(×100 )105頁
Figure 3-13 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal
whitening emulsion at 50 ℃constant temperature
is homogeneous images (×600)........... 105頁
Figure 3-14 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal whitening emulsion at 50 ℃constant temperature is homogeneous images (×600)……………………………………………. 106頁
Figure 3-15 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal whitening emulsion at 50 ℃ constant temperature is homogeneous images (×100)………….................................................... 106頁
Figure 3-16 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal whitening emulsion 50 ℃ room temperature is not homogeneous images (×100)……………………………………………. 110頁
Figure 3-17 Polarized optical microscopy of liquid crystal emulsion images of formula 3 (×1200)……………………………… 110頁
Figure 3-18 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal emulsion formula 2 (×1200)……………………………. 110頁
Figure 3-19 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal emulsion formula 1 (×1200)……….................................. 111頁
Figure 3-20 Water testing degrees photo diagram……………………. 112頁
Figure 3-21 Different formulas of moistures treated onto the face versus time………………….............................................. 112頁
Figure 3-22 Different formulas of moistures treated onto the hand versus time……………………………………………….. 113頁
Figure 3-23 Zeta Potential versus pH of Seaweed polysaccharides…… 114頁
Figure 3-24 Conductivity versus pH of seaweed polysaccharides……. 116頁
Figure 3-25 SEM image of liquid crystal emulsion seaweed polysaccharides moisture (×100)…................................... 118頁
Figure 3-26 SEM image of liquid crystal emulsion seaweed polysaccharides moisture (×1000) ……………………… 118頁
Figure 3-27 TEM image of liquid crystal emulsion seaweed polysaccharides moisture………………………………… 119頁
Figure 3-28 Intermolecular gravity diagram…………………………… 121頁
Figure 3-29 Surface tension of versus concentration of seaweed polysaccharides………………………………………….. 122頁
Figure 3-30 Contact angle of versus concentration of seaweed polysaccharides ……………............................................. 123頁
Figure 3-31 Shear stress versus shear rate of the seaweed polysaccharides……………….…………………………. 126頁
Figure 3-32 Shear stress versus shear rate of the seaweed polysaccharides………….................................................. 126頁
Figure 3-33 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion before homogenized (×1200)………………………………………………….. 128頁
Figure 3-34 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion after one minute homogenized (×1200)……………………………………. 129頁
Figure 3-35 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion after five minutes
homogenized (×1200)…………………………………… 129頁
Figure 3-36 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion after five minutes
homogenized (×2000)……………….............................. 130頁
Figure 3-37 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion after five minutes homogenized (×2000)…………………………………… 130頁
Figure 3-38 Polarized optical microscopy images of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion (×2000)…............. 131頁
Figure 3-39 Water Tester……………………………………………... 132頁
Figure 3-40 Test forehead water tester……………………………..… 132頁
Figure 3-41 Test chin water tester……………………………………. 133頁
Figure 3-42 Test wrist water tester…………………………………… 133頁
Figure 3-43 Wrist hydrating result of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion…………................................... 135頁
Figure 3-44 Face hydrating result of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion……………….………………………… 135頁
Figure 3-45 Forehead hydrating result of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion………………………………….. 136頁
Figure 3-46 Zeta potential of liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion……………....................................................... 137頁
Figure 3-47 Zeta potential of the Lithospermi Radix extract ………… 138頁
Figure 3-48 Conductivity of the Lithospermi Radix extract ………... 139頁
Figure 3-49 Conductivity of the liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion…………................................................. 140頁
Figure 3-50 SEM images of the liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion (×25)…………....................................... 141頁
Figure 3-51 SEM images of the liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion (×100 )……............................................ 142頁
Figure 3-52 SEM images of the Lithospermi Radix extract (×100).… 143頁
Figure 3-53 SEM image of Lithospermi Radix extract (×250)………. 143頁
Figure 3-54 TEM images of the Lithospermi Radix extract (×20000).. 145頁
Figure 3-55 TEM images of the liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract emulsion (×50000)................................................. 145頁
Figure 3-56 TEM images of the liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract
emulsion (×50000)............................................................ 146頁
Figure 3-57 AFM image of Lithospermi Radix extract multiple phase emulsion (scanning range is 20μm in length, 20μm in width and 4μm in height)……………………………….. 149頁
Figure 3-58 AFM image for the side of Lithospermi Radix extract
Multiple phase emulsion ( the distribution is around 20μm~300μm)…………………………………………… 149頁
Figure 3-59 ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Lithospermi Radix extract..... 151頁
Figure 3-60 ATR-FTIR spectrum of the liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract multiple phase emulsion……...................... 152頁
Figure 3-61 ATR-FTIR spectrums of the Lithospermi Radix extract and liquid crystal Lithospermi Radix extract multiple phase emulsion………………………………………….. 153頁
Figure 3-62 Viscosity of the Lithospermi Radix extract……………… 154頁
Figure 3-63 Shear stress versus shear rate of the Lithospermi Radix extract……………………………………………………. 156頁
Figure 3-64 Fluorescence of the Lithospermi Radix extract ………… 158頁
Figure 3-65 Surface tension versus concentration of Lithospermi Radix extract…….............................................................. 160頁
Figure 3-66 Contact angle versus concentration of Lithospermi Radix extract…………………………………………………… 162頁
Figure 3-67 Zeta potential of micro emulsion base………………..… 164頁
Figure 3-68 Conductivity of micro emulsion base………………..…. 165頁
Figure 3-69 SEM image of Micro-eagallic acid (×1000)………….… 166頁
Figure 3-70 SEM image of micro-eagallic acid (×100)…………........ 166頁
Figure 3-71 Surface tension versus different NaCl concentration of Ellagic acid at different storage time…............................ 167頁
Figure 3-72 Contact angle versus different NaCl concentration of Ellagic acid at different storage time…………………… 168頁
Figure 3-73 Fluorescence of Ellagic acid after one hour…………..… 168頁
Figure 3-74 Fluorescence of Ellagic acid after two hours………..…. 169頁
Figure 3-75 Fluorescence of Ellagic acid after three hours……….… 169頁
Figure 3-76 TEM image of micro emulsion Base (×20000)……....... 172頁
Figure 3-77 TEM image of microemulsion Ellagic acid……………. 173頁
Figure 3-78 FTIR spectra of micro emulsion base…………………… 176頁
Figure 3-79 FTIR spectra of microemulsion ellagic acid……………. 177頁




表目錄………………………………………………..I-XI
Table 1-1 Appearance of a variety of medicinal seaweed characteristics and uses…………………………………. 5頁
Table 1-2 The main characteristics of seaweed and types……....… 9-10頁
Table 1-3 Appearance of a variety of medicinal seaweed characteristics and uses…………………………………. 13頁
Table 1-4 The main characteristics of seaweed and types ……..… 14頁
Table1-5 General cosmetic whitening ingredients approved by the Department of Health of the limited provisions….......... 33頁
Table1-6 Drug-containing cosmetics and Health Department approved the limited provisions of whitening ingredients………………………………………………. 34頁
Table 2-1 Liquid crystal moisturizer emulsion formula 1…………. 65頁
Table 2-2 Liquid crystal moisturizer emulsion formula 2…………. 65頁
Table 2-3 Liquid crystal moisturizer emulsion formula 3…………. 66頁
Table 2-4 Liquid crystal Dynamisantemoisturizer emulsion formula 4.......................................................................................... 66頁
Table 2-5 Whitening moisturizer liquid crystal moisturizer emulsion formula 1………………………………………. 68頁
Table 2-6 Whitening moisturizer liquid crystal moisturizer emulsion formula 2………………………………………. 69頁
Table 2-7 Whitening moisturizer liquid crystal moisturizer emulsion formula 3………………………………………. 70頁
Table 2-8 Lithospermi Radix extract liquid crystal moisturizer emulsion formula……....................................................... 72頁
Table 2-9 Ellagic acid emulsion liquid crystal microemulsifying…. 76頁
Table 3-1 Absorption frequency of Lithospermi Radix extract in the IR spectrum…………………………………………….. 151頁
Table 3-2 Absorption frequency of Lithospermi Radix extract multiple phase emulsion ream in the IR spectrum………. 152頁
Table 3-3 FTIR spectra of micro emulsion base spectrum………… 153頁
Table 3-2 FTIR spectra of microemulsion ellagic acid spectrum…………………………………………………. 154頁
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131.Sasaki K, Abe H, Yoshizaki F. In vitro antifungal activity of naphthoquinone derivatives. Biol Pharm Bull. 25(5):669-70(2002)
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133.Hsu PC, Huang YT, Tsai ML, Wang YJ, Lin JK, Pan MH. Induction of apoptosis by shikonin through coordinative modulation of the Bcl-2 family, p27, and p53, release of cytochrome c, and sequential activation of caspases in human colorectal carcinoma cells. J Agric Food Chem. 52(20): 6330-7. (2004).
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135.Singh F, Gao D, Lebwohl MG, Wei H. Shikonin modulates cell proliferation by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett 200(2):115-21. (2003).
136.Hisa T, Kimura Y, Takada K, Suzuki F, Takigawa M. Shikonin, an ingredient of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, inhibits angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Anticancer Res. 18(2A):783-90. (1998)
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