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研究生:蔡兆全
研究生(外文):Chao-Chuan Tsai
論文名稱:影響國內航空業委外活動與委外關係因素之研究
指導教授:謝依靜謝依靜引用關係阮金祥阮金祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Ching HsiehJinshyang Roan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:委外外包代理航空業
外文關鍵詞:outsourcingagencyairline industry
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台灣高速鐵路正式通車以來,挾著準時、安全、不受天候影響的優勢,穩居國內南北長程客運運輸業的龍頭老大地位,鐵公路航空等業者,若不是應聲倒地,就是受到空前重挫。在此威脅下,航空公司的經營策略已有轉型業務委外的規劃。例如:積極提高國際線及兩岸的航線的營收佔比,另外將非核心部門委外經營,如顧客服務中心、航空地勤等。
探討國內航空業界紛紛停航或倒閉之原因,莫過於供過於求,供需失衡及高鐵的衝擊等所致。國內航線如此大幅的衰退,擁有國內10座大小機場的民航局,少了航空公司起降費、場站費用的收入,連民航局也規劃,希望嚐試以收取權利金方式,將機場民用航空站以委外方式,委託給業者以更彈性方式經營,創造航站利潤。
委外是產值高達6兆美元的全球性產業,也是今日商業界受到最廣泛討論的議題。委外更是經理人用來徹底改造企業的少數商業工具之一。另一個委外的實質優點,是不僅新資本的需求大幅縮減(因為廠商通常會引進所需的資源),現有的資產也可出售給廠商,以釋放出原本已投資的資本現金。這些現金便可重新投資在其他的業務,或用於改善企業的整體資產負債表,並降低企業未來的資本成本。(The Outsourcing Revolution Michael F. Corbett)
傳統上,企業的委外思惟主要從成本面出發,如果將業務交由委外廠商執行,可以降低營運成本,自然就會選擇委外,但現在則是考量到競爭力問題,如果企業本身缺乏執行該項業務的人才或資源,選擇委外之後,既不用分散現有資源,還可以讓企業投注更多心力在強化核心競爭力上,那麼,即使委外成本會略高於自建也無妨。企業在評估是否要委外時,常常取決於上級政策,如果高階主管宣佈業務委外的命令,下層員工就得開始執行後續作業,其實企業必須清楚了解委外的需求在哪裡,究竟是為了節省成本?還是要提高作業流程效能?亦或尋找專業分工?檢視企業內外部資源,尋求業務委外的機會點,簡單來說,就是什麼業務需要委外?什麼時候要採用委外服務?如Nam et al. (1996)在探討委外策略時所提及,委外作業若僅考量交易成本此單一校標,將有可能造成偏誤;這也符合Arnold (2000)所指出,當前委外的問題大多集中於如何做及如何買的焦點上,委外可能尚必須清楚知悉委外項目、目標、合作夥伴、績效管理等作業規劃問題,方能促使委外策略成功。
本研究主要希望探討,經營國內航線之航空服務業在進行不同項目委外評估時,對委外合作夥伴的認定關係、對事前成本以及事後成本的評估重視程度、以及對有形資源即無形資源的關係誠度。透過企業主管訪談再結合問卷調查方式,整理出研究結果為:在(1)交易成本的不同,會影響委外活動的選擇。(2)外部資源的不同需求,會影響委外的活動選擇。(3)不同的委外活動,對應不同的委外關係。等三項研究假設上,研究驗證結果均為支持。此一結論顯示在委外關係中傾向維持與發展緊密之夥伴關係,並以競爭強度為合作選擇依據,同時希望在同業合作中秉持互惠的經營理念。提供為後續研究及企業委外決策評估之參考。
The Taiwan High Speed Rail (HSR) with the advantages of punctuation, safety, weather proof becomes the top of the domestic long-distance mass transportation tools and thus impacts the corporations in railways, freeways and airways severely. Under such a threat, the operating strategies of airline companies is to transform and outsource the operational affairs; for instance, the revenue ratio of the international lines and cross-straits lines is to be advanced while the periphery departments are outsourced, e.g. client service center and airport services.
The suspension or closedown of domestic airline companies results from the supply more than the demand, the unbalance of demand and supply and the impact of HSR. The great recession of domestic airlines leads to the reduction of revenues from airline companies; thus the Civil Aeronautics Administration plans to outsource the airports by the premium and run the business in more flexible manner for better profits.
Outsourcing is a global business with the output exceeding USD 6 trillion as well as the most-discussed issue in the current commercial field. Moreover, outsourcing is one of the commercial tools for managers to thoroughly reform the businesses. Another material advantage of outsourcing includes the vast reduction of new capital demand (because vendors usually bring the required resources) and the current assets available to the sales to vendors for releasing the originally invested cash capital. The regained cash may be invested in other affairs or used for the improved total assets liability specification as well as the reduced future capital cost (The outsourcing revolution, M.F. Corbett).
Traditionally, the cost used to be the main concern of business outsourcing. The outsourcing is a necessary option if the outsourcing may reduce the operational cost; however, the competitiveness is the main concern of the current business outsourcing. The outsourcing with higher cost is also an essential option if the business fails to have the employees or resources to execute the affairs since the present resources will not be distributed to elsewhere. Moreover, the business may dedicate more endeavors to strengthen the core competitiveness. The outsourcing is determined by higher authorities; that is, the lower employees must execute the continuous operation as the superiors announce the order of outsourcing. In fact, it is necessary for businesses to realize the demands of outsourcing. Is it for the cost reduction? Is it for the advanced efficacy of operational procedures? Or is it necessary for the professional labor division? It is fundamental to review the internal and external resources and search for the opportunity of outsourcing. To sum up, it is essential to decide which affairs to be outsourced and when to outsource affairs. According to Nam et al. (1996), it is biased if the outsourcing is determined by a single indicator of transaction cost. It also conforms to the opinion proposed by Arnold (2000). The present outsourcing issues concentrate on the foci of how to do and how to buy. However, a successful outsourcing strategy demands the clear realization of the operational planning problems like outsourcing items, targets, cooperative partners and performance management.
Accordingly, this study expects to inquire the relationship recognition for cooperative partners, the value on the cost evaluation before and after outsourcing and the correlation of tangible resources as intangible resources concerning the assessment of outsourcing for diverse items for the domestic airlines. The findings concluded by the interviews with business managers and questionnaires survey method are as follows. 1. The different trading cost impacts the selection of outsourcing activities. 2. The diverse demands for external resources impact the selection of outsourcing activities. 3. The different outsourcing activities respond to the respective outsourcing relations. The results support the preceding 3 hypotheses. The conclusion indicates that in outsourcing relationship, close partnership is maintained and developed with the competitiveness strength as the basis of options; moreover, the mutual beneficial operational ideas are upheld via the cooperation in the same business which may be reference to the further studies and assessment of business outsourcing resolution.
中文摘要 I
目 錄 V
圖 目 錄 VI
表 目 錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究問題與目的 4
第三節 研究範圍 5
第四節 名詞界定 5
第五節 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 委外的理論 8
第二節 交易成本理論 25
第三節 資源面觀點理論 39
第三章 研究設計與方法 55
第一節 研究架構 55
第二節 研究假說之建立 56
第三節 變數操作性定義與衡量 57
第四節 研究範圍與樣本 59
第五節 資料分析方法 60
第四章 個案研究 63
第一節 個案研究方法 63
第二節 個案公司說明 64
第三節 個案比較分析 68
第五章 實證研究與分析 73
第一節 基本資料分析 73
第二節 問卷之信度與效度 74
第六章 研究結果與建議 96
第一節 研究結論 96
第二節 理論與實務意涵 98
第三節 研究限制 99
第四節 後續研究建議 101
參考文獻 102
一、中文部份 102
二、英文部份 104
附錄一:研究問卷 112
附錄二:訪談問題 115
著作權聲明 116
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