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研究生:李怡萱
研究生(外文):Yi-hsuan Li
論文名稱:文化主體的蛻變:論《喜福會》中吳菁妹之文化認同
論文名稱(外文):Cultural Identity Transformation: Jing-mei's Case in Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club
指導教授:貝路思
指導教授(外文):Lucie Bernier
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:世新大學
系所名稱:英語學研究所(含碩專班)
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:喜福會譚恩美文化主體父女關係
外文關鍵詞:The Joy Luck ClubAmy Tancultural identityfather and daughter relationship
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出生於1952年美國加州奧克蘭,譚恩美為第二代華裔美國人,總共出版七本小說,大部份為描述華裔族群生活經驗。她的第一本小說《喜福會》於1989出版,即以華裔女作家身分在美國文壇崛起,除了廣受美國市場好評外,並獲得一系列獎項肯定,於1993年,知名華裔導演王穎更將此小說搬上銀幕。作為華裔女作家代表,譚恩美的小說主題呈現性別及種族議題。
《喜福會》描述四個移居美國的中國女性與其在美國土生土長女兒的故事。譚恩美交錯運用四對母女的對話,於四個章節中構成十六則小故事;母親敘述其童年生活,反應出1911年武昌起義前,儒家思想制度下中國女性的地位;另一方面,美國女兒陳述在美國成長環境背景下,她們如何對抗、擺脫母親的期待;小說開始於女主角吳菁妹取代母親麻將桌上的位子,同樣地,小說結束於吳菁妹,在父親陪伴下,返回中國與姊姊團圓,完成母親的遺願。
本篇論文主要探討吳菁妹文化主體的蛻變,其文化認同建構過程中皆受父母雙方影響,吳菁妹如何由母女關係到父女關係中確認其文化主體;本篇論文分成三個章節:第一章為文獻探討,從性別議題及種族議題角度,探討《喜福會》母女關係的文獻;第二章以「拉岡鏡向理論」探討吳菁妹之四則故事中,作為筆者譚恩美的化身,吳菁妹如何受父母影響建構本身的文化主體;第三章,主要探討譚恩美如何藉由描述中國女性在美國社會中的處境,刻劃出華裔美籍女性文化主體;因此,本篇論文發現,作者譚恩美針對美國讀者,呈現儒家思想刻板面貌的描述,刻劃出不僅只有女性,男性也為父權制度下的受害者。
Born in 1952 in Oakland, California, Amy Tan was Chinese immigrants Daisy and John’s daughter. Most of her works shows Chinese American’s life. She has published 7 novels. Published in 1989, her first novel, The Joy Luck Club, brought Asian American women to a broad readership. Besides winning a variety of literary awards and an excellent reputation, Tan adapted The Joy Luck Club into film. The film vision was directed by Wayne Wan and released in 1993. As an Asian American women writer, Tan presents not only gender but also ethnicity in her novels.
The Joy Luck Club describes Chinese mother and American daughter relationship. Tan interweaves four pairs of mother and daughter narrations to compose sixteen short stories in four sections. Mothers’ stories are regarding women’s childhood and experiences under Confucian domesticity in China before the Republication Revolution in 1911. On the contrary, American daughters narrate how they argue with their mothers to get rid of their expectations. The protagonist, Jing-mei Woo, begins the story by substituting for her dead Mother’s seat of mah jong and ends with her father by fulfilling her mother’s dream of family reunion in China. Finally, Jing-mei Woo realizes her Chinese American identity from her return-home journey.
From mother daughter relationship to father daughter relationship, this thesis explores Jing Mei’s cultural identity transformation that is influenced not only by her mother but also by her father. This thesis includes three parts. Chapter one presents how critics evaluate the gender issues and ethnic issues of The Joy Luck Club through mother daughter relationship. Chapter two uses Lacanian “Mirror Stage” to illustrate how parents influence Jing-mei’s cultural identity as the representative of a Chinese American woman author in Jing-mei’s four narratives. Chapter three explore how Amy Tan characterizes Chinese American women’s cultural identity through Chinese women’s situation in American society. Thus, we can understand Tan characterizes not only women but also men are victims in a Chinese patriarchal society that shows her stereotypes of Confucianism in The Joy Luck Club to American readers.
Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Chapter One: Literature Review on Mother Daughter Relationship----------------8
A. Gender Issues---------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
a) Chinese Women Transition within China Changes----------------------------------9
B. Ethnicity Issues------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
a) Chinese American Women------- -----------------------------------------------------21
Chapter Two: Mother and Daughter Relationship in Jing-mei’s Case: Lacanian “Mirror Stage”---------------------------------------------------------------------------------31
A. Mother and Daughter Relationship------------------------------------------------------32
a) Chinese Mother’s American Dream upon Daughter: The Imaginary-----------33
b) American Daughter: The Mirror Stage---------------------------------------------35
B. Mother and Father Relationship: Patriarchy in China---------------------------------40
a) Men in Chinese Patriarchal Society-------------------------------------------------41
b) Women in Chinese Patriarchal Society---------------------------------------------47
c) Both Men and Women Are Victims in a Patriarchal Society--------------------52
Chapter Three: Chinese American Women’s Cultural Identity---------------------55
A. Father and Daughter Relationship--------------------------------------------------------56
a) Mother’s Death and Daughter’s Loss: Jing-mei’s Chinese American Cultural Identity in America--------------------------------------------------------------------57
b) Trip to China: Jing-mei’s Chinese American Cultural Identity in China-------61
B. Jing-mei as Amy Tan’s Representative of the Chinese American Women’s Cultural Identity----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
C. Chinese American Women’s Cultural Identity------------------------------------------70
a) Mothers in American Society--------------------------------------------------------72
b) Daughters in American Society------------------------------------------------------77
Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------86
Bibliography------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
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