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研究生:黃郁傑
研究生(外文):Yu-Chieh Huang
論文名稱:武俠/女俠:李安臥虎藏龍中性別扮演的顛覆
論文名稱(外文):Wuxias/Nuxias: The Subversion of Gender Performativity in Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
指導教授:柯瑋妮柯瑋妮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Whitney Crothers Dilley
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:世新大學
系所名稱:英語學研究所(含碩專班)
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:武俠片臥虎藏龍李安茱蒂巴特勒性別扮演
外文關鍵詞:Wuxia pianCrouching TigerHidden DragonAng LeeJudith Butlergender performativity
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本篇論文要探究李安臥虎藏龍中的性別認同。 由於多國投資製作,本片因而涉及多元文化中的性別認同議題。 在中國文化背景下女性覺醒的立場而言,臥虎藏龍扮演重要的里程碑。 然而,本篇論文使用茱蒂巴特勒的性別扮演來提出陰柔與陽剛是沒有本質的,性別是由日常生活規範所建構的,因而受束縛。 李安的臥虎藏龍並不僅是譁眾取寵的流行武俠片,而是一系列地在拆解性別認同。
第一章主要介紹臥虎藏龍的多元背景及多國投資與製作下的跨國性別認同與主體性議題,並且將提供武俠文類中的關鍵字詞。 第二章探討儒家思想的規範如何在模糊的江湖地域中建構中國性別的扮演,以及這規範如何控制越舉的性別行為以致於維護儒家權威,更提供電影中許多儒家思想為父權思想狹制女性的範例。 再來,第三章討論歷代中國社會和文學的扮裝,並延伸探究臥虎藏龍中的扮裝。 扮裝模糊了女性與男性性別扮演的界線,扮裝論證了女性陰柔和男性陽剛是沒有本質的而是後天的性別扮演。 此外,本章節更將提供扮演行為致使疆界的跨越。 第四章探討臥虎藏龍如何打破原有的規範以及顛覆傳統的性別扮演。 而且,不僅是女俠,武俠同樣依照社會建立的性別期待來扮演自身的性別角色。 雖然這是個司空見慣的難事,不過臥虎藏龍提供了改變性別束縛的可能性。 結論中,臥虎藏龍雖是個普遍大眾的文類,卻隱藏了革命性的性別變革。
This thesis examines the gender identity and gender performativity in Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Being produced and financed by multi-national companies, the film touches upon the multi-cultural issue of gender identity. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon has been recognized as a breakthrough due to its feminist awakening under the Chinese cultural background. However, this thesis uses Judith Butler's gender performativity to propose that there is no essence either to femininity nor masculinity. Gender is constructed by the everyday norms in which the people are constrained. Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon is not just a wuxia pop-culture that fascinates its audiences with the flying, kicking sequences or the romantic love, but beneath this surface, is a series of unraveling the Chinese gender conformity.
Chapter One gives an introduction on the background of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon's multi-national and multi-cultural investment and production that leads to concerning the transnational issue of gender identity and subjectivity. Also it will provide explanations of the key terms in the wuxia genre. The second chapter discusses how the norm,Confucianism, in the ambiguous realm of jiang hu, constructs the Chinese gender performance, as well as how the norms restrain the uncharacteristic gendered conducts in order to keep the norms intact. It will also display a series of examples of how Confucianism as a whole holds patriarchal prejudice toward women. Furthermore, Chapter Three focuses on cross-dressing in the history of Chinese society and literature as well as the cross-dressing sequences in the film. Moreover, cross-dressing blurs the boundaries of female and male gender performance. Cross-dressing demonstrates that both femininity and masculinity are just acts of gender performance and there is no essence to them whatsoever. In addition, this chapter will also determine how cross-dressing leads to boundary crossing. Chapter Four looks into the breaking of the norms and the demolishing of the expected gender performance in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Not only the nuxias, but as well as the wuxias in the film perform accordingly to the social gender norms. Even though it is an everyday struggle, the film presents the possibility of a change that will lead to the liberation from gender constraints. In conclusion, under its popular genre Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon hides the revolutionary concept of gender reformation.
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………...i
論文摘要.............................................................iii
Acknowledgements..…………………………………………………………………..v
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………..vi
Chapter One: Introduction
I. The Breakthrough of the Chinese Wuxia Pian………………………………...1
II. Literature Review……………………………………………………………...6
III. Judith Butler's Performative Theory…………………………………………...9
IV. The Ambiguous Realm of Jiang Hu………………………………….………12
V. The Origin and Meaning of Wuxia and Nuxia………………………….…….14
Chapter Two: Disciplining Chinese Women: The Construction and Maintenance of Femininity
I. The Norm of the Society- Confucianism…………………………………….17
II. The Norm of Confucianism is Patriarchal Hierarchy………………………...20
III. The Restricted Gender Performance in the Film …………………………….25
Chapter Three: Cross-Dressing and Border Crossing
I. Cross-Dressing in Chinese History, Literature and Theater………………….34
II. Cross-Dressing in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon………………………...40
III. The Border Crossing of Public and Private Spheres…………………………46
Chapter Four: Wuxias/Nuxias: New Gender Performativity
I. The Good/ Bad/ Ambiguous Nuxias…………………………………………55
II. Hierarchical Wuxias with Feminine Gender Performance…………………...61
III. Femininity and Masculinity as Masquerade ……………………………...….63
IV. Fluidity of the Norm …………………………………………………………67
V. Breaking of the Norm………………………………………………………...71
VI. Non-being of Taoism…………………………………………………………77
Chapter Five: Conclusion…………………………………………………………….81
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………….90
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Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Dir. Ang Lee. Screenplay by James Schamus, Hui-ling Wang, and Kuo-jung Tsai. Perf. Chow Yun Fat, Michelle Yeoh, Chang Chen, and Zhang Ziyi. Sony Pictures Classics, 2000.
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