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研究生:武清廉
研究生(外文):Vu Thanh Liem
論文名稱:EstimatingtheRateofReturntoSchooling:AComparisoninVietnambetween1993and2006.
論文名稱(外文):Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling: A Comparison in Vietnam between 1993 and 2006.
指導教授:Prof. Yang, Ya-Po
指導教授(外文):Prof. Yang, Ya-Po
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:Human CapitalSchooling ModelEstimating the Rate of Return to Schooling.
外文關鍵詞:Human CapitalSchooling ModelEstimating the Rate of Return to Schooling.
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This study introduces overview of Human Capital Theory, Schooling Model , and focuses on presentation of a mathematical deductive method of Mincer [1974] to produce evidence to Earnings Function to help for quantitative analysis method to individual earnings through regression model. Whereby, Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling in Vietnam at 2006s.
This study also research on the effects of education in Vietnam through descriptive statistical method and based on the data of Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2006s (VHLSS_2006) by the General Statistics Office, Vietnam.
Almost studies on the world to estimates the return to schooling before are based on the earnings function of Mincer [1974]. And in Vietnam, by the quantitative analysis method and use the earnings function of Mincer, some studies before to estimates the return to schooling in Viet Nam with the results such as:
- By the 1993 and 1998 VLSS data, Gallup [2004] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 2.9 percent in 1993 and 5.0 percent in 1998.
- By the 2002 VHLSS data, Nguyen Xuan Thanh [2006] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 7.32 percent in 2002.
- By the 2004 VHLSS data, Vu Trong Anh [2008] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 7.4 percent in 2004.
And this is a continuous study by the 2006 VHLSS data the author [2009] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 7.63 percent in 2006.
This study introduces overview of Human Capital Theory, Schooling Model , and focuses on presentation of a mathematical deductive method of Mincer [1974] to produce evidence to Earnings Function to help for quantitative analysis method to individual earnings through regression model. Whereby, Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling in Vietnam at 2006s.
This study also research on the effects of education in Vietnam through descriptive statistical method and based on the data of Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2006s (VHLSS_2006) by the General Statistics Office, Vietnam.
Almost studies on the world to estimates the return to schooling before are based on the earnings function of Mincer [1974]. And in Vietnam, by the quantitative analysis method and use the earnings function of Mincer, some studies before to estimates the return to schooling in Viet Nam with the results such as:
- By the 1993 and 1998 VLSS data, Gallup [2004] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 2.9 percent in 1993 and 5.0 percent in 1998.
- By the 2002 VHLSS data, Nguyen Xuan Thanh [2006] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 7.32 percent in 2002.
- By the 2004 VHLSS data, Vu Trong Anh [2008] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 7.4 percent in 2004.
And this is a continuous study by the 2006 VHLSS data the author [2009] estimated the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam is 7.63 percent in 2006.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS …………………………………………………………. i
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………….. ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………… iii
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………. vii
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………... ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation ……………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Research Purpose ………………………………………………………………. 2
1.3 Research Sujective ……………………………………………………………... 3
1.4 Research Method ……………………………………………………………….. 3
1.5 Research Framework ………………………………………………………….... 3
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 The Human Capital Theory …………………………………………………….. 5
2.2 The Borjas [2005] Schooling Model …………………………………………… 8
2.3 The Mincer [1974] Earnings Function …………………………………………. 17
2.3.1. Individual Acquisition of Earnings Power …………………………….. 17
2.3.1.1 The Mincer [1974] Schooling Model …………………………. 19
2.3.1.2. Post-schooling Investment: Individual Earnings Profiles …….. 21
2.3.2. Distribution Analysis ………………………………………………….. 30
2.3.3. The Human Capital and Earnings Function …………………………… 32
2.3.3.1 Empirical Specification ………………………………………... 32
2.3.3.2 Regression Analysis of Individual Earnings …………………... 38
2.4 Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling by Borjas [2005] ………………… 42
2.5 The Experimental Researches on the World …………………………………… 42
2.5.1 Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling on the World ……………. 42
2.5.2. Estimating the Rate of Return to schooling in Viet Nam ……………... 43
2.5.2.1 The study of Gallup [2004] ……………………………………. 43
2.5.2.2 The study of Nguyen Xuan Thanh [2006] ……………………. 44
2.5.2.3 The study of Vu Trong Anh [2008] …………………………… 45
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 50
3.1 The Regression Model and Regression Method ……………………………….. 50
3.1.1. The Regression Model ………………………………………………… 50
3.1.2. The Regression Method ……………………………………………….. 51
3.2 The Sampling Design …………………………………………………………... 52
3.2.1. The General Criteria for Selecting Samples …………………………... 52
3.2.2. Sample 1 ……………………………………………………………….. 52
3.2.3. Sample 2 ……………………………………………………………….. 53
3.3 Defining the Value of Observation Variables ………………………………….. 53
3.3.1. Defining Values of Dependent Variables: Logarithm of Earnings ……. 53
3.3.2. Defining Values of Independent Variables ……………………………. 55
3.3.2.1 The Numbers of Year of Schooling …………………………… 55
3.3.2.2. Experience …………………………………………………….. 58
3.3.2.3. The Numbers of Working Hours ……………………………... 59
3.3.3 Dummy Variables ……………………………………………………… 59
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS OF STUDY 62
4.1 Effects of Investment on Education in Vietnam in 2006 ……………………… 62
4.1.1 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey in 2006 (VHLSS_2006) . 62
4.1.1.1 Contents of the survey ………………………………………… 62
4.1.1.2 Scope of survey and method for data collection ………………. 63
4.1.1.3 Using data from VHLSS_ 2006 ……………………………….. 63
4.1.2 Situations of schooling and working in Vietnam in 2006 ……………… 65
4.1.2.1 Statistic Data of Education in Vietnam ………………………... 65
4.1.2.2 Situations of Schooling and Working …………………………. 67
4.1.3 Effects of Investment on Education ……………………………………. 69
4.1.3.1 Investment on Education ………………………………………. 69
4.1.3.2 Effects of Investment on Education through Descriptive Statistics ……………………………………………………………………………. 71
4.2 Results of Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling ………………………... 79
4.2.1 Estimating the Regression Coefficients of Basic Earnings Function ….. 79
4.2.2 Estimating the Regression Coefficients of Extended Earnings Function. 81
4.2.3 Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling with Dummy Variable ….. 83
4.2.3.1 Estimating the Regression Coefficients of Gender, Position, Area, Provinces …………………………………………………………………….. 83
4.2.3.2 Estimating the Regression Coefficients of Economic Branch and Sector …………………………………………………………………………... 86
4.2.3.3 Estimating the Regression Coefficients of Education Level …. 89
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 92
5.1 Summary of Research ………………………………………………………….. 92
5.2 Limitations ……………………………………………………………………... 94
5.3 Suggestions for Policy …………………………………………………………. 94
5.4 Suggestions for Educational Strategy ………………………………………….. 96
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research ……………………………………………… 97
REFERENCES 99
References in Vietnamese ………………………………………………………….. 99
References in English ………………………………………………………………. 100
APPENDICES 101
Appendix 1: The Questionnaires of the 2006 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey ……………………………………………………………………………… 101
Appendix 2: General ……………………………………………………………….. 114
A.2.1. Selection of the Model ………………………………………………... 114
A2.2. Test ……………………………………………………………………. 114
A.2.3. Adjusting the Impact of Covariance ………………………………….. 115
Appendix 2.1 Report on Results of Regression and Test with the Basic Earnings Function ……………………………………………………………… 117
Appendix 2.1.1 The Basic Earnings Function (Earnings per Year) ………….. 117
Appendix 2.1.2 The Basic Earnings Function (Earnings per hour) …………. 118
Appendix 2.2Report on Results of Regression and Test with the Extended Earnings Function ………………………………………………………… 119
Appendix 2.2.1 The Sample 1: Worked 12 months. (3773 observations) …….. 119
Appendix 2.2.2 The Sample 2: Worked more than 6 months. (3773 observations) ………………………………………………………………………… 120
Appendix 2.3Report on Results of Regression and Test with the Extended Earnings Function including Dummy Variables …………………………… 121
Appendix 2.3.1 Extended Earnings Function of Gender ……………………….. 121
Appendix 2.3.2 Extended Earnings Function of Position ………………………. 122
Appendix 2.3.3 Extended Earnings Function of Area ………………………….. 123
Appendix 2.3.4 Extended Earnings Function of Provinces …………………….. 124
Appendix 2.3.5 Extended Earnings Function of Economic Branches ………… 125
Appendix 2.3.6 Extended Earnings Function of Economic Sectors …………… 126
Appendix 2.3.7 Extended Earnings Function of Education Levels ……………. 127
REFERENCES
References in Vietnamese
- Law on Education of Vietnam (2005), articles 26; 31 and 38
- Labour Law of Vietnam (2003), articles 120 and 145
- Ministry of Finance, Data on State Budget from the website,
http://www.mof.gov.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=5271 (access on 22/12/2008)
- The Author Vu Trong Anh (2008), Estimating the Rate of Return to Schooling in Vietnam, The Thesis for Master of Economics, University of Economics of Ho Chi Minh City.
- Nguyen Trung Anh (translation) (2000), Labour Economics, University of Economics of Ho Chi Minh City.
- Pham Tre Cao and Vu Minh Chau (2006), Practice Econometrics, Social Labour Publishing House, Ho Chi Minh City.
- Truong Thi Kim Chuyen, Thai Thi Ngoc Dung and Bach Hong Viet (1999), “Factors affecting the secondary education”, Page.120,Dominique Haughton, Jonathan Haughton, Sarah Bales, Truong Thi Kim Chuyen, Nguyen Nguyet Nga, Hoang Van Kinh (1999), Vietnamese Households through quantitive analysis, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.
- Nguyen Quang Dong (2002), Econometrics supported by Eviews software, Science and Technical Publishing House, Hanoi.
- Nguyen Xuan Thanh (2006), The Rate of Return of Education in Vietnam: Different method in differences, reference of FETP, University of Economics of Ho chi Minh City. http://www.fetp.edu.vn/index.cfm?rframe=/research_casestudy/research_caseintrov.htm (access on 19/10/2008)
- General Statistics Office of Vietnam, Results of the survey on living conditions of the households in 2006, access on 14/02/2009,
http://www.gso.gov.vn/default.aspx?tabid=512&idmid=5&ItemID=8182

References in English
- Beker, S. Gary (1993), Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, The University of Chicago Press.
- Borjas, George J. (2005),Labor Economics, McGraw-Hill, Third Edition.
- Gallup, John (2004), “Wage Labor Market and Inequality in Vietnam”, in Paul Glewwe at al, Economic Growth, Poverty, and Household in Vietnam, Edited, Worbank Regional and Sectoral Studies.
- Mincer, Jacob (1989), Human Capital Responses to Technological Change in the Labor Market, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No.3207,
- OECD (1998), Human Capital Investment- An International Comparision, Paris: OECD
- Psacharopoulos, George (1993), “Returns to Investment in Education: A Global Update”, World Development, 22(9), The World Bank.
- Mincer, Jacob (1974), Schooling, Experience and Earning, Nation Bureau of Economic Research, Colombia University Press .
- Swanson & Holton III, 2001, p.110. A Model of Human Capital Theory. Evolution of Human Capital Theory. Foundations. A. Smith, J. S. Mill,
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