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研究生:洪國智
研究生(外文):Horng Guo-Zhi
論文名稱:加速度器應用於跌倒通報與距離量測系統
論文名稱(外文):Applying Accelerometer on Falling Alarm and Distance Measuring Systems
指導教授:洪正瑞洪正瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Horng Jenq-Ruey
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:加速度器跌倒加速度器加速度值單晶片半導體式微型無線發射模組
外文關鍵詞:accelerometerfallingafterdatawireless transmission module
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現今科技日新月異,在應用上取代簡單與耗時動作,而在設備設計上,常使用感測元件取得當下所要得訊號進行處理分析,達到裝置監測與控制功能。感測器元件類型越來越多樣化,元件包裝越來越縮小化,因半導體技術發展出微機電系統(Micro-electro-mechanical Systems 或Micro System Technology),簡稱MEMS 或是MST,可降低產品成本與產品體積,讓設計者縮小產品,方便攜帶裝置在身上。本文利用長5公釐寬3公釐ST公司的三軸式微型加速度器,繫於腰間偵測跌倒或身體不適倒臥地上。本系統主要分為兩個部份,第一部份為偵測跌倒意外發生,利用人體動作時所產生加速度大小作判斷,第二部份為使用者行走距離量測,利用加速度物理特性,經過積分求出前進速度與距離,進而知道受測者運動量是否足夠。在系統核心的使用上,本研究將以Microchip生產的數位訊號處理單晶片dsPIC30F4011作為控制核心,透過串列週邊介面(Serial Peripheral Interface,SPI)與ST公司的三軸式加速度器 LIS302DL通訊,取得當下加速度的數據;坐下、蹲下與躺下都有一個往下加速度,且動作角度皆與跌倒類似,因此容易造成動作誤判,本文利用加速度值差異,經過數位訊號控制器運算判斷,分辨出跌倒動作,由無線發射模組,發送訊號通知護理站人員,若使用者自覺身體極為不適,也可利用感測器上裝置緊急求助按鈕主動發送求助訊號告知護理站人員,距離計算方面;先抓取指向地心1G加速度分量,利用反正弦函數運算,得到前進傾斜初始角度,經過座標轉換得到實際前進加速度值進行數位積分求得前進速度,再進行數位積分求得前進距離,利用LCD顯示器呈現當時三軸加速度、前進速度與前進距離。
Technology covers for simple and time-consuming activities, designing device usually gets analytic signals from sensor in order to control and monitor state. Sensors of the component are various, and the packages are getting smallized. It is because the Semiconductor Technology develops Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS or MST), the volume and the cost of the product could be lowered by using it. Thus designers could decrease the volume of the product which becomes easier to bring with. This report uses three-Axis accelerometer which is a 3mm×5mm size by STMicroelectronics Company. The accelerometer could detect accidentally falling and fainting on the ground. The system is divided into two parts, the first part is detecting falling-Accident by the range of acceleration occurred with physical movements. The second part is users could measure walking distance with the physic’s characteristic of acceleration. Coming out with forwarding speed and distance by integrating, the user’s exercising quantity could be measured to see if it is enough. The system uses a dsPIC30F4011 single chip which is a digital signal microcontroller produced by Microchip company as the control center. It connects with LIS302DL accelerometer sensor of three-axis type by STMicroelectronics company through Serial Peripheral Interface collecting acceleration data. Sitting, Squatting and lying all have falling acceleration, and the angles of the movement are similar to a fall, therefore it is hard to distinguish. The data will be analyzed to decide the movement difference between squatting and falling. The microcontroller calculates the acceleration, and then uses wireless transmission module to send signals to the Coordinator and generates corresponding lighting code to advise care workers of elders’ condition. If an elder feels uncomfortable, he or she can push the emergency rescue button which notifies care workers. First it measures axis’s component that towards the earth's core of calculating distance part, then using asin function to get Initial angle. Through coordination, transformation gets Actual acceleration after integral method gets forward velocity and forward distance. Finally, the LCD would show three axis’s acceleration, forward velocity and forward distance.
摘要..............................................................i
Abstract.........................................................ii
目次..............................................................iv
圖目錄............................................................vii
表目錄............................................................xi
第一章 緒論......................................................1
1.1 研究動機...................................................1
1.2 研究步驟與材料..............................................1
1.2.1 研究步驟......................................................1
1.2.2 材料..........................................................4
1.2.2.1 加速度感測元件........................................4
1.2.2.2 無線傳輸模組..........................................6
1.2.2.3 LCD顯示器............................................8
1.2.2.4 SD Card 儲存裝置......................................8
第二章 跌倒偵測與距離量測理論........................................9
2.1 跌倒偵測理論.....................................................9
2.2 距離量測理論....................................................12
2.3 積分近似法......................................................14
2.3.1積分近似法理論.............................................14
2.3.2 數位積分流程圖............................................17
第三章 系統架構...................................................18
3.1 硬體架構........................................................18
3.1.1 加速度...................................................19
3.1.2 數位訊號控制器.............................................20
3.1.3 SD Card儲存裝置...........................................21
3.2 系統流程圖......................................................23
3.2.1 跌倒偵測流程圖.............................................24
3.2.2 距離計算流程圖.............................................26
3.2.3 磁碟檔案系統...............................................27
3.2.4 儲存裝置流程圖.............................................29
第四章 系統應用核心說明............................................30
4.1 核心方塊圖......................................................30
4.2 開發軟體與燒錄工具...............................................31
4.3 單晶片應用功能說明...............................................32
4.3.1 串列傳輸..................................................32
4.3.2 計時器功能................................................33
4.3.3 文字型LCD顯示器...........................................34
第五章 跌倒通報與距離量測系統研發與製作..............................39
5.1 跌倒通報系統電路.................................................39
5.2 距離量測系統電路.................................................39
5.3 穩壓電路........................................................40
5.4 系統核心電路....................................................40
5.5 加速度器電路.....................................................41
5.6 無線傳輸模組腳位設定..............................................41
5.7 無線傳輸模組電路.................................................44
5.8 LCD顯示器電路....................................................45
5.9 SD Card 儲存電路................................................45
5.10 實體圖展示......................................................47
第六章 結果與討論..................................................49
6.1 各項動作測試與分析................................................49
6.2 距離量測與誤差分析................................................51
6.2.1 距離量測..................................................51
6.2.1.1 短距離平台距離量測..................................52
6.2.1.2 長距離行走距離量測..................................58
6.2.2 誤差分析..................................................63
第七章 結論........................................................65
參考文獻............................................................66
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