跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.194.255) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/19 04:43
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林麗真
研究生(外文):Li-Chen Lin
論文名稱:採用英檢做為畢業門檻的導引效應之研究
論文名稱(外文):Washback Effects of Taking the Standardized English Proficiency Tests as a Graduation Threshold
指導教授:楊明倫
指導教授(外文):Ming-Lung Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:畢業門檻回沖效應標準化英語測驗
外文關鍵詞:graduation thresholdwashback effectbeforeStandardized English Proficiency Test(SEPT)
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:429
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
近年來,我國政府致力於提昇全民英語能力,積極推動各項政策。在「挑戰2008:國家發展重點計畫」中的「E世代人才培育計畫」,政府明訂技專院校學生在2008年中及英檢的通過率需達50%。各公私立大學紛紛設立英語畢業門檻期能激勵學生學習英文。
本研究對象為一所私立科技大學四技日間的大四學生。以問卷調查與訪談的資料的方式進行資料收集,共回收412有效問卷,並對研究對象進行訪談,希望藉由不同的觀點來瞭解科技大學學生對於設立英語畢業門檻的態度與對英語的學習動機以及其所參與英語學習活動,同時以此三個層面檢測此措施是否對學生產生任何的導引效應。調查結果顯示,科技大學英語學生普遍贊成畢業門檻的設立。超過一半以上學生在畢業時已能符合該校英語畢業門檻的規定。其次,在導引效應上,畢業門檻的設立使得學生更重視英語,但並未改變學生實際上的英語學習態度以及學習動機。大部分的學生都在大專英語能力檢定的標準之下通過畢業門檻。由於大專英語能力檢定目前僅檢測學生的英語閱讀與聽力,學生的英語學習活動一般也侷限在閱讀與聽力。學生在英語的學習上普遍偏重傳統背誦與閱讀,缺乏在寫作與口說方面的練習。不同性別在英語學習動機上有顯著差異,應英與非應英系的學生則在態度,學習動機以及學習活動上均有顯著差異。
本論文亦根據上述結果,提出以下相關建議:1.現行英語檢定測驗分數的對應是否能真實反映出學生的語言能力問題有待商榷。2.英語能力檢定抵免學分可能造成學生英語學習的中斷,相關配套措施宜審慎考量。3.應培大學生獨立自主的學習能力,擺脫對老師的依賴性。
Currently the government has been devoted to elevating the citizen’s English proficiency. In an attempt to increase Taiwan’s competitiveness, the government demands that college students should be equipped with specified English competence. According to the related policies, the pass rates of Intermediate Level anticipated to achieve are 30% by 2006, 40% by 2007, and 50% by 2008. In light of these concerns given above, more and more colleges adopt Standardized English Proficiency Test (SEPT) as a Graduation Threshold (GT) and require their students to pass a certain level of SEPTs as a condition for graduation.
The participants of the study were the seniors of day-time program at Southern Taiwan University (STUT). This study attempts to investigate the various dimensions of washback brought about by the GT through students’ attitudes, English motivation, and the learning activities students engaged in. Questionnaire survey and interviewees were carried out. A total of 412 valid questionnaires were collected and calculated. The results showed that most of the students were in favor of the GT and more than 60 percent of them achieved the requirement of the GT before graduation. As for its washback from the GT, the GT had positive washback only on students’ attitudes towards English because it failed to improve students’ learning motivation. Additionally, due to the fact that most students passed the GT with the requirement of College Student English Proficiency Test (CSEPT), testing only listening and reading, the students focus more on listening and reading than writing and speaking in English learning. In particular, reciting and reading remained the center of their English learning. Significant differences were found between gender in motivation, between English and non-English majors in attitude, motivation, and learning activities. The following suggestions are made based on the result gained:
First, there should be more factors, such as accuracy and fairness, taken into consideration for the currently equivalent score among SEPTs adopted as the GT so that these SEPTs can test the English competence that college students are supposed to be equipped with. Next, the exemption from the GT or Freshman and Sophomore English courses could contribute to students’ interruption in English learning. It is suggested that complete measures should be taken to ensure students’ English regular learning in their college years. Also, it is a priority to cultivate students’ independent learning habits so they could get rid of their long-term dependence on teachers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract iv
Acknowledgement vii
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Background and Motivation 1
Statement of the Problem 2
Research Questions 4
Significance of the Study 4
Definition of Terms 5
Chapter Two: Literature Review 7
English Education Planning and the Graduation Threshold 7
Test as an Education Reform 9
Definition of Washback 10
The Influence of Washback 12
Negative Washback 15
Positive Washback 16
Uncertain Washback 18
The Potential Problem of a Graduation Threshold 21
Chapter Three: Method 24
Participants 24
Data Collection 27
Questionnaire 27
The pilot study 27
The formal study 29
Interviews 30
Data Analysis 30
Chapter Four: Results 33
The Students’ Attitudes Towards the GT 33
Students Status’ Quo 33
Items with single answers 33
Items with multiple answers 37
Students’ Agreement and Disagreement on the GT 40
Differences Between Gender, Between English Versus Non English
Majors, and Among Academic Fields 41
Gender 41
English versus non-English majors 42
Academic fields 43
Students’ Motivation in Leaning English for the GT 45
Factors Motivating Students to Learn English 45
Differences Between Gender, Between English Versus Non English
Majors, and Among Academic Fields 47
Gender 47
English versus non-English majors 48
Academic fields 50
English Learning Activities Engaged in for the GT 53
The English Learning Activities Engaged in by Students for the GT 53
Differences Between Gender, Between English Versus Non English
Majors, and Among Academic Fields 57
Gender 57
English versus non-English majors 57
Academic fields 59
Washback Brought About When Preparing for the GT in Terms of Students’
Attitudes, Motivation, and Learning Activities 61
Chapter Five: Discussion and Conclusion 63
Discussion 64
The Depth of the GT Washback 64
Washback Derived From the GT 67
Issues Aroused by the GT 70
Conclusion 71
Limitation of the Study 74
Implication for Future Research 74
Implication for Pedagogical Practice 75
Reference 77
Appendices
Appendix A: Colleges Taking SEPTs as the GT and Related Regulations 83
Appendix B: List of Converted Score Among SEPTs 85
Appendix C: A Brief Introduction of SEPTs 86
Appendix D: English Courses Exemption Regulation 88
Appendix E: The GT Regulation at STUT 89
Appendix F: Questionnaire of Student’s Perception of the GT 91
Appendix G: Interview Guide 94
Appendix H: ANOVA Tests of the Attitude Scale in Different Colleges 95
Appendix I: ANOVA Tests for the Motivation Scale in Different Colleges 97
Appendix J: ANOVA Tests for the Learning Activity Scale in Different
Colleges 99
Appendix K: Distributions and Responses to Questionnaire From Items 11 to
13 101
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 College and Gender Distribution of the Participants
35
Table 2 Students’ Status Quo
44
Table 3 SEPTs Taken by the Students
48
Table 4 How Students Prepare for the GT
49
Table 5 Reasons for Agreement on the GT
52
Table 6 Reasons for Disagreement on the GT
52
Table 7 Students’ Agreement and Disagreement on the GT in Terms of Gender 54
Table 8 Students’ Agreement and Disagreement on the GT in Terms of English and Non-English Majors 55
Table 9 Students’ Agreement and Disagreement on the GT in Terms of Academic Fields 56
Table 10 Reasons Motivating English Learning
58
Table 11 Motivation in Learning English in Terms of Gender
61
Table12 Motivation in Learning English in Terms of English Versus Non-English Majors
62
Table 13 English Learning Motivation in Terms of Academic Fields
65
Table 14 The Learning Activities Engaged in for the GT
68
Table 15 Learning Activities Engaged in for the GT in Terms of Gender
72
Table 16 Learning Activities Engaged in for GT in Terms of English Versus non-English Majors
74
Table 17 Leaning Activities Engaged in for GT in Terms of Academic Fields 76
Reference
Alderson, J. C. (1992). Guidelines for the evaluation of language education. In J. C. Alderson & A. Beretta (Eds.), Evaluating second language education (pp. 274–304). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Alderson, J. C., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (1996). TOEFL preparation courses: A study of washback. Language Testing, 13(3), 280-297.

Alderson, J. C., & Wall, D. (1993). Does wash back exist? Applied Linguistics, 14, 115-29

Andrews, S. (1994). Washback or washout? The relationship between examination reform and curriculum innovation. In D. Nunan, R. Berry, & V. Berry, (Eds.), Bringing about change in language education (pp. 67-81). Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.

Backman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bailey, K. M. (1996). Working for washback: A review of the washback concept in language teaching. Language Testing, 13, 257-279.  

Bailey, K. M. (1999). Washback in language testing. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service.

Bray, M., & Steward, L. (Eds.). (1998). Examination systems in small states: Comparative perspectives on policies, models and operations. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Buck, G. (1988). Testing listening comprehension in Japanese university entrance examination, JALT Journal, 10, 12-42.

Chang, C.-J., & Tu, Y.-H. [張家仁, 涂雅玲]. (2007, November). 國內技專院校學生英語能力畢業門檻省思 [A revise of graduation threshold and the English proficiency level of students in college and technology]. Paper presented at the meeting of the 2007海峽兩岸高等技術與職業教育研討會 [2007 Conference of Cross Strait Advanced Technology and Vocational Education], Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan.

Chang, H.-T. [張顯達]. (2007). 台灣大學的英語能力檢定 [On English proficiency tests of Taiwan university]. English Education, 8. Retrieved March 23, 2008, from http://ejee.ncu.edu.tw/epaper/2004_05_28_第八期.htm

Chen, S.-B. (2007) 提昇國人英語能力並與國際接軌 [Improving citizens’ English competence and link the world]. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from National Policy Foundation Web Site: http://www.npf.org.tw/post/3/2914

Chen, M-H. [陳美華], & Lee, W-R. [李文瑞] (2004). 文藻外語學院英語能力設定標 準之內容及意義 [Setting the graduation English language proficiency benchmarks in Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages]. Languages, Literary Studies and International Studies: An International Journal, 1, 97-115.

Cheng, L. (1997). How does washback influence teaching? Implications for Hong Kong. Language and Education, 11, 38-54.

Cheng, L. (1998). The washback effect of public examination change on classroom teaching: An impact study of the 1996 Hong Kong certificate of education in English on the classroom teaching of English in Hong Kong secondary schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Cheng, L. (2005). Studies in language testing: Volume 21. Changing language teaching through language testing: A washback study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cheng, L., & Curtis, A. (2004). Washback or backwash: A review of the impact of testing on teaching and learning. In L. Cheng, J. Watanabe, & A. Curtis. (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (pp. 3-17). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chou, S.-K. (2005). The dilemma and breakthrough of English teaching in technological and vocational education. Journal of Education Research, 138, 86-94.
George, D., & Mallery, P., (2003). SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Gipps, C. V. (1994). Beyond testing: Toward a theory of educational assessment. Landon: The Falmer Press.

Green, A. (2007). Wagging the dog? Toward a model of washback. Studies in language test 25. IELTS washback in context: Preparation for academic writing in higher education (pp.1-30). Cambridge Univ. Press

Hamp-Lyons, L. (1997). Washback, impact and validity: Ethical concerns. Language Testing, 14(3), 259-303.

Heubert J. P., & Hauser R. M. (1999). High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Washington, DE: National Academy Press.

Hsu, L.-N., & Wang, P.-L. [徐麗娜, 王佩玲]. (2006). 英語畢業門檻與英語學習動機之研究 [A study of English graduation threshold and English learning motivation]. National Kaohsiung of Applied Science Journal, 35, 51-68.

Huang, C.-Y., Huang, H.-C., & Feng, M.-Y. [黃靜雲, 黃雪雲, 馮敏毅]. (2003).勤益學生在「全民英檢能力檢定」中的定位與評估 [The placement and evaluation in General English Proficiency Test for students in National Chin-Yi University of Technology]. Chin-Yi Journal, 21, 25-34.

Hughes, A. (1993). Backwash and TOEFL 2000. Unpublished manuscript, University of Reading, UK.

Khaniyah, T. R. (1990). Examinations as instruments for educational changes: Investigating the washback effect of the Nepalese English exams. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

Language Training and Testing Center. (2003). 英語能力測驗成績報告統計 [The statistical report of college student English competence]. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from: http://www.lttc.ntu.edu.tw/academics/91-92%20FLPTenglish.pdf

Language Training and Testing Center. (2008). 英語能力測驗成績報告統計 [The statistical report of college student English competence]. Retrieved April 05, 2009, from: http://www.lttc.ntu.edu.tw/academics/CSEPT/九十七年大學校院英語能力測驗成績統計分析.pdf

Liao, P.-S. [廖伯森]. (2008). 全民英檢對大專英語教學的影響 [The impact of General English Proficiency Test of university English teaching]. Retrieved March 23, 2008, from http://blog.udn.com/trjason/211989

McNamara, T. F., & Roever. C. (2006) Language testing: The social dimension. Oxford: Blackwell.

Messick, S. (1996). Validity and washback in Language testing. Language Testing, 13(3), 241-256.

Ministry of Education. (2005). Challenge 2008 national development plan.
Retrieved March 24, 2008, from:
http://english.moe.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=7043&ctNode=784&mp=3
Nash, T. (2005). Thoughts on an English exit exam. Electronic Journal of English Education, 14. Retrieved March 29, 2008, from http://ejee.ncu.edu.tw/issues/2005-03issues4-2.html

Pearson, I. (1988). Tests as levers of change. In D. Chamberlain & R. Baumgartner (Eds.), ESP in the classroom: Practice and evaluation (pp. 98-107). Great Britain: Modern Publication.

Pierce, B. N. (1992). Demystifying the TOEFL reading test. TESOL Quarterly, 26(4), 665-691.

Qi, L. (2004). Has a high-stakes test produced the intended changes? In L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, & A. Curtis (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (pp. 171-190). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Shaniya, T. R. (1990). Examination as instruments for educational change. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Shi, Y.-H, Chou, C.-T., Chen, S.-C., Chu, H.-M., Chen, C.-Y. & Yen, H.-N. (1999, April) 為因應九年一貫新課程,國小國中英語教學應採行之教法與評量模式 [The pedagogy and assessment on English education in elementary and junior high schools for the Nine-Year Integrated Curriculum]. Paper presented at the meeting of 第十六屆中華民國英語文教學國際研討會 [The Sixteenth International Symposium on English Teaching], National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.

Shohamy, E. (1992). Beyond proficiency testing: A diagnostic feedback testing model for assessing foreign language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 76, 513-521.

Shohamy, E. (1993a). A collaborative/diagnostic feedback model for testing foreign languages. In D. Douglas & C. Chappelle (Eds.), A new decade of language testing research teachers (pp. 185-202). Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.

Shohamy, E. (1993b). The power of test: The impact of language testing on teaching and learning. Washington, DE: National Foreign Language Centre Occasional Papers.

Spolsky, B. (1994). The examination-classroom backward cycle: Some historical cases. In D. Nunan, R. Berry, & V. Berry (Eds.), Bringing about change in language education (pp. 55-66). Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.

Spolsky, B. (1995). Measured words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Spratt, M. (2005). Washback and the classroom: The implications for teaching and learning of studies of washback from exams. Language Teaching Research, 9(1), 5-29

Stiggins, R. J. (1999). Assessment, student confidence, and school success. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(3), 191-198. Retrieved November 29, 2008, from
http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001848249

Su, S.-W. [蘇紹雯] (2005). 英語畢業門檻相關規定需求研究:技職大學生的看法 [Graduation threshold of English competency: A need analysis from the perspective of technological institute students]. Educational Review, 24, 47-66.
Su, S.-W. [蘇紹雯]. (2003). 英語教學評量多元化之審思與因應 [Measures and consideration on multiple assessments in English teaching]. 永達技術學院2003多元化教學研討會論文集 [Proceedings of the 2003 Multiple Assessment in Teaching, Yung Ta Institute of Technology & Commerce], 121-136.
Watanabe, Y. (1997). Washback effects of the Japanese university entrance examination: Classroom-based research. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University, UK.

Watanabe, Y. (2006). The important of motivation theories for understanding washback to the Learner. Retrieved April 11, 2009, from Bulletin of the Center for Education Research and Practice, Akita University Web site: http://air.lib.akita-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10295/650/4/jissen28a.pdf

Williams, M., & Burden, R. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top