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研究生:林盈吉
研究生(外文):Ying-Chi Lin
論文名稱:豐田型職能養成過程與台灣企業的實證研究-以生產現場為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study of The Toyota Competency Development Process and Empirical Study in Taiwan –In The Production Line
指導教授:劉仁傑劉仁傑引用關係張書文張書文引用關係胡坤德胡坤德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ren-Jye LiuShu-Wen ChangProf. Kun-Te Hu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:工業工程與經營資訊學系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:職能豐田型職能專業養成取向激勵取向豐田式生產
外文關鍵詞:competencyToyota CompetencyProfession development orientationmotivation orientationToyota Production System
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豐田汽車發展並實行豐田式生產,一直維持良好營運與成長,並在2008年成為全球第一的汽車廠。豐田認為這有賴於『要造車、先育人』的經營理念。台灣企業近年學習豐田式生產,獲得許多成效。但多是以技巧與工具性為主要切入點。對豐田人力資源所具備的素質卻鮮少觸及。職能對個人在職務上的專業與工作動機都能有效管理。台灣近年引用職能作為人力資源管理應用的企業已超過30%,並且呈現增加的趨勢。因此本研究嘗試以職能說明豐田在人力資源上的特徵。希望對台灣推行豐田式生產的企業能有些 許啟發。
本研究以專業養成與激勵作為職能養成的二個構面,首先整理出專業養成的單一領域深入取向與廣泛涉獵取向,以及激勵構面的社會取向與個人取向。再以二次文獻為基礎,彙整豐汽車田在人力資源管理的特徵,並推論出豐田汽車員工職能養成的取向。實證研究則由推行豐田式生產有相當成效的自行車聯盟A – Team挑選二家成員,進行實證研究。經由深入訪談與資料收集,建構二家企業在人力資源活動的內涵,再推論出受訪企業的職能養成取向。最後比較豐田汽車與台灣企業間的差異點。
研究發現,豐田汽車同時注重個人在專業領域的單一領域深度與其他領域的廣度涉獵。但是在個人職涯中實行的時期不同。動機的產生主要是以社會取向的激勵方式。台灣企業則因為產業背景不同而有不同的專業養成取向。並在激勵取向上不同於美、日,同時進行個人與社會取向的激勵方式。
Toyota Motor develops and carry out their own product system, that we called Toyota production system (TPS). By the system, Toyota keeps on growing and moving. And They Got on premier place in the world. Toyota thinks that because they have some philosophies like “Nurture your employees, before they start work”. Many enterprises applied the system and got many successes in Taiwan. But all of them learned is about how to use the tools from the system. Less of enterprises thought of human resource. Competency is a good tool to handle employees’ profession and motivation. There are over then 30% enterprises applied competency in Taiwan. And the percentage is growing up. The study will expound human resource management in Toyota Motor by competency perspective. And hope the result could give some hints to enterprises which applied TPS in Taiwan.
The study divide competency in to two dimensions, profession and motivation. In the beginning, we found four orientations form two dimensions. Profession divides in to deep and wild. Motivation divides in to society and personal. Then, base on secondary literature, classify Toyota’s human resource manage actives by four orientations. In the part of empirical study, the study picked out two enterprises from A-Team, a bicycle industry alliance which has appeal about TPS application in Taiwan. The study tried to conclude competency orientation of two enterprises by interview and data collect. Finally, compare Toyota and two Taiwan enterprises, to find different of competency orientation.
The conclusion is, Toyota’s profession development have both of two orientations, deep and wild. And motive dimension inclined to use societal orientation. Empirical enterprises, because of different background, that they have different orientations in profession dimension. And have the same trend in motive orientation, use both societal and personal.
摘要.....................................................III
Author:..................................................IV
ABSTRACT.................................................IV
誌謝......................................................V
目錄......................................................VI
圖目錄....................................................IX
表目錄....................................................X
第一章 緒論................................................1
1.1 研究背景與動機.........................................1
1.1.1 豐田汽車登上汽車業龍頭.................................1
1.1.2 豐田汽車重視人力資源發展...............................2
1.1.3 以職能觀點探討豐田汽車人力資源..........................3
1.2研究目的................................................3
1.3 研究方法與步驟..........................................4
1.4 研究範圍與限制..........................................4
1.4.1研究範圍..............................................4
1.4.2研究限制..............................................4
1.5 研究架構與流程..........................................5
第二章 文獻回顧.............................................7
2.1豐田生產方式.............................................7
2.1.1 豐田式生產的由來.......................................7
2.1.2 豐田式生產的思維......................................8
2.1.3 豐田式生產的相關研究...................................9
2.2 職能...................................................10
2.2.1 職能的起源............................................10
2.2.2 職能之冰山模型........................................11
2.2.3 職能之因果流程........................................13
2.2.4 職能應用的相關研究....................................14
2.3 專業養成...............................................14
2.3.1 專業的內容理論........................................14
2.3.2 專業的定義...........................................16
2.4 激勵...................................................17
2.4.1 工作動機.............................................17
2.4.2 激勵理論.............................................18
2.4.3 激勵理論小結..........................................23
2.4.4 個人動機的兩個取向.....................................25
2.5 本研究之分析架構與意義...................................28
2.5.1 分析架構:組織以激勵與專業養成培養職能...................28
2.5.2本研究之意義...........................................28
第三章 豐田汽車的人力資源管理.................................30
3.1長期穩定的雇用...........................................30
3.1.1 企業與員工是生命共同體.................................30
3.1.2 嚴謹的員工招募流程....................................31
3.2 長期觀點的員工任職規劃...................................33
3.2.1 瞭解員工適任方向......................................33
3.2.2 緩慢晉升與終身教育....................................33
3.2.3 廣泛的職位歷練........................................34
3.3 團隊為基礎的日常營運.....................................35
3.4 豐田型職能養成..........................................36
3.4.1人力資源管理的要素整理..................................37
3.4.2 豐田型職能養成........................................39
第四章 實證研究.............................................42
4.1 實證研究的目的、方法與對象...............................42
4.1.1 實證研究目的..........................................42
4.1.2 實證研究方法..........................................42
4.1.3 實證研究對象..........................................43
4.2 政伸企業...............................................45
4.2.1 員工聘僱.............................................45
4.2.2 職涯訓練.............................................46
4.2.3 日常營運.............................................47
4.2.4 政伸企業的人力資源管理特色..............................47
4.2.5 政伸企業的職能養成取向.................................48
4.3 愛爾蘭商速聯............................................50
4.3.1 員工聘僱.............................................50
4.3.2 職涯訓練.............................................51
4.3.3 日常營運.............................................52
4.3.4 速聯的人力資源管理特徵.................................52
4.3.5 速聯的職能養成取向.....................................54
4.4 討論...................................................56
4.4.1 實證企業職能取向比較...................................56
4.4.2 實證企業與豐田汽車之職能養成比較........................57
4.4.3 產業特性影響職能養成...................................58
4.4.4 發揮員工最大效益......................................59
第五章 結論與未來課題........................................60
5.1 結論...................................................60
5.2 管理意涵...............................................61
5.3 未來課題................................................62
附錄.......................................................63
實證研究訪問問題彙整.........................................63
參考文獻....................................................64
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