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研究生:林玉淳
研究生(外文):Yue-Chwen Lin
論文名稱:論李斯特超技練習曲的三個版本
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Three Versions of Liszt’s Transcendental Etudes
指導教授:徐頌仁徐頌仁引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北藝術大學
系所名稱:音樂學系博士班
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:206
中文關鍵詞:李斯特超技練習曲鋼琴技巧炫技
外文關鍵詞:LisztTranscendental Etudespiano techniquevirtuoso
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摘要

十九世紀上半葉的鋼琴技巧發展對鋼琴演奏史有著關鍵性的影響,其中,李斯特是改變鋼琴成為獨當一面的樂器最重要的演奏家與作曲家。而他的作品中,最能全面性代表浪漫時期鋼琴技巧的,非《超技練習曲》(Etudes d’exécution transcendante)莫屬。現在廣為人知的《超技練習曲》,是李斯特1851年於威瑪(Weimar)所寫的版本,之前還有1826年與1837年兩個版本。這三個不同版本的內容在鋼琴技巧的表現上各異其趣,也呈現出李斯特在不同階段的作曲手法:第一個版本(Etudes pour le piano en douze exercices),吸收了古典時期的精髓,以各式各樣的快速音群練習為主,也是現存李斯特最早的作品。據此改寫而成的第二個版本(12 Grandes Etudes),則是十九世紀前半葉鋼琴演奏炫技風潮最炙烈時的產物,李斯特盡其所能地探索了鋼琴技巧的可能性,樂曲中令人匪夷所思的艱難技術,可以看出他在創作上劇烈而驚人的蛻變。第三個版本是他卸下炫技大師的身分後,重新審視舊作而再次修訂的;保留了第二版大部分的架構,刪除過於艱澀的技巧,調整結構、平衡內容、添加標題,使作品擁有更高的完成度,並定稿於斯。

李斯特超技練習曲先後出版了三次的特殊創作背景,是研究十九世紀前期之鋼琴技巧不可多得的好材料。本文中除簡述其歷史背景與作品內容之外,並逐一檢視這三個版本,再互相對照,討論其技巧之改變與產生之效果,對於鋼琴音響色澤與表演型態的影響。再歸納李斯特創作的軸心如何受大環境變遷而轉移,並針對這三個版本發展的前因後果,與其在鋼琴練習曲的傳承進行相關論述,從中了解十九世紀上半葉,新興鋼琴技巧的來龍去脈及技巧存廢的原因。最後,則就超技練習曲在歷史上的定位與作品價值作一探討,並揭示其在鋼琴音樂發展中的重要性與獨創性。
Abstract
The technical breakthrough Liszt achieved during the first half of the 19th century was without precedent in the history of the piano. No doubt, Liszt was the most influential performer and composer of this era who changed the piano into a tremendous instrument and gave the first piano solo recital in music history. Among his works, “Etudes d’exécution transcendant” is by far the most symbolic of piano technique during the Romantic Period. “Etudes d’exécution transcendant”, the one that is now used, was the version accomplished in 1851 in Weimar. The first version, dated in 1826, “Etudes pour le piano en douze exercices”, contained the germ of the later versions. As the earliest piano works composed by Liszt, they were still boyhood works based on classical piano technique. The second version, dated in 1837, “12 Grandes Etudes”, was virtually unplayable except by Liszt himself. Liszt was totally dedicated toward exploring all the possible piano techniques while the amazingly difficulties within each piece depicts the dramatic and surprising transformation of his composing. The third version was written after Liszt shed off his virtuoso identity and began revising his old works. He retained most of the structure from the second version and eased the techniques that were too difficult. After adjusting the structure, balancing the contents, and adding titles, the work finally completed and became the definitive version.

The three versions of Liszt’s Transcendental Etudes are the best materials for doing the research on piano technique from the early 19th century. This study not only gives a brief description of their background and contents, but also provides an in-depth review and comparison of the three versions, discussing the changes and effect on piano technique as well as their influence on piano tone color and piano performance. The study investigates and concludes how Liszt’s composing was affected and transformed by the general environment of that time. It also looks into the background behind the development of these three versions and their impact on the passage of piano etudes in order to understand how the new piano techniques were formed and why certain techniques were kept or dropped. Finally, this study talks about Liszt’s position in history and the value of his work along with his importance and distinctive creativity in piano music.
目 錄
凡例 i
譜例目次 ii
圖目次 viii
表目次 viii
前言 1
第一章 超技練習曲之歷史背景 5
第一節 超技練習曲的第一個版本:《十二首練習曲》 5
(Etude pour le Piano en douze Exercices, S.136)
第二節 超技練習曲的第二個版本:
《大練習曲》(12 Grandes Etudes, S.137) 8
第三節 超技練習曲的第三個版本:
《超技練習曲》(Etudes d’exécution transcendante, S.139) 11
第二章 超技練習曲之起始版本《十二首練習曲》(1826) 13
第三章 從《十二首練習曲》到《大練習曲》(1837) 26
第四章 從《大練習曲》到《超技練習曲》(1851) 69
第五章 超技練習曲之承先啟後 108
第一節 初試身手的第一版 109
第二節 由簡而繁的第二版 122
第三節 去蕪存菁的第三版 146
第四節 超技練習曲技巧歸納 157
第六章 結語:超技練習曲之獨創性與歷史定位 164
第一節 追尋技術的超越 166
第二節 技術帶來的超越 180
第三節 音樂才是超越 192
參考書目 200
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