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研究生:顏妙璇
研究生(外文):Miao-Hsuan Yen
論文名稱:中文句子閱讀中週邊詞彙處理歷程之眼動研究
論文名稱(外文):Eye Movement Studies on the Nature of Parafoveal Word Processing in Reading Chinese Sentences
指導教授:曾志朗曾志朗引用關係蔡介立蔡介立引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ovid J.-L. TzengJie-Li Tsai
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:神經科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:156
中文關鍵詞:週邊處理詞彙辨識閱讀眼球運動
外文關鍵詞:parafoveal processingword recognitionreadingeye movement
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本論文旨在探討中文句子閱讀中的週邊詞彙處理歷程。中文書寫系統當中並無詞間空格等詞彙邊界的物理線索,但由語料庫分析得知,中文詞以單字詞和雙字詞居多,故分辨在週邊的雙字字串是否為雙字詞可能是有效的策略。文中的四個實驗採用邊界典範,在受試者凝視雙字目標詞之前,目標詞位置以假詞或其他特性的雙字詞取代。實驗一發現週邊詞彙效果,當預視刺激為假詞時,凝視目標詞的機率較預視刺激為真詞時為高。實驗二中,預視刺激的首字與目標詞的首字相同,當預視刺激的首字字義與目標詞相同時,目標詞的凝視時間顯著縮短,顯示週邊預視時構詞層次的處理。實驗三中,在週邊呈現兩個重疊的雙字詞(三字字串)並不影響閱讀,顯示週邊詞的右側邊界尚未被處理。此外,中文讀者能攫取某一單字較常用於詞首或詞尾的統計線索,當此統計傾向與實際詞中位置衝突時會增加目標詞的凝視時間。實驗四操弄預視刺激呈現的時間,在預視刺激呈現180毫秒的實驗情境中發現預視效果,顯示至少週邊單字層次的訊息可在此預視期間取得。根據四個實驗的結果,試圖提出週邊詞彙處理機制:在週邊可透過與組成字間的連結激發一雙字詞,然而在週邊預視期間尚未完全認出此週邊詞。
Four experiments were conducted to investigate the nature of parafoveal word processing in reading Chinese sentences in which words are not explicitly delineated. Because one- and two-character words dominate in Chinese texts, it may be a helpful strategy to examine whether or not the combination of a two-character string in the parafovea exists in the lexical memory. The boundary paradigm was adopted and two-character words were used as the targets. Before the target was fixated, a preview stimulus (a pseudoword or a word that shared some properties with the target) was presented in the location of the target word. In Experiment 1, a significant parafoveal lexicality effect was found on the probability of fixating the target. In Experiment 2, previewing a word that shared a same morpheme with the target was found to facilitate target processing, suggesting that morphological processing plays a role in the activation of the parafoveal word. In Experiment 3, whether or not three characters in the parafovea contained two overlapping two-character words did not influence reading behavior, suggesting that the uncertainty about the right-side boundary of the parafoveal word is not processed during preview. In addition, a character position congruency effect on target gaze durations was found, indicating that Chinese readers are sensitive to statistical cues for possible word boundaries. In Experiment 4, presentation time of the preview stimuli was manipulated. A significant preview effect was observed when the onset of the parafoveal target was delayed until 180 ms after fixation onset. Parafoveal information, at least at the character level, was obtained around 180 ms after fixation onset. The mechanism of parafoveal word processing is proposed based on the results of the four experiments in the present study. A possible two-character word is activated in the parafovea by its constituent characters and foveal processing is necessary to fully identify the word.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Limit of visual acuity 2
1.2 Oculomotor measures 4
1.3 Experimental paradigms used in eye movement studies 6
Chapter Two Eye Movement Control in Reading 8
2.1 What can be obtained during each fixation? 8
2.2 What is integrated between successive fixations? 14
2.3 What determines when to move the eyes? 20
2.4 What determines where to direct the gaze? 23
2.5 Immediacy, lag, and successor effects 24
2.6 The chronology of information processing during fixation 27
2.7 Computational models of eye movement control in reading 29
2.8 Summary 34
Chapter Three Eye Movement Studies in Reading Chinese Sentences 35
3.1 Characteristics of the Chinese writing system 35
3.2 Eye movement studies in reading Chinese 40
Chapter Four Processing and Segmentation of Morphologically Complex Words 46
4.1 Morphological decomposition 46
4.2 Eye movement studies about compound word processing 52
4.3 Chinese compound word processing 54
4.4 Word segmentation in reading Chinese sentences 57
4.5 New corpus analyses 62
4.6 Summary 65
Chapter Five Research Goal and General Methodology 66
5.1 Research goal 66
5.2 General methodology 67
Chapter Six <Experiment 1> Parafoveal Word Processing 71
6.1 Introduction 71
6.2 Method 72
6.3 Results 74
6.4 Discussion 76
Chapter Seven <Experiment 2> Parafoveal Morphological Processing 80
7.1 Introduction 80
7.2 Method 81
7.3 Results 82
7.4 Discussion 83
Chapter Eight <Experiment 3> Processing the Uncertainty about the Right-Side Boundary of the Parafoveal Word 87
8.1 Introduction 87
8.2 Method 89
8.3 Results 93
8.4 Discussion 98
Chapter Nine <Experiment 4> Time Course of Parafoveal Word Processing 102
9.1 Introduction 102
9.2 Method 102
9.3 Results 105
9.4 Discussion 107
Chapter Ten General Discussion and Conclusion 109
10.1 Summaries of the results 109
10.2 Future directions 116
10.3 Conclusion 119
References 120
Footnotes 133
Appendix A Tables 134
Appendix B Figures 149
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