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研究生:劉致麟
研究生(外文):Ji-Lin Liu
論文名稱:泛自閉症障礙症候群之腦電波mu波抑制:可以支持破鏡理論嗎?
論文名稱(外文):EEG mu suppression in autism spectrum disorder: How valid is the broken mirror theory?
指導教授:鄭雅薇鄭雅薇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ya-Wei Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:神經科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:泛自閉症障礙症候群mu波抑制手部動作鏡像神經元模仿
外文關鍵詞:autism spectrum disordermu suppressionhand actionsmirror neuron systemimitation
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人類鏡像神經系統為執行社會認知功能的重要神經網絡。泛自閉症障礙症候群患者具有多重社交能力障礙的特性。「破鏡理論」推測泛自閉症障礙症候群患者鏡像神經系統受損,導致各種社會認知能力異常。而「極端男性化大腦理論」推測泛自閉症障礙症候群表現出極端男性化的大腦模式,即同理心能力受損而系統化能力過強,而導致異常。我們過去的研究發現,人類的鏡像神經系統中有性別差異現象(觀看手部動作時,女性鏡像神經元系統有較強的mu波抑制現象)。本研究不僅查證破鏡理論,也探討泛自閉症障礙症候群的鏡像神經元系統在性別差異中的定位。
本研究測量受試者的腦波mu波抑制現象,其為目前人類鏡像神經系統可靠的活性標誌,在腦波實驗進行的同時,記錄受試者的眼動變化。受試者總共40位(泛自閉症障礙症候群組及控制組各20位),實驗情境為觀看基礎線(中性)情境、手部動作、移動的點及自己執行動作。實驗結果發現,實驗情境有主要效果,即不論泛自閉障礙症候群組或是控制組,在觀看手部動作、移動的點及自己執行動作這三個情境下的mu抑制有顯著差異[F2, 76 = 10.812, p < 0.001]。然而在組間[F1, 38 = 0.044, p = 0.835]或交互作用[F2, 76 = 2.437, p = 0.094]無主要效果。這個統計結果顯示,泛自閉症障礙症候群組和控制組mu波抑制的程度沒有顯著差異,此兩組都在觀看手部動作時有較強的mu波抑制。另外我們發現泛自閉障礙症候群的mu波抑制與自閉症診斷觀察量表修訂版(Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised)中的語言溝通(Verbal communication)項目之間有顯著的正相關(Pearson r = 0.488, p = 0.034)。
本研究推測,泛自閉症障礙症侯群的鏡像神經系統仍保留部分功能,我們提供了直接的證據,對「破鏡理論」提出相反的說法。泛自閉症障礙症候群的模仿行為完好與否,其涉及的神經機轉不僅限於鏡像神經系統。未來我們將更深入探討鏡像神經系統本身及其衍生的神經機制,以更進一步了解泛自閉症障礙症候群社交能力缺損的神經病理機制。
Background: Mirror neuron system (MNS) plays an important role in social cognition. The “broken mirror theory” of ASD proposes that the dysfunction of MNS may result in varied social-cognitive difficulties of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Ramachandran et al. 2000; Williams et al. 2001). The “extreme male brain” of autism posits that ASD represents an extreme of the male brain pattern with impaired empathizing and enhanced systemizing (Baron-Cohen et al. 2005). Our previous electroencephalographic (EEG) studies had found gender differences in the human MNS as indicated by stronger mu suppression to watch hand actions in females than males (Cheng et al., 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009). Here, we also clarify if the individuals with ASD would show an extreme male pattern of MNS as shown by mu suppression during the observation of hand actions. Methods & Results: The EEG mu suppression, a reliable indicator of the activity of the human MNS, simultaneously recorded with the oculomotor analysis during the observation of baseline, hand actions, a moving dot, and self-performed hand actions in the individuals with ASD (N=20) and the controls (N=20). The results showed a significant difference of mu suppression across the conditions (the observation of hand actions, a moving dot, and self-performed hand actions) (F2, 76 = 10.812, p < 0.001) instead of the group (F1, 38 = 0.044, p = 0.835) and their interaction (F2, 76 = 2.437, p = 0.094). The ASD group was not different from the control group, which also exhibited stronger mu suppression during the observation of hand actions than other conditions. In addition, the mu suppression during the observation of hand actions has a positive correlation with the domain of verbal communication (Pearson r = 0.488, p = 0.034). Discussion & Conclusion: The present findings suggested that the individuals with ASD preserved MNS to a degree, which, in turn, may provide direct evidence against the broken mirror theory of ASD. The imitation behavior as well as the failure to imitate in ASD, should involve more than the MNS. Better cognitive model within and beyond MNS are required to understand the pathogenesis of social reciprocity difficulties in ASD.
Abstract (in Chinese)......................................i
Abstract.................................................iii
Acknowledgements...........................................v
Chapter 1. Background......................................1
Chapter 2. Review of Literatures...........................2
2-1 The characteristics of ASD.............................2
2-2 Broken mirror theory...................................3
2-3 Mirror neuron system...................................5
2-4 Action-perception paradigm in MNS study................8
2-5 Gender differences in the human MNS...................11
2-6 Extreme male brain theory.............................12
Chapter 3. Experiment: EEG mu Suppression in Autism Spectrum Disorders........................................15
3-1 Hypothesis............................................15
3-2 Materials and Methods.................................15
3-3 Results...............................................24
3-4 Discussion............................................29
Chapter 4. Conclusion.....................................44
References................................................45
Tables....................................................50
Figures...................................................53
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