跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.110.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 17:28
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃智佳
研究生(外文):Chih-Chia Huang
論文名稱:重覆透顱磁刺激對憂鬱症患者療效的預測因子探討
論文名稱(外文):The investigation of predictors for efficacy of rTMS in depressed patients
指導教授:蘇東平蘇東平引用關係林永煬林永煬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tung-Ping SuYung-Yang Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:臨床醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:情感疾患老化女性荷爾蒙重覆透顱磁刺激性別差異停經
外文關鍵詞:Affective disorderOld ageOvarian hormonesTranscranial magnetic stimulationGender differenceMenopause
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:559
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
憂鬱症在精神科臨床上是一種常見的疾病,美國流行病學的調查發現其終身盛行率甚至高達18%,雖然憂鬱症服藥後可緩解大部份的症狀,但仍然有50-60%的患者,服藥後憂鬱症狀不是無法完全改善,就是困擾於藥物的副作用。對於這一類的患者,電氣痙攣治療(electroconvulsive therapy,以下簡稱ECT)扮演著重要的角色,雖然ECT對藥物難治型的憂鬱症有非常好的療效,但不可否認的,ECT存在很多無法避免的副作用,如暫時性的記憶障礙、誘發痙攣、必須麻醉等。因為這些副作用加上污名化,大大的降低憂鬱症患者接受ECT治療的意願。
但最近有一種類似ECT,但沒有ECT副作用的非藥物性治療—透顱磁刺激術(transcranial magnetic stimulation,以下簡稱TMS),亦在治療憂鬱症方面,漸漸受到重視。雖然大部份TMS的研究確定TMS對憂鬱症狀的效果,但各研究間的療效差距仍大,故近年來開始研究有那些因子可能會影響TMS對於憂鬱症的療效。這些研究中發現,年齡愈大對TMS的反應愈不好,我們的研究亦是如此。我們開放性研究中,我們發現愈年輕的患者,對透顱磁刺激術反應愈好,漢式憂鬱量表上的度量有顯著地下降愈多。同時間,我們研究團隊亦對正常人施於透顱磁刺激,發現透顱磁刺激對認知功能上的影響,也是年齡愈大者效果愈不顯著。
接下來空打控制且双盲性的研究中,我們發現了如下幾項因子在有效組與無效組有明顯不同,無效組的患者年紀較大,一開始的在憂鬱量表的尺度較高,同時大部份是已停經了,因年齡與是否停經是有高度相關性的,在此研究無法區辨何者是真因子,何者是干擾因子(confounding factor)。之前亦無關於停經與否與透顱磁刺激術療效的報告,於是我們進行了這個研究,希望可以知道年齡、停經及女性荷爾蒙與透顱磁刺激術療效之間的相關性,希望可進一步增進療效與擬定新的治療準則。
有47名單極性或双極性憂鬱症的患者參與,我們對17名停經前女性、14名停經後女性與16名男性施行了2週的透顱磁刺激,再比較其前後憂鬱量表上的尺度。我們發現,全男與全女性間療效無差異。但女性再以停經來區分的話,男性與停經前女性間療效上並沒有差異(68.8%與70.6% ),但14名停經後女性均無效(0%),與前兩者有顯著差異。且女性患者的療效與年齡及女性荷爾蒙有顯著相關(r = -0.646, p <0.001; r = 0.527, p = 0.002),男性則否(p > 0.05)。另外,在迴歸分析下,年齡因子被排除,是否停經與女性荷爾蒙因子被保留。
從我們的研究發現,停經與女性荷爾蒙可能是在年齡下真正的因素,希望由我們的研究結果可以協助擬定新的治療準則且對難治型的憂鬱症能有所幫助。
Major depressive episode is a severe and highly prevalent illness which is often debilitating and results in considerable morbidity. While most depressive symptoms are eliminated by the current pharmacological treatment, as many as 50-60% have incomplete recovery or significant side effects. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective non-pharmacologic treatment of depression, particularly refractory depression. Nevertheless, a significant portion of medication-resistant patients with depression still avoid ECT for reasons including medical cormorbidity and misunderstanding.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been developed as a novel tool for delivering antidepressant treatment, which unlike ECT, does not cause a seizure or require anesthesia for depression. The use of rTMS for treatment of depression in many studies over the past 10 years, however, the clinically significant efficacy of this novel treatment has varied. Variable parameters of the studies possibly affected the efficacy of rTMS, and among them age is important, because older patients respond less well to rTMS. Similarly, our previous open trials also showed that the antidepressant effect of rTMS on the LDLPFC decreased with increasing age. Subsequently, our randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial also confirmed that younger age predicted a better response to rTMS. Meanwhile, the shortening of percentage choice reaction time induced by active rTMS was negatively correlated with increasing age in healthy subjects. Previous studies have showed older patients responded less well to rTMS, but no study has yet addressed on menopausal status effect on the antidepressant efficacy of rTMS.
Through searching the possible contributions under the age factor, we wish our result can drive treatment decision and provide an opportunity to enhance the effectiveness in treating the patients with refractory depression. Thus, we investigate how gender, menopausal status and ovarian hormones contribute to age effect on the antidepressant efficacy of repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS). Thirty-one women (17 premenopausal, 14 postmenopausal), and 16 men with treatment-refractory bipolar/major depression underwent 10 consecutive sessions of rTMS. Mood symptoms and female hormones were measured. ANOVA-R revealed a significant gender (p<0.05) and time effect (p<0.001) on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Percentage reduction of the rating correlated negatively with age in women (p<0.001). While no difference in the rTMS response was observed between male and premenopausal female patients (68.8% and 70.6%, respectively), postmenopausal women responded least (0%). We also found that greater improvement of depression score was associated with a higher estradiol/progesterone ratio in premenopausal women (po0.05), suggesting an important role of female hormones in the therapeutic response. Regression analysis revealed that menopausal status and ovarian steroid levels, but not age, were the main determinants of antidepressant efficacy of rTMS in females. This is the first study to specifically investigate the effect of female hormones on rTMS therapeutic effect. Our data support changes in menopausal status and ovarian steroid levels as effectors of mood and the CNS neural substrate response to rTMS in refractory depression. We wish our results will can help guide clinical choices and give benefit for treating the patients with refractory depression. Moreover, open a new research area for depression in the future.
English Abstract………………………………………………………2
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………5
List of Abbreviation…………………………………………………7
1. Introduction…………………………………………………………8
1.1. Major depression…………………………………………………9
1.2. Treatment for medication-resistant depression…………10
1.3. Background of rTMS……………………………………………12
1.4. Application of rTMS for depression………………………13
1.5. Predictors of response to the antidepressant efficacy of rTMS…………………………………………………………………18
1.6. Age affects the efficacy of rTMS…………………………20
1.6.1. Younger patients have better rTMS responses was confirmed in our initial open study……………………………20
1.6.2. Not only age factor, but also menopausal status may play an important role in the antidepressant effect of rTMS in our subsequent study……………………………………………21
1.6.3. Meanwhile, age factor is also critical in determining the effect of rTMS on cognition………………………………………………………………25
1.7. Hypothesis of our study……………………………………………………………………31
1.8. Aims of our study………………………………………………32
2. Materials and Methods……………………………………………34
2.1. Subjects…………………………………………………………………35
2.2. rTMS protocol……………………………………………………36
2.3. Behavioral and hormonal assessments………………………37
2.4. Statistical analysis…………………………………………38
3. Results………………………………………………………………40
3.1. Demographic data………………………………………………41
3.2. Treatment efficacy……………………………………………41
3.3. Relationship of age and gender to treatment efficacy43
3.4. Ovarian steroid hormones and treatment efficacy………44
3.5. Determinants of treatment efficacy in female patients45
3.6. Safety and tolerability of rTMS……………………………46
4. Discussion…………………………………………………………47
4.1. Age, gender, and clinical response………………………49
4.2. Predictors for the antidepressant efficacy of rTMS…51
4.3. Explanations for the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on response to rTMS………………………………………53
4.4. Methodological limitations…………………………………56
5. Conclusions…………………………………………………………58
6. Perspectives………………………………………………………60
References………………………………………………………………62
Figures and Tables……………………………………………………70
Publications……………………………………………………………87
1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental Disorders 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA; 1994.
2. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Swartz M, Blazer DG.. Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey. II: Cohort effects. J Affect Disord. 1994;30,15-26.
3. Üstün, T. B., Chatterji, S., Villanueva, M., et al (2003) WHO Multi-country Survey Study on Health and Responsiveness 2000–2001. In Health Systems Performance Assessment (eds C. J. L. Murray & D. B. Evans), pp. 761 -796. Geneva: WHO.
4. Murray CJL, Lopez AD. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from disease, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge: Harvard School of Public Health, 1996.
5. O'Reardon JP and Amsterdam JD, Overview of treatment-resistant depression and its management. In: J.D. Amsterdam, M. Hornig and A.A. Nierenberg, Editors, Treatment-Resistant Mood Disorders, Cambridge University Press, NY (2001), pp. 30–45.
6. Fava M, Davidson KG. Definition and epidemiology of treatment-resistant depression. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1996 Jun;19(2):179-200.
7. Judd LL, Akiskal HS. Delineating the longitudinal structure of depressive illness: beyond clinical subtypes and duration thresholds. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000 Jan;33(1):3-7.
8. Fava M, Diagnosis and definition of treatment-resistant depression, Biol. Psychiatry 53 (2003), pp. 649–659.
9. Burrows GD and Norman TR, Treatment-resistant unipolar depression. In: M. Lader and D. Naber, Editors, Difficult Clinical Problems in Psychiatry, Martin Dunitz, London (1999), pp. 57–73.
10. Keller MB, Lavori PW, Muller TI, Endicott J, Coryell W, Hirschfeld RM, Shea T. Time to recovery, chronicity, and levels of psychopathology in major depression: A 5-year prospective follow-up of 431 subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49,809-816.
11. McCall WV. Electroconvulsive therapy in the era of modern psychopharmacology. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Sep;4(3):315-24.
12. Fox HA. Patients' fear of and objection to electroconvulsive therapy. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1993 Apr;44(4):357-60.
13. Padberg F, Zwanzger P, Keck ME, Kathmann N, Mikhaiel P, Ella R, Rupprecht P, Thoma H, Hampel H, Toschi N, Möller HJ. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression: relation between efficacy and stimulation intensity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Oct;27(4):638-45.
14. Wassermann EM, Lisanby SH. Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review. Clin Neurophysiol. 2001 Aug;112(8):1367-77.
15. Lisanby SH, Luber B, Perera T, Sackeim HA. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: applications in basic neuroscience and neuropsychopharmacology. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000 Sep;3(3):259-273.
16. George MS, Lisanby SH, Sackeim HA. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: applications in neuropsychiatry. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56,300-311.
17. Sackeim HA, Rush AJ, George MS, Marangell LB, Husain MM, Nahas Z, Johnson CR, Seidman S, Giller C, Haines S, Simpson RK Jr, Goodman RR. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treatment-resistant depression: efficacy, side effects, and predictors of outcome. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Nov;25(5):713-28.
18. Sackeim HA. Vagus nerve stimulation. In: Lisanby, SH (ed.) Brain stimulation in psychiatric treatment. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2004 pp. 99-142.
19. Greenberg BD. Deep brain stimulation in psychiatry. In: Lisanby, SH (ed.) Brain stimulation in psychiatric treatment. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2004 pp. 53-65.
20. Lisanby SH, Schlaepfer TE, Fisch HU, Sackeim HA. Magnetic seizure therapy of major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Mar;58(3):303-5.
21. Lisanby SH, Magnetic seizure therapy: development of a novel convulsive technique. In: Lisanby, SH (ed.) Brain stimulation in psychiatric treatment. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2004 pp. 67-98
22. Barker A, Jalinous R, Freeston I. Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Lancet 1985;1:1106-1107.
23. Padberg F, Möller HJ. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation : does it have potential in the treatment of depression? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(6):383-403.
24. Hausmann A, Weis C, Marksteiner J, Hinterhuber H, Humpel C. Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances c-fos in the parietal cortex and hippocampus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000 Mar 29;76(2):355-62.
25. Hallett M, Cohen LG. Magnetism. A new method for stimulation of nerve and brain.JAMA. 1989 Jul 28;262(4):538-41.
26. Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ, Cracco JB, Rudell A, Eberle L. Suppression of visual perception by magnetic coil stimulation of human occipital cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1989 Nov-Dec;74(6):458-62.
27. Bickford RG, Guidi M, Fortesque P, Swenson M. Magnetic stimulation of human peripheral nerve and brain: response enhancement by combined magnetoelectrical technique. Neurosurgery. 1987 Jan;20(1):110-6.
28. Michelucci R, Valzania F, Passarelli D, Santangelo M, Rizzi R, Buzzi AM, Tempestini A, Tassinari CA. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation and hemispheric language dominance: usefulness and safety in epilepsy. Neurology. 1994 Sep;44(9):1697-700.
29. Pascual-Leone A, Gates JR, Dhuna A. Induction of speech arrest and counting errors with rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology. 1991 May;41(5):697-702.
30. Pascual-Leone A, Hallett M. Induction of errors in a delayed response task by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neuroreport. 1994;5,2517–2520.
31. Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, Wassermann EM, Hallett M. Responses to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex.Brain. 1994 Aug;117 ( Pt 4):847-58.
32. Hoflich G, Kasper S, Hufnagel A, Ruhrmann S, Moller HJ. Application of transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment of drug-resistant major depression: a report of two cases.Hum Psychopharmacol. 1993;8:361-365.
33. Grisaru N, Yarovslavsky U, Abarbanel J, Lamberg T, Belmaker RH. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression and schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1994;4:287-288.
34. Kolbinger HM, Hoflich G, Hufnagel A, Moller H-J, KasperS.Transcranialmagneticstimulation(TMS) in the treatment of major depression: a pilot study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1995;10:305-310.
35. George MS, Ketter TA, Post RM. Prefrontal cortex dysfunction in clinical depression. Depression. 1994;2:59-72.
36. George MS, Ketter TA, Post RM. What functional imaging studies have revealed about the brain basis of mood and emotion. In: Panksepp J. Greenwich, Conn, eds. Advances in Biological Psychiatry. JAI Press, 1996.pp.63–113.
37. Nobler MS, Sackeim HA, Prohovnik I, Moeller JR, Mukherjee S, Schnur DB, Prudic J, Devanand DP. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders, III. Treatment and clinical response. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1994;51,884-97.
38. George MS, Wassermann EM. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and ECT. Convulsive. Ther. 1994;10,251-253.
39. George MS.Whywould you ever want to? toward understanding the antidepressant effect of rTMS. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1998;13:307-313.
40. Lisanby SH, Sackeim HA. TMS in major depression. Ed. George MS, Belmaker RH. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neuropsychiatry. 2000 pp.185-200.
41. George MS, Wassermann EM, Williams WA, Callahan A, Ketter TA, Basser P, Hallett M, Post RM. Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression. Neuroreport. 1995;6,1853-1856.
42. Pascual-Leone A, Rubio B, Pallardo F, Catala MD. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression. Lancet. 1996;34,233-237.
43. Figiel GS, Epstein C, McDonald WM, et al. The use of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in refractory depressed patients. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;10,20-25.
44. Feinsod M, Kreinin B, Chistyakov A, Klein E. Preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression and schizophrenia. Depress Anxiety. 1998;7(2):65-8.
45. Triggs WJ, McCoy KJ, Greer R, Rossi F, Bowers D, Kortenkamp S, Nadeau SE, Heilman KM, Goodman WK. Effects of left frontal transcranial magnetic stimulation on depressed mood, cognition, and corticomotor threshold. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45,1440-1446.
46. George MS, Nahas Z, Molloy M, et al. A controlled trial of daily left prefrontal cortex TMS for treating depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;48,962-970.
47. Garcia-Toro M, Mayol A, Arnillas H, et al. Modest adjunctive benefit with transcranial magnetic stimulation in medication-resistant depression. J Affect Disord. 2001;64,271-275.
48. Fitzgerald PB, Brown TL, Marston NA, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60,1002-1008.
49. Loo C, Mitchell P, Sachdev P. et al. A sham-controlled trial in medication-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1998; 43,95.
50. Jorge RE, Robinson RG, Tateno A, et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as treatment of poststroke depression: a preliminary study. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55,398-405.
51. Berman RM, Narasimhan M, Sanacora G, et al. A randomized clinical trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47:332-337.
52. Manes F, Jorge R, Morcuende M, et al. A controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a treatment of depression in the elderly. Int Psychogeriatr 2001;13,225-231.
53. Holtzheimer PE, Avery D, Schlaepfer TE. Antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184,541-542
54. Garcia-Toro M, Pascual-Leone A, Romera M, et al. Prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as add-on treatment in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71,546-548.
55. Grunhaus L, Dannon PN, Schreiber S, Dolberg OH, Amiaz R, Ziv R, Lefkifker E. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is as effective as electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of nondelusional major depressive disorder: an open study. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47,314-324.
56. Grunhaus L, Schreiber S, Dolberg OT, Polak D, Dannon PN. A randomized controlled comparison of electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in severe and resistant nonpsychotic major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:324-331.
57. Pridmore S, Bruno R, Turnier-Shea Y, Reid P, Rybak M. Comparison of unlimited numbers of rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and ECT treatment sessions in major depressive episode. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000 Jun;3(2):129-134.
58. Janicak PG, Down SM, Martis B, Alam D, Beedle D, Krasuski J, Strong MJ, Sharma R, Rosen C, Viana M. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: preliminary results of a randomized trials. Biological Psychiatry 2002;51,659–667.
59. Gershon AA, Dannon PN, Grunhaus L. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160,835-845.
60. Fregni F, Marcolin MA, Myczkowski M, Amiaz R, Hasey G, Rumi DO, Rosa M, Rigonatti SP, Camprodon J, Walpoth M, Heaslip J, Grunhaus L, Hausmann A, Pascual-Leone A. Predictors of antidepressant response in clinical trials of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;9(6):641-54.
61. Kozel FA, Nahas Z, deBrux C, et al. How coil-cortex distance relates to age, motor threshold, and antidepressant response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;12,376-384.
62. Mosimann UP, Marré SC, Werlen S, Schmitt W, Hess CW, Fisch HU, Schlaepfer TE. Antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the elderly: correlation between effect size and coil-cortex distance. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;59(6):560-1.
63. Dannon PN, Schreiber S, Dolberg OT, Shemer L, Grunhaus L: Transcranial magnetic stimulation is effective in the treatment of relapse depression. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2000; 4:223–226
64. Teneback CC, Nahas Z, Speer AM, Stallings LE, Spicer KM, Risch SC, George MS. Changes in prefrontal cortex and paralimbic activity in depression following two weeks of daily left prefrontal TMS. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999; 11,426-435.
65. Kimbrell TA, Little JT, Dunn RT, Frye MA, Greenberg BD, Wassermann EM, Repella JD, Danielson AL, Willis MW, Benson BE, Speer AM, Osuch E, George MS, Post RM. Frequency dependence of antidepressant response to left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a function of baseline cerebral glucose metabolism. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46,1603-1613.
66. Brakemeier EL, Luborzewski A, Danker-Hopfe H, Kathmann N, Bajbouj M. Positive predictors for antidepressive response to prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Aug;41(5):395-403.
67. Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, Wassermann EM, Hallett M: Responses to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Brain 1994; 117:847–858 65.
68. Speer AM, Kimbrell TA, Wassermann EM, Repella JD, Willis MW, Herscovitch P, Post RM: Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on regional brain activity in depressed patients. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 48:1133–1141
69. Chen R, Gerloff C, Classen J, Wassermann EM, Hallett M, Cohen LG.. Safety of different inter-train intervals for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and recommendations for safe ranges of stimulation parameters. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1997;105, 415-421.
70. Wassermann EM, Grafman J, Berry C, Hollnagel C, Wild K, Clark K, Hallett M. Use and safety of a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 1996;101,412–417.
71. Nahas Z, Teneback CC, Kozel A, Speer AM, DeBrux C, Molloy M, Stallings L, Spicer KM, Arana G, Bohning DE, Risch SC, George MS. Brain effects of TMS delivered over prefrontal cortex in depressed adults: role of stimulation frequency and coil-cortex distance. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001 Fall;13(4):459-70.
72. McConnell KA, Nahas Z, Shastri A, et al. The transcranial magnetic stimulation motor threshold depends on the distance from coil to underlying cortex: a replication in healthy adults comparing two methods of assessing the distance to cortex. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49,454-459.
73. Huang CC, Su TP, Shan IK, Chang K, Wei IH. An open trial of daily left prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating medication-resistant depression. Eur. Psychiatry. 2004;19,523-524.
74. Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;12,56-62.
75. Su TP, Huang CC, Wei IH. Add-on rTMS for medication-resistant depression: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial in Chinese patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66,930-937.
76. World Health Organization Scientific Group. Research on the Menopause. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO Technical Services Report Series. 1981; 670
77. Sowers MR, La Pietra MT. Menopause: its epidemiology and potential association with chronic diseases. Epidemiol Rev. 1995;17,287-302.
78. Harlow BL, Wise LA, Otto MW, et al. Depression and its influence on reproductive endocrine and menstrual cycle markers associated with perimenopause: the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60,29-36.
79. Cohen LS, Soares CN, Poitras JR, et al. Short-term use of estradiol for depression in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a preliminary report. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160,1519-1522.
80. Hamilton M. Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Soc Clin Psychol 1967; 6:278-296.
81. Guy W. Early Clinical Drug Evaluation (ECDEC). In: Guy W. ed. Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology. Rockville: NIMH; 1976: 217-222
82. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;4:561-571.
83. Huang CC, Su TP, Shan IK, Wei IH. Effect of 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognition during a Go/NoGo task. J Psychiatr Res. 2004;38,513-520.
84. Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Sole J, Wassermann EM, Brasil-Neto J, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Effects of focal transcranial magnetic stimulation on simple reaction time to acoustic, visual and somatosensory stimuli. Brain 1992;115,1045–1059.
85. Zimmermann P, Fimm B. Test for Attentional Performance (TAP), version 1.5. Freiburg: Psytest Press; 1997.
86. Jenkins J, Shajahan PM, Lappin JM, Ebmeier KP. Right and left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation at 1 Hz does not affect mood in healthy volunteers. BioMedical Central Psychiatry 2002;2,1–5.
87. Evers S, Bockermann I, Nyhuis PW. The impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive processing: an event-related potential study. Neuroreport. 2001;17,2915–2918.
88. Cappa SF, Sandrini M, Rossini PM, Sosta K, Miniussi C. The role of the left frontal lobe in action naming: rTMS evidence. Neurology. 2002;59,720–723.
89. Post A, Muller MB, Engelmann M, Keck ME. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats: evidence for a neuroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo. European Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;11,3247–3254.
90. Liebetanz D, Fauser S, Michaelis T, Czeh B, Watanabe T, Paulus W, Frahm J, Fuchs E. Safety aspects of chronic low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation based on localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and histology of the rat brain. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2003;37,277–286.
91. Epstein CM, Sekino M, Yamaguchi K, Kamiya S, Ueno S. Asymmetries of prefrontal cortex in human episodic memory: effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on learning abstract patterns. Neuroscience Letters. 2002;320,5–8.
92. Boroojerdi B, Phipps M, Kopylev L, Wharton CM, Cohen LG, Grafman J. Enhancing analogic reasoning with rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex. Neurology 2001;56,526–528.
93. Michael N, Gosling M, Reutemann M, Kersting A, Heindel W, Arolt V, Pfleiderer B. Metabolic changes after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left prefrontal cortex: a sham controlled proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study of healthy brain. European Journal of Neuroscience 2003;17,2462–2468.
94. Pascual-Leone A, Wassermann EM, Grafman J, Hallett M. The role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in implicit procedural learning. Experimental Brain Research 1996;107,479–485.
95. Mull BR, Seyal M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of left prefrontal cortex impairs working memory. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2001;112,1672–1675.
96. Grafman J, Wassermann E. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can measure and modulate learning and memory. Neuropsychologia. 1999;37,159–167.
97. Levkovitz Y, Segal M. Aging affects transcranial magnetic modulation of hippocampal evoked potentials. Neurobiol Aging. 2001;22,255-263.
98. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz M, Blazer DG., Nelson CB. Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey I: lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence. J Affect Disord. 1993;29,85-96.
99. Yonkers KA, Kando JC, Cole JO, Blumenthal S. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of psychotropic medication. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149,587-595.
100. Sloan DM, Kornstein SG.. Gender differences in depression and response to antidepressant treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003;26,581-594.
101. Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorin P, Janavs J, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Baker R, Dunbar GC. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1998;59,22–33.
102. Trivedi MH. Treatment-resistant depression: new therapies on the horizon. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2003;15,59-70.
103. Pridmore S, Fernandes-Filho JA, Nahas Z, Liberatos C, George MS. Motor threshold in transcranial magnetic stimulation: a comparison of a neurophysiological method and a visualization of movement method. J ECT. 1998;14,25-27.
104. Kornstein SG., Schatzberg AF, Thase ME, Yonkers KA, McCullough JP, Keitner GI, Gelenberg AJ, Ryan CE, Hess AL, Harrison W, Davis SM, Keller MB. Gender differences in chronic major and double depression. J Affect Disord. 2000;60,1-11.
105. Kornstein SG, Schatzberg AF, Thase ME, Yonkers KA, McCullough JP, Keitner GI, Gelenberg AJ, Davis SM, Harrison WM, Keller MB. Gender differences in treatment response to sertraline versus imipramine in chronic depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157,1445-1452.
106. Sagud M, Hotujac LJ, Mihaljevic-Peles A, JakovljeviÄ M. Gender differences in depression. Coll Antropol. 2002;26,149-157.
107. Bertakis KD, Helms LJ, Callahan EJ, Azai R, Leigh P, Robbins JA. Patient gender differences in the diagnosis of depression in primary care. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001;10,689-698.
108. Salokangas RK, Vaahtera K, Pacriev S, Sohlman B, Lehtinen V. Gender differences in depressive symptoms. An artefact caused by measurement instruments? J Affect Disord. 2002;68,215-220.
109. Kornstein SG, McEnany G. Enhancing pharmacologic effects in the treatment of depression in women. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61 Suppl 11,18-27.
110. Yonkers KA, Bradshaw KD. Hormone replacement and oral contraceptive therapy: Do they induce or treat mood symptoms? In: Leibenluft, E. (Ed.), Gender differences in mood and anxiety disorders. American psychiatric press, New York, 1994;pp. 91-135.
111. Bonuccelli U, Melis G.B, Paoletti AM, Fioretti P, Murri L, Muratorio A. 1989. Unbalanced progesterone and estradiol secretion in catamenial epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 1989;3,100-106.
112. Inghilleri M, Conte A, Curra A, Frasca V, Lorenzano C, Berardelli A. Ovarian hormones and cortical excitability. An rTMS study in humans. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2004;115,1063-1068.
113. Debattista, C. Modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters by estrogen: clinical implications. In: Leibenluft, E. (Ed.), Gender differences in mood and anxiety disorders. American psychiatric press, New York, 1999;pp. 137-155.
114. Ben-Shachar D, Belmaker RH, Grisaru N, Klein E. Transcranial magnetic stimulation induces alterations in brain monoamines. J Neural Transm. 1997;104,191-197.
115. Shaul U, Ben-Shachar D, Karry R, Klein E. Modulation of frequency and duration of repetitive magnetic stimulation affects catecholamine levels and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human neuroblastoma cells: implication for the antidepressant effect of rTMS. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;6,233-241.
116. Eaton WW, Anthony JC, Gallo J, Cai G, Tien A, Romanoski A, Lyketsos C, Chen LS. Natural history of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-IV major depression. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54,993-999.
117. Benazzi F. Female depression before and after menopause. Psychother Psychosom. 2000;69,280-283.
118. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Liu L, Gracia CR, Nelson DB, Hollander L. Hormones and menopausal status as predictors of depression in women in transition to menopause. Arch. Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61,62-70.
119. Altamura AC, Bassetti R, Santini A, Frisoni GB, Mundo E. Emotional withdrawal, CT abnormalities and drug response in late life depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;28(2):349-54.
120. Webster MJ, Knable MB, Johnston-Wilson N, Nagata K, Inagaki M, Yolken RH. Immunohistochemical localization of phosphorylated glial fibrillary acidic protein in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Brain Behav Immun. 2001 Dec;15(4):388-400.
121. Belle D. Gender differences in the social moderators of stress. In: Barnett, R.C., Biener, L., Baruch, G.K., (Ed.), Gender and stress. Free Press, New York, 1987; pp. 257–257.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top