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研究生:陳韋宏
研究生(外文):Wei-Hong Chen
論文名稱:利用圖形限制提昇無線射頻定位精確度
論文名稱(外文):Using Shape Constraints to Improve in RFID Positioning Accuracy
指導教授:朱唯勤朱唯勤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Woei-Chyn Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:醫學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:生醫工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:室內定位系統無線射頻識別接收訊號強度
外文關鍵詞:RFIDIndoor positioningReceived Signal Strength Indicator
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
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  • 下載下載:75
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近年來通訊技術與無線網路蓬勃的發展,在各個領域皆有多元化的應用;家庭多媒體中心 (Home Media Center) 龐大的商機促使相關技術的推動與演進,其中一項重要應用即為室內定位。相較於廣泛應用且成熟的全球定位系統 (Global Position System, GPS),室內定位系統的發展較為緩慢,但GPS不能應用於室內,所以必須透過其他方式解決室內定位的問題。目前開發與應用中的有紅外線、超音波、影像辨識與無線電波等。這些感測技術在實際上各有其優缺點,由於無線通訊技術突飛猛進的發展與普及,選擇其做為定位研究的技術具有相當地優勢。
LANDMARC (LocAtioN iDentification based on dynaMic Active Rfid Calibration) 利用參考標籤陣列透過比較訊號強度來追蹤物體。由於室內環境複雜,容易受到障礙物的干擾導致電磁波訊號的不穩定,因此目前尚未有一套室內定位系統能在精確度與成本平衡下能達到實用的階段。故本研究嘗試以無線射頻識別運用地標 (landmark) 的概念來設置參考標籤 (Reference tag),並加入圖形限制演算法來提高最近鄰標籤的選取正確率,達到提升平均定位精確度的目的。
透過我們所開發的圖形限制演算法可以消除選取不合理參考標籤的錯誤,並提高精確度。經由實驗證實,在一般干擾較少的環境中,圖形限制較LANDMARC定位精確度明顯提升"43.65%" 。在不同追蹤標籤佈置實驗中得到之定位平均誤差,研究中也就不同時間點下的環境干擾度進行分析,得到的結果為在干擾較低 (例:假日) 時定位誤差為0.65公尺;干擾較高的情況下 (例:非假日) 為1.52公尺。
In recent years, the advanced development of communication technology and wireless network applications has been utilized in various areas. The obvious one is a concept of Home Media Center which brings enormous business opportunities, especially indoor positioning system. Although Global Positioning System (GPS) is a mature and popular technology, it can only be used outdoors. There are various ways effective to solve the indoor positioning problems, for example by the means of infrared ray, ultrasound, image identify, and wireless, etc. Became nowadays, the applications of radio waves have become the mainstream on indoor positioning researches.
LANDMARC proposed to use a set of reference RFID tags to help positioning specific tracking tags. By comparing the signal strength between the tracking tag and four reference tags, an average positioning error of 1.09 meters can be achieved. The method in this study is to apply the Shape Constrain algorithm to select the most suitable triangle formed by three reference tags, not necessary the nearest neighbors. Our results showed that average positioning accuracy, compared to LANDMARC, increased by "43.65%" when three RF readers and the inter-reference tag, whose interval is 1 meter, were used. The accuracy of our system was 0.65 meter in a controlled interference environment. In a less controlled interference environment, the accuracy was 1.52 meter. In conclusion, Shape Constraint algorithm elevated the positioning accuracy because it reduced the error probability in selecting unreasonable four-nearest neighbor reference tags for positioning calculation.
目錄
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
1 第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 章節規劃 2
1.3 室內外定位研究現況 3
1.4 RFID室內定位的研究動機與目的 10
1.5 無線射頻辨識RFID介紹 11
1.5.1 緣起 11
1.5.2 系統與運作原理 11
1.5.3 規格與標準 15
1.5.4 市場規模 18
1.5.5 相關應用 19
1.6 本章小結 24
第二章 定位研究 25
1.7 無線電波 25
1.7.1 定義與傳播特性 25
1.7.2 傳播路徑損耗模型 26
1.8 基本定位原理 27
1.8.1 三角測量法 (Triangulation) 27
1.8.2 鄰近法 (Proximity Method) 29
1.8.3 情境分析法 (Scene Analysis Method) 30
1.9 文獻探討 31
1.9.1 RADAR系統 32
1.9.2 LANDMARC系統 33
1.9.3 VIRE (Virtual Reference Elimination) 系統 34
1.9.4 Moving Average Filter (MAF) 36
1.10 文獻綜合討論 37
1.11 本章小結 38
2 第三章 實驗材料與方法 39
2.1 研究工具 39
2.1.1 Active RFID Reader 39
2.1.2 Active RFID Tag 41
2.1.3 AirPort Extreme Base Station 42
2.1.4 AirPort Express Base Station 43
2.1.5 TAVIS Concentrator 44
2.1.6 ECLiPSe 46
2.2 定位前分析 47
2.3 定位演算法 50
2.3.1 深入探討LANDMARC 50
2.3.2 圖形限制演算法 52
2.4 本章小結 58
3 第四章 實驗結果與討論 59
3.1 實驗環境與布置 59
3.2 即時定位系統介面 60
3.3 L值的設定 60
3.4 第一階段實驗結果與分析 62
3.5 第二階段實驗結果與分析 65
3.6 環境雜訊分析 69
3.7 本章小結 70
4 第五章 結論與未來研究方向 71
4.1 結論 71
4.2 未來研究方向 71
參考文獻 74
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