跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.172.223.30) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/25 12:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳志杰
研究生(外文):Chih-Chieh Chen
論文名稱:機車騎士頸部保護裝置之研發
論文名稱(外文):Development of Neck Protective Device for Motorcyclist
指導教授:楊世偉楊世偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sai-Wei Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:醫學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:生醫工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:研發頸部保護裝置有限元素機車騎士
外文關鍵詞:developmentneck protective devicefinite element methodmotorcyclist
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:154
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
頸椎是所有脊椎裡最靈活,最重要,一旦此部位有傷害的產生,通常會造成肌肉的拉傷或韌帶的扭傷,而頸椎的骨折,可能會導致癱瘓甚至有生命的危險。先前大部分機車騎士安全部品都著重於安全帽對頭部、護具對四肢保護的研發,缺少於其他防護裝置,如頸部的防護研發,於是,現在研發出了頸部保護裝置,以降低機車車禍時頸部受到的傷害。目前市售之頸部保護裝置有很多樣式,何種設計原理才能夠在真實車禍狀況下具有保護的效果。故本研究目的,探討有無穿戴頸部保護裝置在撞擊下之頸椎保護效益。
本研究以有限元素法分析,應用LS-DYNA3D顯示有限元素軟體,使用完整的頭-頸椎-軀幹之人體複合模型結合安全帽模型,設計一頸部保護裝置,觀察有無穿戴頸部保護裝置在擺錘撞擊下之頸椎保護效益,以供未來機車騎士頸部保護裝置的研發與改善做參考。
結果顯示,受到擺錘前面撞擊時,頸部保護裝置能有效地降低椎體、椎間盤、椎體間接觸力與韌帶的應力與受力值,但受到擺錘後面撞擊時,只能降低部分的值。另外也發現減少頭部與頸椎的活動度,相對就能減少其受力與應力值。在頭部加速度方面,在前後撞擊下,分別減少71%與61%,在頭部能量變化量方面,前後撞擊下分別吸收了2758與2353焦耳。
未穿戴頸部保護裝置撞擊時,椎體Max von Mises stress發生在枕骨寰椎間關節的地方,椎間盤則發生在較低之椎間盤。使用頸部保護裝置後在擺錘前後撞擊下,在椎體部分分別降低79%與67%,在椎節盤部分則分別降低68%與34%。韌帶受力分面,僅在擺錘前撞之下有降低受力外,擺錘後撞下,無明顯差異。
The cervical spine is the most flexible in all vertebras, and is most important. If it occur injury, usually can cause muscle or ligament failure, and bone fracture, and may cause the living danger. Most of the body protect devices are focused on head such as helmet, and lack other protective for neck, thorax, and cervical spine. Then, it develop neck protective device now, and it can reduce injury in the motorcycle traffic accident. The present commercial neck protective device has a lot of designs, how about design principles can have protection effects in the true traffic accident state. The purpose of his study is discussing those protection effects of without/with neck protective device in impact.
This study is using LS-DYNA3D explicit finite element software to investigate protection effects that the head-cervical spine-torso combines the helmet models, and to design a neck protective device, with/without neck protective device. In the future it can provide for research and development.
The results showed that the neck protective device could reduce injuries at vertebras and discs and ligaments in pendulum end impact, but just reduce part injuries at spine and discs and ligaments in pendulum front impact. Another found that reduced range of motion of vertebras could reduce stresses. In head acceleration aspect, in front and end impact under, reduced by 71% & 61% respectively, at head energy changing amount aspect, front and end impact under, absorbed 2758 and 2353 J separately .
At without neck protective device, the maximum von Mises stress of the vertebras and discs occurred the occipitoatlantal joint and under of discs in pendulum impact. When with neck protective device in pendulum front and end impact, the vertebras of maximum von Mises stress reduced 79% & 67% respectively ,and discs of maximum von Mises stress reduced 68% & 34% respectively. At ligaments failure aspect, it had reduced injuries value in front impact, but there had no different significantly in end impact.
中文摘要………………………………………………………...……………………I
Abstract………………………………………………………...…………………….II
目錄…………………………………………………….…………..………………..III
圖目錄…………………………………………………...…………………………...V
表目錄……………………………………………………..……………………......IX
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………….1
1-1研究動機與背景.....................................................................................................1
1-2 頸椎解剖與生理………………………………………...………………………3
1-2-1 脊椎硬組織…………………………………………………………………3
1-2-2 脊椎軟組織…………………………………………………………………5
1-2-3 關節面………………………………………………………………………6
1-3 頸椎運動學……………………………………………………………………...8
1-4 頸椎傷害……………………………………………………………………...…8
1-5 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………………….…11
1-5-1頸椎傷害於實驗之研究…………………………………………………...11
1-5-2頸椎傷害於數值分析法之應用………………………………………...…16
1-5-3頸部保護裝置之相關研究………………………………………………...18
1-5-4頸部保護裝置………………………………………………………...……21
1-6研究目的……………………………………………………………………...…23
第二章 材料與方法……………………………………………………………...…24
2-1有限顯示(Explicit)運算理論……………………………………………...……24
2-2 模型架構………………………………………………………………….……25
2-2-1頭-頸椎-軀幹模型………………………………………………………….26
2-2-2 安全帽模型…………………………………………………………..……29
2-2-3 頸部保護裝置模型………………………………………………………31
2-3 頸部保護裝置結構測試….………………………………………………..…33
2-4 模型組合………….………………………………………………………..…34
2-5 模擬方式….………………………………………………………………..…36
2-6 擺錘撞模擬……..………………….…………………………………………36
2-7 傷害準則………………………….………………………………………..…39
第三章 結果…………………………..…………………………………………….40
3-1 頸部保護裝置測試結果……….………………………………………………40
3-1-1 前置撞擊與強度分析………………….………………………………….40
3-1-2 後置撞擊與強度分析…………………….……………………………….43
3-2 模型驗證……………………………………………………………………….46
3-3 擺錘前面撞擊模擬,無穿戴頸部保護裝置………………………………….48
3-4 擺錘前面撞擊模擬,有穿戴頸部保護裝置……………….…………………55
3-5 擺錘後面撞擊模擬,無穿戴頸部保護裝置………………………………….62
3-6 擺錘後面撞擊模擬,有穿戴頸部保護裝置………………….………………69
3-7 總結………………………………………………………………….…………76
第四章 討論………………………………………………………………...………80
4-1 有無穿戴頸部保護裝置之擺錘前面撞擊…………………………….………80
4-2 有無穿戴頸部保護裝置之擺錘後面撞擊……………………………….……82
4-3 頸部保護裝置設計………………………………………………………….…83
4-4 模型的限制………………………………………………………………….…83
4-5 相關參數設定……………………………………………………………….…85
第五章 結論……………………………………………………………………..…86
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………….…..87
1. Adams, J. C., (1987). Outline of Fracture. Edinburgh : Churchill Livingstone
2. Brolin, K., (2002). Cervical Spine Injuries -Numerical Analyses and Statistical Survey. Ph.D. Royal Institute of Technology.
3. Brault, J. R., Siegmund, G. P., Wheeler, J. B., (2000). Cervical muscle response during whiplash: evidence of a lengthening muscle contraction. Clin.Biomech.(Bristol.,Avon.) 15, 426-435.
4. Camacho, D. L., Nightingale, R. W., Myers, B. S., (1999). Surface friction in near-vertex head and neck impact increases risk of injury. J.Biomech. 32, 293-301.
5. Chiu, W. T., Kuo, C. Y., Hung, C. C., Chen, M., (2000). The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries. Am.J.Public Health 90, 793-796.
6. Engsberg, J.R., Standeven, J.W., Shurtleff, T.L., Tricamo, J.M., Landau, W.M.,(2009). Spinal cord and brain injury protection: testing concept for a protective device. Spinal Cord. 47(8):634-9.
7. Frank, H.N., (2006). Atlas of Human Anatomy. Elsevier - Health Sciences Division.
8. Kumar, S., Narayan, Y., Amell, T., (2003). Analysis of low velocity frontal impacts.Clin.Biomech.(Bristol., Avon.) 18, 694-703.
9. Konrad, C. J., Fieber, T. S., Schuepfer, G. K., Gerber, H. R., (1996). Are fractures of the base of the skull influenced by the mass of the protective helmet? A retrospective study in fatally injured motorcyclists. J.Trauma 41, 854-858.
10. Mark A Gomez, (2001). Biomechanics of soft tissue injury. Lawyers and Judges.
11. Marieb, E. N., Mallatt, J., (2005). Human Anatomy An Important of Addison. Wesley Longman.
12. Ooi, S.S., Wong, S.V., Radin, Umar. R.S., Azhar, A.A., Yeap, J.S., Megat, Ahmad. M.M., (2004).Mechanisms of cervical spine injuries for non-fatal motorcycle road crash. Ooi SS, Wong SV, Radin Umar RS, Azhar AA, Yeap JS, Megat Ahmad MM. Jun;59(2):146-52
13. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center, B. A., (2006). Spinal Cord Injury94Facts and Figures at a Glance. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center,Birmingham, Alabama.
14. Nightingale, R. W., McElhaney, J. H., Richardson, W. J., Myers, B. S., (1996). Dynamic responses of the head and cervical spine to axial impact loading. J.Biomech. 29, 307-318.
15. Radek A, Zapałowicz K, Nawrocki A, Demus J, Maklewska E, Matyjewski M.Neurol Neurochir Pol. (2000). Conception of the cervico-brachial protector for motorcycle drivers. 34(6 Suppl):94-106.
16. Panjabi, M. M., Cholewicki, J., Nibu, K., Babat, L. B., Dvorak, J., (1998). Simulation of whiplash trauma using whole cervical spine specimens. Spine 23, 17-24.
17. Engsberg , J.R., Standeven, J.W., Shurtleff, T.L., Tricamo,J.M., Landau, W.M.,
(2009). Spinal cord and brain injury protection: testing concept for a protective device. Spinal Cord. Aug;47(8):634-9. Epub 2009 Feb 17
18. Yoganandan, N., Kumaresan, S., Pintar, F. A., (2001). Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 2. Cervical spine soft tissue responses and biomechanical modeling. Clin.Biomech.(Bristol., Avon.) 16, 1-27.
19. Yang, K. H., Zhu, F., Luan, F., Zhao, L., Begeman, P. C., (1998). Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Neck. The 42th STAPP Car Crash Journal.
20. 范遠一, (2007) 頸部肌肉活動於機車車禍時對於頸椎傷害之影響。國立陽明大學醫學工程研究所碩士論文
21. 邱士紘,(2005)以LifeMOD模擬頭與頸椎受後側撞擊之生物力學分析。國立中興大學生物產業機電工程學系碩士論文
22. 鄭穎隆, (2005) 以有限元素法探討機車車禍時有無佩帶安全帽之頸椎傷害機轉。國立陽明大學醫學工程研究所碩士論文
23. 范志銘,(1996)應用數值模擬探討機車安全帽防衝擊之設計原理。國立中正大學機械工程研究所碩士論文
24. 張嘉原,(2000)建立耦合式衝擊模型以研究機車頭盔的保護效果。國立中正大學機械工程研究所碩士論文
25. 神經學學會。摘自http://www.neuro.org.tw/。1996
26. 人體計測資料庫。摘自http://msis.jsc.nasa.gov/sections/section03.htm
27. 中國國家標準CNS 2396, Z2009. 乘坐機器腳踏車用安全帽
28. 中華民國神經學學會。摘自http://www.neuro.org.tw/。1996
29. 中國國家標準CNS 3902, Z3014. 乘坐機車用安全帽檢驗法,民國87 年3 月。
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top