跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.50.201) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/02 01:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:詹文瑜
研究生(外文):Wen-Yu Chan
論文名稱:探討雅典七天超級馬拉松跑者於賽中與賽後之發炎反應
論文名稱(外文):The Inflammatory Responses of Runners During and After 7-day Ultra-Marathon in Athens
指導教授:陳俊忠陳俊忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jin-Jong Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:物理治療暨輔助科技學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:發炎反應氧化傷害超級馬拉松
外文關鍵詞:Inflammatory ResponsesOxidative StressUltra-Marathon
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:325
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:89
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
背景:激烈運動使組織傷害釋放出大量噬中性球,可能進而產生自由基或過氧化物;然而,此現象或許會在運動後減少,但卻因免疫功能的下降而增加上呼吸道 (URI) 的感染機率。免疫細胞中的內因性抗氧化酵素,可避免氧化物質造成對體內的危害。研究顯示出許多在高強度運動中與運動後,皆會使免疫系統、氧化傷害及抗氧化酵素產生變化;然而,卻未有研究探討七天馬拉松賽對上述生理指標及系統之影響。目的:(1) 超級馬拉松跑者在七天雅典賽中與賽後的發炎反應變化; (2) 發炎反應與抗氧化酵素之間的關係。方法:九名健康馬拉松跑者 (5位男性與4位女性;年齡 52.4±2.5 歲;平均數±標準誤) 參與本研究,並以2008年希臘雅典超級馬拉松賽為主要實驗流程。受試者於賽前、賽中、賽後採取血液樣本,並填寫基本資料及同意書。血液分析項目為白血球 (WBC) 及其次群、噬中性球氧爆與去顆粒作用功能、血漿皮質固醇 (plasma cortisol) 及葡萄糖 (plasma glucose) 濃度、血漿氧化傷害指標 (plasma TBARS)、血漿超氧化物歧化酵素 (plasma SODs)、血漿過氧化氫酵素 (plasma CAT) 和血漿麩胱甘�此L氧化酵素 (plasma GPx) 活性。賽中全程皆記錄每天跑步之距離。結果:(1) 相較於賽前數值,賽中與賽後的白血球數、淋巴球數、單核球數、全部與單一的噬中性球氧爆作用、血漿過氧化氫酵素酵素活性皆顯著降低 (P<0.05)。然而,噬中性球數、全部與單一的噬中性球去顆粒作用、血漿皮質固醇及葡萄糖濃度、血漿氧化傷害指標則顯著上升 (P<0.05)。七天賽總和數值與賽前數值之比較也有相似之結果 (P<0.05);(2) 相較於賽後之數值,白血球數、淋巴球數、單核球數、噬中性球數、全部的噬中性球氧爆作用、單噬中性球去顆粒作用、血漿過氧化氫酵素酵素活性、血漿皮質固醇濃度、血漿氧化傷害指標於賽後72小時皆未恢復 (P<0.05);然而,單噬中性球氧爆作用與全部的噬中性球去顆粒作用已於賽後24小時恢復功能 (P<0.05)。結論:此研究主要發現為 (1) 白血球顯著減少可能與淋巴球和單核球數量顯著下降相關; (2) 顯著上升的噬中性球的去顆粒作用 (全部與單一) 可能鮮少被皮質固醇影響,但其與過氧化傷害有顯著正相關;大量增生的噬中性球數與去顆粒作用除可代表之急性發炎反應外,也或許能表示氧化傷害增加; (3) 免疫空窗期始於賽中第一天,並延續至賽後72小時,其可能代表此類運動大量增加感染機率; (4) 賽中顯著降低的血漿過氧化氫酵素酵素活性,可能較超氧化物歧化酵素和麩胱甘�此L氧化酵素對氧化傷害及其衍生物較敏感; (5) 高升的抗氧化酵素活性可能作用於立即之氧化傷害,活性稍後降低可能歸因於長期和連續性的運動所產生氧化傷害之影響。因此,本研究可推知,運動會引起免疫系統與內因性抗氧化酵素系統之反應,並使兩者產生交互之作用,此現象或許對運動後易感染之空窗期有顯著之影響。
Background: Strenuous exercise induces tissue damages by neutrophil-triggered oxidative stress may boost reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Endogenous antioxidants in immune cells protect subjects from damages of ROS. Studies have shown the changes of immune function, oxidative damages and enzymatic antioxidants after excessive exercises, but none of researches have been discussed about the 7-day ultra-marathon. Purposes: To evaluate changes of the immune system and related endogenous antioxidant enzymes of athletes during and after 7-day ultra-marathon. Methods: Nine healthy athletes (5 males and 4 females, age 52.4±2.5 yr; means±SEM) who participated in 7-day race of the 2008 Athens ultra-marathon festival. Blood samples were collected before, during and after the competition. The contents of total white blood cell (WBC) and leukocyte subpopulation, neutrophil functions of oxidative burst and degranulation, and concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured. The running distances were recorded every day during the competition. Results: (1) Comparing to pre-race, total WBC counts, lymphocyte counts, monocyte counts, total or per neutrophil oxidative burst, plasma CAT activity significantly decreased (P<0.05) during the race. Contrarily, neutrophil counts, total or per neutrophil elastase release, and the concentration of plasma cortisol and TBARS significantly increased (P<0.05). The similar results were also discovered in the comparison of the overall value of 7-day competition (P<0.05); (2) Comparing to post-race, total WBC counts, neutrophil counts, lymphocyte counts, monocyte counts, total neutrophil oxidative burst, elastase release per neutrophil, plasma CAT activity and the concentration of plasma cortisol and TBARS did not recover within 72 hours (P<0.05), while oxidative burst per neutrophil and total elastase release did recover in 24 hours (P<0.05); (3) Plasma SODs, GPx activity and glucose level were unchanged during the competition. Conclusions: The main findings of this study were (1) Leukopenia seemed to associate with remarkably decreased numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes during and after the race; (2) Either total or per cell of neutrophil degranulation in exercise might be less regulated by glucocorticoid but correlating positively with TBARS, represented as acute inflammatory response with neutrophilia, and the generation of oxidative stress; (3) “Open window effects” may be triggered in the first day of the race and last over 72 hour after the race; (4) The lowest CAT activity during and after the race indicated that it is a much more sensitive index of oxidative stress responses than SODs and GPX; (5) Antioxidant enzymes had an initial increase by oxidative stress and a later decrease by cumulative damage from prolong exercise. Therefore, the results of this study revealed that the interaction of immune and enzymatic antioxidant system might increase the risk of infection after prolonged exercise in athletes.
Table of Contents.......................................i
List of Tables.........................................iv
List of Figures........................................vi
Abstract..............................................vii
Chinese Abstract........................................x

Chapter 1 Introduction..................................1
1.1 Background.........................................1
1.2 Study Significance.................................2
1.3 Purpose of the Study...............................3
1.4 Hypotheses of the Study............................3

Chapter 2 Literature Review............................4
2.1  The Ultra-Marathon Activity.......................4
2.2  The Immune Function and Related Parameters........4
2.3  The Immune Response to Heavy Exertion.............11
2.4  The Role of Lipid Oxidation.......................16
2.5  The Responses of Lipid Peroxidation to Heavy Exercise................................................17
2.6  The Immune Cells and Lipid Peroxidation...........18
2.7  The Antioxidant Endogenous (Enzymatic) System.....19
2.8 The Responses of Endogenous Antioxidants to Heavy Exertion................................................22
2.9 The Immune Cells and the Endogenous Antioxidants..25
2.10 Summary...........................................27

Chapter 3 Materials and Methods........................30
3.1  Study Design......................................30
3.2  Subjects..........................................30
3.3  Experimental Procedure............................31
3.4  Measurement and Assays............................32
3.5  Statistical Analysis..............................39

Chapter 4  Results.....................................41
4.1  Basic Data Comparisons............................41
4.2  Responses of Blood Cell Counts....................42
4.3  Responses of Neutrophil Functions.................45
4.4  Responses of Affecting Immunological Factors......49
4.5  Responses of the Biomarker of Oxidative Stress....51
4.6  Responses of Endogenous Antioxidants..............52

Chapter 5 Discussion...................................56
5.1 Inflammatory Response with Related Factors to Ultra-marathon................................................56
5.2 The Oxidative Stress Biomarker and Inflammatory Responses...............................................63
5.3 The Relation of Endogenous Antioxidant, Neutrophil Function and Oxidative Stress Biomarker to Ultra-marathon................................................65
5.4 Limitations.......................................69

Chapter 6 Conclusions..................................71
References..............................................72
Tables.................................................106
Figures................................................125
Appendix I.............................................142
Appendix II............................................144
Appendix III...........................................146
1.邱榮基, 畢. 探討台灣馬拉松運動之發展. 大專體育 80, 54-61 (2005).
2.林孟賢 國際與台灣超級馬拉松的發展現況. 大專體院 81, 61-68 (2005).
3.Hubner-Wozniak E., L.G., Sendecki W., Dentkowski A., Sawicka T., Drozd J. Effects of 10 week-training on biochemical variables in recreational bodybuilders. Biology of Sport 13(2), 105-112 (1996).
4.Fallon K.E., S.G., Sivyer K., Dare A. The biochemistry of runners in a 1600 km ultramarathon. British Journal of Sports Medicine 33, 264-269 (1999).
5.Kratz A., L.K.B., Siegel A.J., Chun K.Y., Flood J.G., Van Cott E.M., Lee-Lewandrowski E. Effect of marathon running on hematologic and biochemical laboratory parameters, including cardiac markers American Journal of Clinical Pathology 118(6), 856-863 (2002).
6.Wu H.J., C.K.T., Shee B.W., Chang H.C., Haung Y.J., Yang R.S. Effects of 24h ultra-marathon on biochemical and hematological parameters. World Journal of Gastroenterology 10(18), 2711-2714 (2004).
7.Smith J.E., G.G., Lopes P., Pedoe D.T. Efeects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department. British Journal of Sports Medicine 38(3), 292-294 (2004).
8.Kim H.J., L.Y.H., Kim C.K. Biomarkers of muscle and cartilage damage and inflammation during a 200 km run. European Journal of Applied Physiology 99(4), 443-447 (2007).
9.Glaser R., R.B., Chesney M., Natelson B. Stress-induced immunomodulation: Implications for infecious diseases. Journal of the American Medical Association 281(24), 2268-2270 (1999).
10.Dhabhar, F.S. Stress-induced augmentation of immune function: The role of stress hormones, leukocyte trafficking, and cytokines. Brain, Behavior and Immunity 16, 785-798 (2002).
11.Chinda, D., Nakaji, S., Umeda, T., Shimoyama, T., Kurakake, S., Okamura, N., Kumae, T., Sugawara, K. A competitive marathon race decreases neutrophil functions in athletes. Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence 18(6), 324-329 (2003).
12.Reid, S.A., Speedy, D.B., Thompson, J.M., Noakes, T.D., Mulligan, G., Page, T., Campbell, R.G., Milne, C. Study of hematological and biochemical parameters in runners completing a standard marathon. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine 14(6), 344-353 (2004).
13.Peters, E.M., Robson, P.J., Kleinveldt, N.C., Naicker, V.L., Jogessar, V.D. Hematological recovery in male ultramarathon runners: the effect of variations in training load and running time. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 44(3), 315-321 (2004).
14.Nieman, D.C. Marathon training and immune function. Sports Medicine 37(4-5), 412-415 (2007).
15.Akerstrom, T.C.A., Pedersen, B.K. Strategies to enhance immune function for marathon runners: what can be done? Sports Medicine 37(4-6), 416-419 (2007).
16.Nieman, D.C. Risk of upper respiratory tract infection in athletes: An epidemiologic and immunologic perspective. Journal of Athletic Training 32(4), 344-349 (1997).
17.Liu, M.L., Bergholm, R., M�驥imattila, S., Lahdenper��, S., Valkonen, M., Hilden, H., Yki-J�鑼vinen, H., Taskinen, M.R. A marathon run increases the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in vitro and modifies plasma antioxidants. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 276, 1083-1091 (1999).
18.Sureda, A., Tauler, P., Aguil��, A., Fuentespina, E., C�櫓dova, A., Tur, J.A., Pons, A. Relation between oxidative stress markers and antioxidant endogenous defences during exhaustive exercise. Free Radical Research 39(12), 1317-1324 (2005).
19.Briviba, K., Watzl, B., Nickel, K., Kulling, S., B�宄, K., Haertel, S., Rechkemmer, G., Bub, A. A half-marathon and a marathon run induce oxidative DNA damage, reduce antioxidant capacity to protect DNA against damage and modify immune function in hobby runners. Redox Report 10(6), 325-331 (2005).
20.Goldsby, R.A., Kindt, T.J., Osborne, B.A. Chapter 1: Overviws of the Immune System, Chapter 2: Cells and Organs of the Immune System. Kuby Immunology (Fourth Edition), W.H. Freeman and Company, 7-57 (2002).
21.Rogers, J.C., Colbert, L.H., Greiner, J.W., Perkins S.N., Hursting S.D. Physical activity and cancer prevention: pathways and targets for intervention. Sports Medicine 38(4), 271-296 (2008).
22.Finaud, J., Lac, G´., Filaire, E. Oxidative stress: Relationship with exercise and training. Sports Medicine 36(4), 327-358 (2006).
23.Leeuwenburgh, C., Heinecke, J.W. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in exercise. Current Medicinal Chemistry 8, 829-838 (2001).
24.Chang, W.H., Chen, C.M., Hu, S.P., Kan, N.W., Chiu, C.C., Liu, J.F. Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on the modulation of the immune response in basketball players during the training period. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16(4), 609-615 (2007).
25.Peters-Futre, E.M. Vitamin C, neutrophil function, and upper respiratory tract infection risk in distance runners: the missing link. Exercise Immunology Review 3, 32-52 (1997).
26.Peters, E.M. Exercise, immunology and upper respiratory tract infections. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18(1), 69-77 (1997).
27.Nieman, D.C., Henson, D.A., McAnulty, S.R., McAnulty, L., Swick, N.S., Utter, A.C., Vinci, D.M., Opiela, S.J., Morrow, J.D. Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative and immune changes after an ultramarathon. Journal of Applied Physiology 92(5), 1970-1977 (2002).
28.Trappe S., H.M., Creer A., Gallagher P., Slivka D., Minchev K., Whitsett D. Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training. Journal of Applied Physiology 101, 721-727 (2006).
29.McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Katch, V.L. Chapter 6: Human Energy Transfer during Exercise, Chapter 7: Measuring and Evaluating Human Energy-Generating Capacities during Exercise. Essential of Exercise Physiology (Third Edition), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 203-256 (2006).
30.Tortora, G.J., Grabowski, S.R. Chapter 22: The Lymphatic and Immune System and Resistance to Disease. Principles of Anatomy Physiology (Tenth Edition), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 764-795 (2003).
31.Gleeson, M. Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression? Annual Review of Nutrition 64(3), 119-131 (2006).
32.Nieman, D.C. Immune response to heavy exertion. Journal of Applied Physiology 82, 1385-1394 (1997).
33.Fox, S.I. Chapter 15: The Immune System. Human Physiology, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 456-486 (2002).
34.Peake, J., Suzuki, K. Neutrophil activation, antioxidant supplements and exercise-induced oxidative stress. Exercise Immunology Review 10, 129-141 (2004).
35.Allman, D., Srivastava, B., Lindsley, R.C. Alternative routes to maturity: branch points and pathways for generating follicular and marginal zone B cells. Immunological Reviews 197, 147-160 (2004).
36.Kin, N.W., Sanders, V.M. It takes nerve to tell T and B cells what to do. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 79, 1093-1104 (2006).
37.Brogden, K.A., Guthmiller, J. M., Salzet, M., Zasloff, M. The nervous system and innate immunity: The neuropeptide connection. Nature Immunology 6, 558-564 (2005).
38.Straub, R.H. Complexity of the bi-directional neuroimmune junction in the spleen. Trends in Pharmacological Science 25(12), 640-646 (2004).
39.Webster, J.I., Tonelli, L., Sternberg, E.M. Neuroendocrine regulation of immunity. Annunal Review of Immunology 20, 125-163 (2002).
40.Petrovsky, N., McNair, P., Harrison, L.C. Diurnal rhythms of pro-inflammatory cytokines: Regulation by plasma cortisol and their therapeutic implications. Cytokine 10, 307-312 (1998).
41.Pedersen, B.K. et al. Exercise-induced immunomodulation - possible roles of neuroendocrine and metabolic factors. Int. J. Sports Med. 18, S2-S7 (1997).
42.Nieman, D.C. Immune response to heavy exertion. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 82, 1385-1394 (1997).
43.Smith, K.A., Lachman, L.B., Oppenheim, J.J., Favata, M.F. The functional relationship of the interleukins. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 151(6), 1551-1556 (1980).
44.Leung, D.Y., Bloom, J.W. Update on glucocorticoid action and resistance. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111(1), 3-22 (2003).
45.Elenkov, I.J., Chrousos, G.P. Stress system: organization, physiology and immunoregulation. Neuroimmunomodulation 13(5-6), 257-267 (2006).
46.Tortora, G.J., Grabowski, S.R. Chapter 25: Metabolism. Principles of Anatomy Physiology (Tenth Edition), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 907-931 (2003).
47.Scharhag, J., Meyer, T., Gabriel, H.H.W., Auracher, M., Kindermann, W. Mobilization and oxidative burst of neutrophils are influenced by carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged cycling in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology 87, 584-587 (2002).
48.Leist, M., Single, B., Castoldi, A.F., Kuhnle, S., Nicotera, P. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration: A switch in the decision between apoptosis and necrosis. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 185, 1481-1486 (1997).
49.Healy, D.A., Watson, R.W.G., Newsholme, P. Glucose, but not glutamine, protects against spontaneous and anti-Fas antibody-induced apoptosis in human neutrophils. Clinical science(London, England: 1979) 103, 179-189 (2002).
50.Peake, J., Wilson, G., Hordern, M., Suzuki, K., Yamaya, K., Nosaka, K., Mackinnon. L., Coombes, J.S. Changes in neutrophil surface receptor expression, degranulation, and respiratory burst activity after moderate- and high-intensity exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 97(2), 612-618 (2004).
51.Calder, P.C. Fuel utilisation by cells of the immune system. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 54, 65-82 (1995).
52.Gleeson M., B.N.C. Modification of immune responses to exercise by carbohydrate, glutamine and anti-oxidant supplements. Immunology and Cell Biology 78, 554-561 (2000).
53.Mackinnon, L.T. Chronic exercise training effects on immune function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 369-376 (2000).
54.Matthews, C.E., Ockene, I.S., Freedson, P.S., Rosal, M.C., Merriam, P.A., Hebert, J.R. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and risk of upper-respiratory tract infection. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 34, 1242-1248 (2002).
55.Nieman, D.C., Johanssen, L.M., Lee, J.W., Arabatzis, K. Infectious episodes in runners before and after the Los Angeles marathon. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 30, 316-328 (1990).
56.Peters, E.M., Goetzsche, J.M., Grobbelaar, B., Noakes, T.D. Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 170-174 (1993).
57.Ronsen, O., Pedersen, B.K., �攲itsland, T.R., Bahr, R., Kjeldsen-Kragh, J. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte responsiveness associated with repeated bouts of strenuous endurance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 91, 425-434 (2001).
58.Nieman, D.C. Speical feature for the Olympics: Effects of exercise on the immune system: Exercise effects on systemic immunity. Immunology and Cell Biology 78(5), 496-501 (2000).
59.Hoffman-Goetz, L., Pedersen, B.K. Exercise and the immune system: a model of the stress response? Immunology Today 15, 382-387 (1994).
60.Pedersen, B.K., Ullum. H. NK cell response to physical activity: possible mechanisms of action. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26, 140-146 (1994).
61.Pyne, D.B. Regulation of neutrophil function during exercise. Sports Medicine 17, 245-258 (1994).
62.Cupps, T.R., Fauci, A.S. Corticosteroid-mediated immunoregulation in man. Immunological Reviews 65, 133-155 (1982).
63.Nieman, D.C. Exercise immunology: practical applications. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18(1), 91-100 (1997).
64.Nieman, D.C., Ahle, J.C., Henson, D.A., Warren, B.J., Suttles, J., Davis, J.M., Buckley, K.S., Simandle, S. , Butterworth, D.E., Fagoaga, O.R., Nehlsen-Cannarella, S.L. Indomethacin does not alter the natural killer cell response to 2.5 h of running. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 79, 748-755 (1995).
65.Nieman, D.C., Berk, L.S., Simpson-Westerberg, M., Arabatzis, K., Youngberg, W., Tan S.A., Lee, J.W., Eby, W.C. Effects of long endurance running on immune system parameters and lymphocyte function in experienced marathoners. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10, 317-323 (1989).
66.Fauci, A.S. Glucocorticosteroid therapy: Mechanisms of action and cinical considerations. Annals of Intemal Medicine 84, 304-315 (1976).
67. Nakagawa, M., Terashima, T., D'yachkova, Y., Bondy, G.P., Hogg, J.C., Van Eeden, S.F. Glucocorticoid-induced granulocytosis: Contribution of marrow release and demargination of intravascular granulocytes. Circulation 98, 2307-2313 (1998).
68.Toft, P., Helbo-Hansen, H.S., Lillevang, S.T., Rasmussen, J.W., Christensen, N.J. Redistribution of granulocytes during adrenaline infusion and following administration of cortisol in healthy volunteers. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 38(3), 254-258 (1994).
69.Toft, P., Tonnesen, E., Svendsen, P., Pasmussen, J.W. Redistribution of lymphocytes after cortisol administration. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica 1000, 154-158 (1992).
70.Wira, C.R., Sandoe, C.P., Steele, M.G. .J. Immunol. Glucocorticoid regulation of the humoral immune system. I. In vivo effects of dexamethasone on IgA and IgG in serum and at mucosal surfaces. Journal of Immunology(Baltimore, Md.: 1950) 144, 142-146 (1990).
71.Weight, L.M., Alexander, D., Jacobs, P. Strenuous exercise: analogous to the acute-phase response? Clinical science(London, England: 1979) 81, 677-683 (1991).
72.McCarthy, D.A., Dale, M.M. The leucocytosis of exercise. A review and model. Sports Medicine(Auckland, N.Z.) 6(6), 333-363 (1988).
73.Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S., Spencer, R.L. Differential activation of adrenal steroid receptors in neural and immune tissues of Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, and Lewis rat. Journal of Neuroimmunology 56, 77-90 (1995).
74.Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S., Spencer, R.L. Effects of stress on immune cell distribution-dynamics and hormonal mechanisms. Journal of Immunology(Baltimore, Md.: 1950) 154, 5511-5527 (1995).
75.Dhabhar, F.S., Miller, A.H., McEwen, B.S., Spencer, R.L. Stress-induced changes in blood leukocyte distribution-role of adrenal steroid hormones. Journal of Immunology(Baltimore, Md.: 1950) 57, 1638-1644 (1996).
76.Gavrieli, R., Ashlagi-Amiri, T., Eliakim, A., Nemet, D., Zigel, L., Berger-Achituv, S., Falk, B., Wolach, B. The effect of aerobic exercise on neutrophil functions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, In press (2008).
77.Pyne, D.B., Baker, M.S., Smith, J.A., Telford, R.D. Exercise and the neutrophil oxidative burst: biological and experimental variability. European Journal of Applied Physiology 74, 564-571 (1996).
78.Blannin, A.K., Chatwin, L.J., Cave, R., Gleeson, M. Effects of submaximal cycling and long term endurance training on neutrophil phagocytic activity in middle aged men. British Journal of Sports Medicine 30, 125-129 (1996).
79.Gabriel, H., Muller, H.J., Urhausen, A., Kindermann, W. Suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst and unimpaired phagocytosis of circulating granulocytes one week after a long endurance exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 15, 441-445 (1994).
80.Liles, W.C., Dale, D.C., Klebanoff, S.J. Glucocorticoids inhibit apoptosis of human neutrophils. Blood 86, 3181-3188 (1995).
81.Pyne, D.B. Regulation of neutrophil function during exercise. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 17, 245-258 (1994).
82.Reichl, S., Arnhold, J., Knight, J., Schiller, J., Arnold, K. Reactions of Pholasin with peroxidases and hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 28, 1555-1563 (2000).
83.Suzuki, K., Sato, H., Kikuchi, T., Abe, T., Nakaji, S., Sugawara, K., Totsuka, M., Sato, K., Yamaya, K. Capacity of circulating neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species after exhaustive exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 81, 1213-1222 (1996).
84.Wolach, B., Eliakim, A., Gavrieli, R., Kodesh, E., Yarom, Y., Schlesinger, M., Falk, B. Aspects of leukocyte function and the complement system following aerobic exercise in young female gymnasts. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 8(2), 91-97 (1998).
85.Baj, Z., Kantorski, J., Majewska, E., Zeman, K., Pokoca, L., Fornalczyk, E., Tch�櫓zewski, H., Sulowska, Z., Lewicki, R. Immunological status of competitive cyclists before and after the training season. International Journal of Sports Medicine 15(6), 319-324 (1994).
86.Walsh, N.P., Blannin, A.K., Bishop, N., Robson, P.J., Gleeson, M. Effect of oral glutamine supplementation on human neutrophil lipopolysaccharide-stimulated degranulation following prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 10, 39-50 (2000).
87.Gleeson, M. Immune function in sport and exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 103, 693-699 (2007).
88.Shephard, R.J., Shek, P.N. Effects of exercise and training on natural killer cell counts and cytolytic activity: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine(Auckland, N.Z.) 28, 177-195 (1999).
89.Berk, L.S., Ton, S.A., Nieman, D.C., Eby, E.C. The suppressive effect of stress from acute exhaustive exercise on T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor ratio in athletes and non-athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18, 706-710 (1986).
90.Woods, J.A., Ceddia, M.A. , Kozak, C., Wolters, B.W. Effects of exercise on the macrophage MHC II response to inflammation. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18(6), 483-488 (1997).
91.Baumann, H., Gauldie, J. The acute phase response. Immunology Today 15, 74-80 (1994).
92.Garagiola, U., Buzzetti, M., Cardella, E., Confalonieri, F., Giani, E., Polini, V., Ferrante, P., Mancuso, R., Montanari, M., Grossi, E., et al Immunological patterns during regular intensive training in athletes: Quantification and evaluation of a preventive pharmacological approach. The Journal of International Medical Research 23(2), 85-95 (1995 ).
93.Venkatraman, J.T., Pendergast, D.R. Effect of dietary intake on immune function in athletes. Sports Medicine(Auckland, N.Z.) 32(5), 323-337 (2002).
94.Mitchell, J.B., Costill, D.L., Houmard, J.A., Flynn, M.G., Fink, W.J., Beltz, J.D. Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on counterregulatory hormones during prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 11, 33-36 (1990).
95.Murray, R., Paul, G.L., Seifent, J.G., Eddy, D.E. Responses to varying rates of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23, 713-718 (1991).
96.Nieman, D.C. Influence of carbohydrate on the immune response to intensive, prolonged exercise. Exercise Immunology Review 4, 64-76 (1998).
97.Nieman, D.C. Nutrition, exercise, and immune system function. Clinics in Sports Medicine 18(3), 537-548 (1999).
98.Bishop, N.C., Blannin, A.K., Rand, L., Johnson, R., Gleeson, M. The effects of carbohydrate supplementation on neutrophil degranulation responses to prolonged cycling. International Journal of Sports Medicine 21(1), 73 (2000).
99.Henson, D.A., Nieman, D.C., Parker, J.C., Rainwater, M.K., Butterworth, D.E., Warren, B.J., Utter. A., Davis, J.M., Fagoaga, O.R., Nehlsen-Cannarella, S.L. Carbohydrate supplementation and the lymphocyte proliferative response to long endurance running. International Journal of Sports Medicine 19(8), 574-580 (1998).
100.Gleeson, M. Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression? Nutrition Reviews 64(3), 119-131 (2006).
101.Davies, K.J. Oxidative stress: The paradox of aerobic life. Biochemical Society Symposium 61, 1-31 (1995).
102.Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M., Mazur, M., Telser, J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 39(1), 44-84 (2007).
103.Sies, H. Oxidative stress: Oxidants and antioxidants. Experimental Physiology 82(2), 291-295 (1997).
104.Radak, Z. Chapter 2: Antioxidant Defense: Effects of aging and exercise, Chapter 7: Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Oxidation. Free radicals in exercise and aging, Human Kinetics, 35-64, 211-234 (2000).
105.Girotti, A.W. Mechanism of lipid peroxidation. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 1, 87-95 (1985).
106.Chakraborty, S., Singh, O.P., Dasgupta, A., Mandal, N., Das, H.N. Correlation between lipid peroxidation-induced TBARS level and disease severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, In press (2009 ).
107.Finaud, J., Lac, G´., Filaire, E. Oxidative stress: Relationship with exercise and training. Sports Medicine(Auckland, N.Z.) 36(4), 327-358 (2006).
108.Ji, L.L. Oxidative stress during exercise: Implications to antioxidant nutrients. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 18, 1079-1086 (1995).
109.Kanter, M. Free radicals and exercise: Effects of nutritional antoxidant supplementation. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 23, 375-397 (1995).
110.Machefer, G., Groussard, C., Vincent, S., Zouhal, H., Faure, H., Cillard, J., Rada´k, Z., Gratas-Delamarche, A. Multivitamin-mineral supplementation prevents lipid peroxidation during“The Marathon des Sables”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26(2), 111-120 (2007).
111.Rokitzki, L., Logemann, E., Sagredos, A.N., Murphy, M., Wetzel-Roth, W., Keul, J. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative vitamins under extreme endurance stress. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 151, 149-158 (1994).
112.Vasankari, T., Kujala, U., Heinonen, O., Kapanen, J., Ahotupa, M. Measurement of serum lipid peroxidation during exercise using three different method: Diene conjugation, thiobarbituric acid reactive material and fluorescent chromolipids. Clinica Chimica Acta 234, 63-69 (1995).
113.Dillard, C.J., Litov, R.E.,Savin, W.M., Dumelin, E.E., Tappel, A.L. Effects of exercise, vitamin E, and ozone on pulmonary function and lipid peroxidation. Journal of Applied Physiology 45, 133-138 (1978).
114.Tauler, P., Aguilo, A., Cases, N., Sureda, A., Gimenez, F., Villa, G., Cordova, A., Biescas, A.P. Acute phase immune response to exercise coexists with decreased neutrophil antioxidant enzyme defences. Free Radical Research 36, 1101-1107 (2002).
115.Chance, B., Sies, C.H., Boveris, A. Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physioligical Review 59, 527-605 (1979).
116.Rhee, S.G. Cell signaling. H2O2, a necessary evil for cell signaling. Science(New York, N.Y.) 312(5782), 1882-1883 (2006).
117.Zelko, I., Mariani, T., Folz, R. Superoxide dismutase multigene family: a comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2), and EC-SOD (SOD3) gene structures, evolution, and expression. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 33(3), 337-349 (2002).
118.Ho, Y.S., Magnenat, J.L., Gargano, M., Cao, J. The nature of antioxidant defense mechanisms: A lesson from transgenic studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 106(5), 1219-1228 (1998).
119.Bannister, J., Bannister, W., Rotilio, G. Aspects of the structure, function, and applications of superoxide dismutase. CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry 22(2), 111-180 (1987).
120.Fridovich, I. Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases. Annuals Review of Biochemistry 64, 97-112 (1995).
121.Johnson, F., Giulivi, C. Superoxide dismutases and their impact upon human health. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 26(4-5), 340-352 (2005).
122.Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C Free Radical in Biology and Medicine, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1989).
123.Ji, L.L., Fu, R.G. Response of glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes to exhaustive exercise and hydroperoxide. Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 549-554 (1992).
124.Leeuwenburgh, C., Hollander, J., Leichtweis, S., Fiebig, R., Gore, M., Ji, L.L. Adaptations of glutathione antioxidant system to endurance training are tissue and muscle fiber specific. American Journal of Physiology 272, 363-369 (1997).
125.Van Camp, W., Inz��, D., Van Montagu, M. The regulation and function of tobacco superoxide dismutases. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 23(3), 515-520 (1997).
126.Chelikani, P., Fita, I., Loewen, P. Diversity of structures and properties among catalases. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 61(2), 192-208 (2004).
127.Luhtala, T., Roecher, E.B., Pugh, T., Feuers, R.J., Weindruch, R. Dietary restriction attenuates age-related increases in rat skeletal muscle antioxidant enzyme avtivities. Journal of Gerontology 49, 321-328 (1994).
128.Parsonage, D., Youngblood, D., Sarma, G., Wood, Z., Karplus, P., Poole, L. Analysis of the link between enzymatic activity and oligomeric state in AhpC, a bacterial peroxiredoxin. Biochemistry 44(31), 10583-10592 (2005).
129.Flohe, L. Glutathione peroxide brought into focus. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Academic Press, New York, 223-253 (1982).
130.Habig, W.H., Pabst, M.J., Jakoby, W.B. Glutathione S-transferases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 249, 7130-7139 (1984).
131.Marklund, N., Ostman, B., Nalmo, L., Persson, L., Hillered, L. Hypoxanthine, uric acid and allantoin as indicators of in vivo free radical reactions: Description of a HPLC method and human brain microdialysis data. Acta Neurochirurgica 142(10), 1135-1141 (2000).
132.Cooper, C.E., Vollaard, N.B., Choueiri, T.,Wilson, M.T. Exercise, free radicals and oxidative stress. Biochemical Society Transactions 30(2), 280-285 (2002).
133.Lachance, P.A., Nakat, Z., Jeong, W.S. Antioxidants: An integrative approach. Nutrition 17, 835-838 (2001).
134.Golden, T.R., Hinerfeld, D.A., Melov, S. Oxidative stress and aging: Beyond correlation. Aging Cell 1, 117-123 (2002).
135.Sen, C.K. Antioxidant and redox regulation of cellular signaling: Introduction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(3), 368-370 (2001).
136.Higuchi, M., Cartier, L.J., Chen, M., Holloszy, J.O. Superoxide dismutase and catalase in skeletal muscle: Adaptive response to exercise. Journal of Gerontology 40, 281-286 (1985).
137.Oh-ishi, S., Kizaki, T., Nagasawa, J., Izawa, T., Komabayashi, T., Nagata, N., Suzuki, K., Taniguchi, N., Ohno, H. Effects of endurance training on superoxide dismutase activity, content, and mRNA expression in rat muscle. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 24, 326-332 (1997).
138.Sen, C.K., Marin, E., Kretzschmar, M., Hanninen, O. Skeletal muscle and liver glutathione homeostasis in response to training, exercise and immobilization. Journal of Applied Physiology 73, 1265-1272 (1992).
139.Marzatico, F., Pansarasa, O., Bertorelli, L., Somenzini, L., Della Valle, G. Blood free radical antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxides following long-distance and lactacidemic performances in highly trained aerobic and sprint athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 37, 235-239 (1997).
140.Oztasan, N., Taysi, S., Gumustekin, K., Altinkaynak, K., Aktas, O., Timur, H., Siktar, E., Keles, S., Akar, S., Akcay, F., Dane, S., Gul, M. Endurance training attenuates exercise-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes in rat. European Journal of Applied Physiology 91, 622-627 (2004).
141.Selamoglu, S., Turgay, F., Kayatekin, B.M., G�刡enc, S., Yslegen, C. Aerobic and anaerobic training effects on the antioxidant enzymes of the blood. Acta Physiologica Hungarica 87, 267-273 (2000).
142.Subudhi, A.W., Davis, S.L., Kipp, R.W., Askew, E.W. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress in elite Alpine ski racers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 11, 32-41 (2001).
143.Quintanilha, A.T. The effect of physical exercise and/ or vitamin E on tissue oxidative metabolism Biochemical Society Transactions 12, 403-404 (1984).
144.Inal, M., Aky�呅, F., Turgut, A., Getsfrid, W.M. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism on free radical generation swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33, 564-567 (2001).
145.Balakrishnan, S.D., Anuradha, C.V. Exercise, depletion of antioxidants and antioxidant manipulation. Cell Biochemistry and Function 16, 269-275 (1998).
146.Knez, W.L., Jenkins, D.G., Coombes, J.S. Oxidative stress in half and full Ironman triathletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 39(2), 283-288 (2007 ).
147.Neubauer, O., K�圢ig, D., Kern, N., Nics, L., Wagner, K.H. No indications of persistent oxidative stress in response to an ironman triathlon. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 40(12), 2119-2128 (2008 ).
148.Ji, L.L., Stratman, F.W., Lardy, H.A. Antioxidant enzyme systems in rat liver and skeletal muscle Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 263, 150-160 (1988).
149.Lawler, J.M., Powers, S.K., Visser, T., Van Dijk, H., Korthuis, M.J., Ji, L.L. Acute exercise and skeletal muscle antioxidant and metabolic enzymes: Effect of fiber type and age. American Journal of Physiology 265, 1344-1350 (1993).
150.Laughlin, M.H., Simpson, T., Sexton, W.L., Brown, O.R., Smith, J.K., Korthuis, R.J. Skeletal muscle oxidative capaacity, antioxidant enzymes, and exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology 68, 2337-2343 (1990).
151.Schneider, C.D., Barp, J., Ribeiro, J.L., Bell��-Klein, A.,Oliveira, A.R. Oxidative stress after three different intensities of running. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 30(6), 723-734 (2005).
152.Margaritis, I., Tessier, F., Richard, M.J., Marconnet, P. No evidence of oxidative stress after a triathlon race in highly trained competitors. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18, 186-190 (1997).
153.Powers, S.K., Criswell, D., Lawler, J., Ji, L.L., Martin, D., Herb, R., Dudley, G. Influence of exercise intensity and duration on antioxidant enzyme activity in skeletal muscle differing in fiber type American Journal of Physiology 266, 375-380 (1994).
154.Hellstein, Y., Apple, F., Sjodin, B. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 81, 1484-1487 (1996).
155.Tiidus, P.M., Pushkarenko, J., Houston, M.E. Lack of antioxidant adaptation to short-term aerobic training in human muscle. American Journal of Physiology 27, 832-836 (1996).
156.Guzik, T.J., Korbut, R., Adamek-Guzik, T. Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology : An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society 54(4), 469-487 (2003).
157.Swindle, E.J., Metcalfe, D.D. The role of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in mast celldependent inflammatory processes. Immunological Reviews 217, 186-205 (2007).
158.Sureda, A., Ferrer, M.D., Tauler, P., Maestre, I., Aguil��, A., C�櫓dova, A., Tur, J.A., Roche, E., Pons, A. Intense physical activity enhances neutrophil antioxidant enzyme gene expression. Immunocytochemistry evidence for catalase secretion. Free Radical Research 41(8), 874-883 (2007).
159.Halliwell, B. Free radicals, antioxidants and human disease: curiosity, cause or consequence? Lancet 344, 721-724 (1994).
160.Suzuki, K., Naganuma, S., Totsuka, M., Suzuki, K.J., Mochizuki, M., Shiraisi, M., Nakaji, S., Sugawara, K. Effects of exhaustive endurance exercise and its one-week daily repetition on neutrophil count and functional status in untrained men. International Journal of Sports Medicine 17, 205-212 (1996).
161.Clarkson, P.M., Thompson, H.S. Antioxidants: What role do they play in physical activity and health? . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72, 637-646 (2000).
162.Pietarinen-Runtti, P., Lakari, E., Raivio, K.O., Kinnula, V.L.. Expression of antioxidant enzymes in human inflammatory cells. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 278, 118-125 (2000).
163.Tauler, P., Aguil��, A., Cases, N., Sureda, A., Gimenez, F., Villa, G., C�櫓dova, A., Biescas, A.P. Acute phase immune response to exercise coexists with decreased neutrophil antioxidant enzyme defences. Free Radical Research 36(10), 1101-1107 (2002).
164.Tauler, P., Aguil��, A., Gimeno, I., Noguera, A., Agusti, A., Tur, J.A., Pons, A. Differential response of lymphocytes and neutrophils to high intensity physical activity and to vitamin C diet supplementation. Free Radical Research 37, 931-938 (2003).
165.Tauler, P., Sureda, A., Cases, N., Aguil��, A., Rodr�櫂uez-Marroyo, J.A., Villa, G., Tur, J.A., Pons, A. Increased lymphocyte antioxidant defences in response to exhaustive exercise do not prevent oxidative damage. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 17, 665-671 (2006).
166.Wang, J.S., Huang, Y.H. Effects of exercise intensity on lymphocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in men. European Journal of Applied Physiology 95(4), 290-297 (2005).
167.Karlis Briviba1, B.W., Kerstin Nickel1, Sabine Kulling1, Klaus B�宄2, & Sascha Haertel2, G.R., Achim Bub1 A half-marathon and a marathon run induce oxidative DNA damage, reduce antioxidant capacity to protect DNA against damage and modify immune function in hobby runners. Redox Report 10 (2005).
168.Cooper, D.M., Radom-Aizik, S., Schwindt, C., Zaldivar, F.Jr. Dangerous exercise: lessons learned from dysregulated inflammatory responses to physical activity. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 103(2), 700-709 (2007).
169.Eskola, J., Ruuskanen, 0., Soppi, E., et al. Effect of sport stress on lymphocyte transformation and antibody formation. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 32, 339-345 (1978).
170.Gmunder, F.K., Lorenzi, G., Bechler, B., et al. Effect of long-term physical exercise on lymphocyte reactivity: similarity to spaceflight reactions. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 59, 146-151 (1988).
171.Nieman, D.C., Simandle, S., Henson, D.A., et al. Lymphocyte proliferative response to 2.5 hours of running. International Journal of Sports Medicine 16, 404-409 (1995).
172.Eskola, J., Ruuskanen, O., Soppi, E., Viljanen, M.K., J�鑼vinen, M., Toivonen, H., Kouvalainen, K. Effect of sport stress on lymphocyte transformation and antibody formation. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 32(2), 339-345 (1978).
173.Wira, C.R., Sandoe, C. P., Steele, M. G. Glucocorticoid regulation of the humoral immune system. I. In vivo effects of dexamethasone on IgA and IgG in serum and at mucosal surfaces. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989) 144, 142-146 (1990).
174.Fauci, A.S., Dale, D. C. The effect of hydrocortisone on the kinetics of normal human lymphocytes. Blood 46, 235-243 (1975).
175.Calvano, S.E., Barber, A. E., Hawes, A. S., De Riesthal, H. F., Cole, S. M., Lowry, S. F. Effect of combined cortisol-endotoxin administration on peripheral blood leukocyte counts and phenotype in normal humans. Archives of Surgery 127, 181-186 (1992).
176.Smith, L.L. Overtraining, excessive exercise, and altered immunity: Is this a T Helper-1 versus T Helper-2 lymphocyte response? Sports Medicine(Auckland, N.Z.) 33(5), 347-364 (2003).
177.Sureda, A., Tauler, P., Aguil��, A., Fuentespina, E., C�櫓dova, A., Tur, J.A., Pons, A. Blood cell NO synthesis in response to exercise. Nitric Oxide 15, 5-12 (2006).
178.Quadrilatero, J., Hoffman-Goetz, L. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine prevents exercise-induced intestinal lymphocyte apoptosis by maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and reducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 319, 894-901 (2004).
179.Ceddia, M.A., Woods, J.A. Exercise suppresses macrophage antigen presentation. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 87(6), 2253-2258 (1999 ).
180.Gleeson, M., Bishop, N. C. Basic and applied sciences for sports medicine. Immunology, In R. J. Maughan (Ed.), Oxiford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 199-236 (1999).
181.Benschop, R.J., Rodriguez-Feuerhahn, M., & Schedlowski, M Catecholamine-induced leukocytosis: early observations, current research, and future directions. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 10, 77-91 (1996).
182.Peake, J. Exercise-induced alterations in neutrophil degranulation and respiratory burst activity: Possible mechanisms of action. Exercise Immunology Review 8, 49-100 (2002).
183.Walker, G.J., Caudwell, P., Dixon, N., Bishop,.C. N The effect of caffeine ingestion on neutrophil oxidative burst responses following prolonged cycling. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 16, 24-35 (2006).
184.Berkow, R.L., Dodson, R. W. Purification and functional evaluation of mature neutrophils from human bone marrow. Blood 68(4), 853-860 (1986).
185.Vizi, E., Huszar, E., Csoma, Z., Boszormenyi-Nagy, G., Barat, E., Horvath, I., Herjavecz, I., Kollai, M. Plasma adenosine concentration increases during exercise: a possible contributing factor in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Journal of Allergy Clinic Immunology 109, 446-448 (2002).
186.Swain, S.D., Siemsen, D.W., Nelson, L.K., Sipes, K.M., Hanson, A.J., Quinn, M.T. Inhibition of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase by adenosine is associated with increased movement of flavocytochrome b between subcellular fractions. Inflammation 27, 45-58 (2003).
187.Thibault, N., Burelout, C., Harbour, D., Borgeat, P., Naccache, P.H., Bourgoin, S.G. Occupancy of adenosine A2a receptors promotes fMLP-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in human neutrophils: impact on phospholipase D activity and recruitment of small GTPases to membranes. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 71(2), 367-377 (2002).
188.Davison, G., Gleeson, M. Influence of accute vitamin C and/or carbohydrate ingestion on hormonal, cytokine, and immune responses to prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 15, 465-479 (2005).
189.Morozov, V.I., Pryatkin, S. A., Kalinski, M. I. Rogozkin, V. A. Effect of exercise to exhaustion on myeloperoxidase and lysozyme release from blood neutrophils. European Journal of Applied Physiology 89, 257-262 (2003).
190.Losche, W., Dressel, M., Krause, S., Redlich, H., Spangenberg, P. and Heptinstall, S. Contact-induced modulation of neutrophil elastase secretion and phagocytic activity by platelets. Blood coagulation and Fibrinolysis : An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis 7, 210-213 (1996).
191.Tintinger, G.R., Theron, A. J., Anderson, R. and Ker, J. A. The anti-inflammatory interactions of epinephrine with human neutrophils in vitro are acheieved by cyclic AMP-mediated accelerated resequestration of cytosolic calcium. Advances in Steroid Biochemistry and Pharmacology 61, 1319-1328 (2001).
192.Johnson, J.L., Moore, E. E., Tamura, D. Y., Zallen, G., Biffl, W. L., Silliman, C. C. Interleukin-6 augments neutrophil cytotoxic potential via selective enhancement of elastase release. The Journal of Surgical Research 76, 91-94 (1998).
193.Lancaster, G.I., Jentjens, R.L., Moseley, L., Jeukendrup, A.E., Gleeson, M. Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion on plasma cytokines, stress hormone and neutrophil degranulation responses to continuous, high-intensity exercise. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 13, 436-453 (2003).
194.Bishop, N.C., Gleeson, M., Nicholas, C.W., Ali, A.. Influence of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma cytokine and neutrophil degranulation responses to high intensity intermittent exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 12, 145-156 (2002).
195.Li, T.L., Gleeson, M. The effect of single and repeated bouts of prolonged cycling on leukocyte redistribution, neutrophil degranulation, il-6 and plasma stress hormone responses. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 14(5), 501-516 (2004).
196.Machefer, G., Groussard, C., Rannou-Bekono, F., Zouhal, H, Faure, H., Vincent, S., Cillard, J., Gratas-Delamarche, A. Extreme running competition decreases blood antioxidant defense capacity. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(4), 358-364 (2004).
197.Rokitzki, L., Logemann, E., Sagredos, A.N., Murphy, M., Wetzel-Roth, W., Keul, J. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative vitamins under extreme endurance stress. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 151(2), 149-158 (1994 ).
198.Suzuki, K., Totsuka, M., Nakaji, S., Yamada, M., Kudoh, S., Liu, Q., Sugawara, K., Yamaya, K., Sato, K. Endurance exercise causes interaction among stress hormones, cytokines, neutrophil dynamics, and muscle damage. Journal of Applied Physiology(Bethesda, Md.: 1985) 86, 1360-1367 (1999).
199.Li, T.L., Cheng, P.Y. Alterations of immunoendocrine responses during the recovery period after acute prolonged cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology 101(5), 539-546 (2007 ).
200.Sanchez, L.D., Corwell, B., Berkoff, D. Medical problems of marathon runners. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 24(5), 608-615 (2006).
201.Fialkow, L., Wang, Y., Downey, G.P. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as signaling molecules regulating neutrophil function. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 42(2), 153-164 (2007).
202.Abraham, E., Singer, M. Mechanisms of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Critical Care Medicine 35(10), 2408-2416 (2007).
203.Cross, A., Barnes, T., Bucknall, R.C., Edwards, S.W., Moots, R.J. Neutrophil apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis is regulated by local oxygen tensions within joints. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 80, 521-528 (2006).
204.Bunetti, M., Colasante, A., Piantelli, M., Musiani, P., Aiello, F.B. Spontaneosand glucocorticoid induced apoptosis in human mature T lymphocytes Blood 86, 4199-4205 (1995).
205.Inal, M., Aky�呅, F., Turgut, A., Getsfrid, W.M. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism on free radical generation swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(4), 564-567 (2001 ).
206.Clarkson, P.M. Antioxidants and physical performance. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 35, 131-141 (1995).
207.Aguil��, A., Tauler, P., Fuentespina, E., Tur, J.A., C�櫓dova, A., Pons, A. Antioxidant response to oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise. Physiology & Behavior 84(1), 1-7 (2005).
208.McCord, J.M., Edeas, M.A. SOD, oxidative stress and human pathologies: A brief history and a future vision. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 59(4), 139-142 (2005).
209.Ji, L.L. Exercise and oxidative stress: roles of the cellular antioxidant system. In:Holloszy J.O.(Ed.). Exercise Sport Science Reviews. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 133-166 (1995).
210.Meydani, M., Evans, W.J. Free radicals, exercise and aging. In: Yu, B.P. (Ed.). Free radicals in aging. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 183-204 (1993).
211.Marzatico, F., Pansarasa, O., Bertorelli, L., Somenzini, L., Della, Valle.G. Blood free radical antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxides following long-distance and lactacidemic performances in highly trained aerobic and sprint athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 37(4), 235-239 (1997).
212.Chang, W.H., Chen, C.M., Hu, S.P., Kan, N.W., Chiu, C.C., Liu, J.F. Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on the modulation of the immune response in basketball players during the training period. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16(3), 455-461 (2007).
213.Vider, J., Lehtmaa, J., Kullisaar, T., Vihalemm, T., Zilmer, K., Kairane, C., Landor, A., Karu, T., Zilmer, M. Acute immune response in respect to exercise-induced oxidative stress. Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology / ISP 7, 263-270 (2001).
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top