跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.175.191.36) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/31 00:03
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳佳琳
研究生(外文):Chia-Ling Chen
論文名稱:髕股疼痛症候群患者在額狀面與橫狀面之髖關節動作與肌肉控制
論文名稱(外文):Hip motion and muscular control on the frontal and transverse planes in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome
指導教授:陳文英陳文英引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Yin Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:物理治療暨輔助科技學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:髕股疼痛症候群肌電圖動作分析
外文關鍵詞:patellofemoral pain syndromeelectromyographymotion analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:247
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:40
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
背景與目的:髕股關節疼痛症候群是骨科門診中常見問題,尤其好發於年輕喜愛運動的女性身上。髕股關節疼痛症候群的成因大多是來自於推論,目前最被廣範接受的病理機轉解釋來自於髕骨排列異常或者髕骨滑軌異常。髕骨相對於股骨的排列位置可能會受到股骨的旋轉動作所影響。股骨在橫狀面的內旋動作會使髕骨相對於股骨較外傾、減少髕股關節的接觸面積而造成髕股關節壓力增加;股骨在額狀面間的內收動作會增加對髕骨向外側的拉力,可能導致髕骨較外傾。髖外展或伸直肌群無力,或者是髖外展/旋轉肌群 (闊筋膜張肌、臀中肌、臀大肌)控制異常曾被指出可能是造成在單腳承重姿勢下髖關節過度內收或內轉的因素。過去研究針對髕股疼痛症候群的女性在功能性活動下進行髖關節動作角度的測量結果並不一致。而在髖部肌力的研究中,多數的結果發現髕股疼痛症候群的女性在髖外展或伸直的最大等長肌力上較控制組來的差。也曾有研究證實了髕股疼痛症候群的患者在下階梯的動作中,臀中肌的活化時間較控制組來的短且活化起始時間也較晚。然而目前缺乏研究同時探討在單腳承重下承重腳所有髖外展/旋轉肌群的肌電活動與髖關節的運動學表現。故本研究的目的為在前向與側向下階測試中,探討髕股疼痛症候群女性患者在髕關節額狀面與橫狀面之動作表現與髖外展/旋轉肌群的肌肉控制。方法:本研究收取了二十六名患有髕股疼痛症候群的女性與二十六名年齡、性別、身高相配對的健康對照組。利用電磁場追蹤儀與表面肌電圖系統同步收取受測者在前向與側向下階測試時,髖內收與內轉的最大角度、活動度、及髖外展/旋轉肌群的肌電活化強度。此外,尚利用手握式測力計測量髖外展與伸直肌群的最大等長收縮肌力。結果: 髕股疼痛症候群的女性在兩測試動作下皆呈現較大的髖內收活動度,且在前向下階測試時有較大的髖內收角度峰值。此外,在側向下階測試的動作回復期時,髕股疼痛症候群的女性的臀中肌活化強度較對照組來的大。然而兩組在肌力表現並無顯著差異;且髖關節運動學參數與髖外展/旋轉肌群的肌電活化強度或髖外展或伸直肌力僅有低到中度的相關性 (肌力: 皮爾森相關係數=-0.19-0.26; 肌電圖:相關係數=-0.39-0.61)。結論: 髕股疼痛症候群的女性在前向與側向下階測試時較對照組有較多的髖內收角度,然而我們並未發現兩組在髖外展、伸直的肌力上或是髖外展/旋轉肌群在肌電活化表現的差異。顯示了髖外展/旋轉肌群的肌力與肌電活化強度對於髖關節運動學參數沒有太大的關連性。建議未來研究進一步探討有關該族群其它肌肉表現參數或其它肢段動作對其髖關節動作的影響。
Background and Purpose: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common orthopedic knee complaints among young and physically active females. The etiology of PFPS is speculative. A well-accepted pathomechanism of PFPS is based on patellar mal-alignment or mal-tracking phenomenon. Patellar alignment could be influenced by the rotational position of the femur. Changes of the femoral motion in the transverse or frontal plane have been shown to increase the patellofemoral joint stress by altering the patellofemoral joint contact area. Weakness of the hip abductors or extensors or altered muscular control of hip abductor/rotators (tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus) has been hypothesized to cause excessive hip adduction or internal rotation during unilateral weight-bearing activities. However, results of previous studies which had investigated hip kinematics in females with PFPS during functional activities were inconsistent in whether differences existed in hip motion, muscle activation, or strength of hip abductors and extensors in subjects with PFPS as compared to those without PFPS. Moreover, there has been no study to simultaneously investigate the hip kinematics and muscle activity of all the hip abduct/rotators during unilateral weight-bearing activities. The purpose of the study was to investigate the hip motion and muscular control on the frontal and transverse planes during step down tests in females with and without PFPS. Method: Twenty six females with PFPS and 26 age, gender, and height matched healthy controls participated in the study. Kinematic variable of peak angle and range of hip adduction and internal rotation during anterior and lateral step down tests were collected with an electromagnetic motion tracking system while muscle activity of the hip abductors/rotators was simultaneously recorded with surface electromyography. Additionally, maximum strength of hip abductors and extensors was measured isometrically with a hand-held dynamometer. Results: Females with PFPS displayed a greater hip adduction range during both step down tests, a larger peak hip adduction angle during the anterior step down test, and greater activation intensity of the gluteus medius during the ascending phase of the lateral step down task as compared to the control subjects. No difference was found in the maximum strength of the hip abductors or extensors. Correlations of hip kinematic variables with strength or muscle activation intensity of the hip abductor/rotators were low to moderate. Conclusion: Female subjects with PFPS displayed increased hip adduction during the step down tests. However, no between-group difference in strength and electromyographic control of the hip abductor/rotators could be found to explain the kinematic difference. Further studies may employ other measurements of muscle performance or examine movement patterns of other body segment to best understand how hip kinematics was affected in patellofemoral pain syndrome.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Anatomy and biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint
2.2 Pathomechanics of patellofemoral pain syndrome
2.3 Hip and knee kinematics in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome
2.4 Anatomy and movement control of hip abductor/rotators
2.5 Hip abductors/rotators performance in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome
2.6 Anterior step down test and lateral step down test
2.7 Summary
CHAPTER THREE METHODS
3.1 Study design
3.2 Subjects
3.3 Instrumentation
3.4 Procedure
3.5 Measurements
3.6 Data reduction and management
3.7 Statistical analysis
3.8 Preliminary study on measurement reliability for the clinical measurements
3.9 Preliminary study on measurement reliability for the kinematic and electromyographic measurements
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS
4.1 Subject
4.2 Muscle strength
4.3 Kinematic measurement
4.4 Electromyographic measurement
4.5 Association between muscle strength, kinematic and electromyographic measurements
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION
5.1 Muscle strength
5.2 Kinematic measurements
5.3 Electromyography measurements
5.4 Association of hip muscle strength and kinematic measurements
5.5 Association of hip kinematic and electromyographic measurements
5.6 Hip kinematic and electromyography activity at the same knee flexion angles
5.7 Limitation and recommendation
5.8 Conclusion and clinical relevance
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
1. Taunton JE, Ryan MB, Clement DB, McKenzie DC, Lloyd-Smith DR, Zumbo BD. A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries. Br J Sports Med 2002;36(2):95-101.
2. Devereaux MD, Lachmann SM. Patello-femoral arthralgia in athletes attending a Sports Injury Clinic. Br J Sports Med 1984;18(1):18-21.
3. DeHaven KE, Lintner DM. Athletic injuries: comparison by age, sport, and gender. Am J Sports Med 1986;14(3):218-24.
4. Utting MR, Davies G, Newman JH. Is anterior knee pain a predisposing factor to patellofemoral osteoarthritis? Knee 2005;12(5):362-5.
5. Holmes SW, Clancy WG. Clinical classification of patellofemoral pain and dysfunction. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy 1998;28(5):299-306.
6. Witvrouw E, Werner S, Mikkelsen C, Van Tiggelen D, Vanden Berghe L, Cerulli G. Clinical classification of patellofemoral pain syndrome: guidelines for non-operative treatment. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy 2005;13(2):122-30.
7. Powers CM. The influence of altered lower-extremity kinematics on patellofemoral joint dysfunction: a theoretical perspective. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003;33(11):639-46.
8. Powers CM, Ward SR, Fredericson M, Guillet M, Shellock FG. Patellofemoral kinematics during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing knee extension in persons with lateral subluxation of the patella: a preliminary study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003;33(11):677-85.
9. Powers CM, Chen PY, Reischl SF, Perry J. Comparison of foot pronation and lower extremity rotation in persons with and without patellofemoral pain. Foot Ankle Int 2002;23(7):634-40.
10. Salsich GB, Perman WH. Patellofemoral joint contact area is influenced by tibiofemoral rotation alignment in individuals who have patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37(9):521-8.
11. Lee TQ, Anzel SH, Bennett KA, Pang D, Kim WC. The influence of fixed rotational deformities of the femur on the patellofemoral contact pressures in human cadaver knees. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1994(302):69-74.
12. Brechter JH, Powers CM. Patellofemoral joint stress during stair ascent and descent in persons with and without patellofemoral pain. Gait Posture 2002;16(2):115-23.
13. Souza RB, Powers CM. Differences in hip kinematics, muscle strength, and muscle activation between subjects with and without patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2009;39(1):12-9.
14. Bolgla LA, Malone TR, Umberger BR, Uhl TL. Hip strength and hip and knee kinematics during stair descent in females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008;38(1):12-8.
15. Lyons K, Perry J, Gronley JK, Barnes L, Antonelli D. Timing and relative intensity of hip extensor and abductor muscle action during level and stair ambulation. An EMG study. Phys Ther 1983;63(10):1597-605.
16. Wheatley MD, Jahnke WD. Electromyographic study of the superficial thigh and hip muscles in normal individuals. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1951;32(8):508-15.
17. Ireland ML, Willson JD, Ballantyne BT, Davis IM. Hip strength in females with and without patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003;33(11):671-6.
18. Robinson RL, Nee RJ. Analysis of hip strength in females seeking physical therapy treatment for unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37(5):232-8.
19. Cichanowski HR, Schmitt JS, Johnson RJ, Niemuth PE. Hip strength in collegiate female athletes with patellofemoral pain. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39(8):1227-32.
20. Brindle TJ, Mattacola C, McCrory J. Electromyographic changes in the gluteus medius during stair ascent and descent in subjects with anterior knee pain. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2003;11(4):244-51.
21. Perry J. Gait analysis: normal and pathological function. Thorofare: SLACK incorporated; 1992.
22. Hertling D, Kessler RM. Management of common musculoskeletal disorders: physical therapy principles and methods. 3rd ed.: Lippincott-Raven; 1996.
23. Waryasz GR, McDermott AY. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS): a systematic review of anatomy and potential risk factors. Dyn Med 2008;7:9.
24. Magee DJ. Hip. Orthopedic physical assessment. 4 ed.: Saunders; 2002. p 621-4.
25. Kisner C, Colby LA. Therapeutic exercise: fundations and techniques. 4th ed.: F.A. Davis Company; 2002.
26. Kozic S, Gulan G, Matovinovic D, Nemec B, Sestan B, Ravlic-Gulan J. Femoral anteversion related to side differences in hip rotation. Passive rotation in 1,140 children aged 8-9 years. Acta Orthop Scand 1997;68(6):533-6.
27. Ferber R, Davis IM, Williams DS, 3rd. Gender differences in lower extremity mechanics during running. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2003;18(4):350-7.
28. Goodfellow J, Hungerford DS, Zindel M. Patello-femoral joint mechanics and pathology. 1. Functional anatomy of the patello-femoral joint. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1976;58(3):287-90.
29. Amis AA. Current concepts on anatomy and biomechanics of patellar stability. Sports Med Arthrosc 2007;15(2):48-56.
30. Fulkerson JP, Gossling HR. Anatomy of the knee joint lateral retinaculum. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1980(153):183-8.
31. Hallisey MJ, Doherty N, Bennett WF, Fulkerson JP. Anatomy of the junction of the vastus lateralis tendon and the patella. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987;69(4):545-9.
32. Biedert RM. Patellofemoral disorders: diagnosis and treatment. Wiley; 2004.
33. Katchburian MV, Bull AM, Shih YF, Heatley FW, Amis AA. Measurement of patellar tracking: assessment and analysis of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003(412):241-59.
34. Fulkerson JP, Shea KP. Disorders of patellofemoral alignment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72(9):1424-9.
35. Brattstroem H. Shape of the Intercondylar Groove Normally and in Recurrent Dislocation of Patella. A Clinical and X-Ray-Anatomical Investigation. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 1964;68:SUPPL 68:1-148.
36. Woodland LH, Francis RS. Parameters and comparisons of the quadriceps angle of college-aged men and women in the supine and standing positions. Am J Sports Med 1992;20(2):208-11.
37. van Eijden TM, Kouwenhoven E, Verburg J, Weijs WA. A mathematical model of the patellofemoral joint. J Biomech 1986;19(3):219-29.
38. Bentley G, Dowd G. Current concepts of etiology and treatment of chondromalacia patellae. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1984(189):209-28.
39. Luyckx T, Didden K, Vandenneucker H, Labey L, Innocenti B, Bellemans J. Is there a biomechanical explanation for anterior knee pain in patients with patella alta?: influence of patellar height on patellofemoral contact force, contact area and contact pressure. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2009;91(3):344-50.
40. Matthews LS, Sonstegard DA, Henke JA. Load bearing characteristics of the patello-femoral joint. Acta Orthop Scand 1977;48(5):511-6.
41. Powers CM. Rehabilitation of patellofemoral joint disorders: a critical review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1998;28(5):345-54.
42. Thomee R, Renstrom P, Karlsson J, Grimby G. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in young women. I. A clinical analysis of alignment, pain parameters, common symptoms and functional activity level. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5(4):237-44.
43. Ward SR, Powers CM. The influence of patella alta on patellofemoral joint stress during normal and fast walking. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2004;19(10):1040-7.
44. Tecklenburg K, Dejour D, Hoser C, Fink C. Bony and cartilaginous anatomy of the patellofemoral joint. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2006;14(3):235-40.
45. Colvin AC, West RV. Patellar instability. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008;90(12):2751-62.
46. Piva SR, Fitzgerald K, Irrgang JJ, Jones S, Hando BR, Browder DA et al. Reliability of measures of impairments associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2006;7:33.
47. Ruwe PA, Gage JR, Ozonoff MB, DeLuca PA. Clinical determination of femoral anteversion. A comparison with established techniques. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1992;74(6):820-30.
48. Witvrouw E, Lysens R, Bellemans J, Peers K, Vanderstraeten G. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises for patellofemoral pain. A prospective, randomized study. Am J Sports Med 2000;28(5):687-94.
49. Heintjes E, Berger MY, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Bernsen RM, Verhaar JA, Koes BW. Exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003(4):CD003472.
50. Bakhtiary AH, Fatemi E. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises for patellar chondromalacia. Br J Sports Med 2008;42(2):99-102; discussion
51. Souza DR, Gross MT. Comparison of vastus medialis obliquus: vastus lateralis muscle integrated electromyographic ratios between healthy subjects and patients with patellofemoral pain. Physical Therapy 1991;71(4):310.
52. Tang SFT, Chen CK, Hsu R, Chou SW, Hong WH, Lew HL. Vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis activity in open and closed kinetic chain exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: an electromyographic study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001;82(10):1441-5.
53. Voight ML, Wieder DL. Comparative reflex response times of vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis in normal subjects and subjects with extensor mechanism dysfunction: an electromyographic study. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1991;19(2):131.
54. Stensdotter AK, Hodges P, Ohberg F, Hager-Ross C. Quadriceps EMG in open and closed kinetic chain tasks in women with patellofemoral pain. J Mot Behav 2007;39(3):194-202.
55. Cowan SM, Bennell KL, Hodges PW, Crossley KM, McConnell J. Delayed onset of electromyographic activity of vastus medialis obliquus relative to vastus lateralis in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001;82(2):183-9.
56. Moller BN, Krebs B, Tidemand-Dal C, Aaris K. Isometric contractions in the patellofemoral pain syndrome. An electromyographic study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1986;105(1):24-7.
57. Powers CM, Landel R, Perry J. Timing and intensity of vastus muscle activity during functional activities in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain. Phys Ther 1996;76(9):946-55; discussion 56-67.
58. Morrish GM, Woledge RC. A comparison of the activation of muscles moving the patella in normal subjects and in patients with chronic patellofemoral problems. Scand J Rehabil Med 1997;29(1):43-8.
59. Karst GM, Jewett PD. Electromyographic analysis of exercises proposed for differential activation of medial and lateral quadriceps femoris muscle components. Phys Ther 1993;73(5):286-95; discussion 95-9.
60. Vaatainen U, Airaksinen O, Jaroma H, Kiviranta I. Decreased torque and electromyographic activity in the extensor thigh muscles in chondromalacia patellae. Int J Sports Med 1995;16(1):45-50.
61. Laprade J, Culham E, Brouwer B. Comparison of five isometric exercises in the recruitment of the vastus medialis oblique in persons with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1998;27(3):197-204.
62. Wilk KE, Davies GJ, Mangine RE, Malone TR. Patellofemoral disorders: a classification system and clinical guidelines for nonoperative rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1998;28(5):307-22.
63. By M. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: a review and guidelines for treatment. Am Fam Physician 1999;60:2012-22.
64. Vieira EL, Vieira EA, da Silva RT, Berlfein PA, Abdalla RJ, Cohen M. An anatomic study of the iliotibial tract. Arthroscopy 2007;23(3):269-74.
65. Kwak SD, Ahmad CS, Gardner TR, Grelsamer RP, Henry JH, Blankevoort L et al. Hamstrings and iliotibial band forces affect knee kinematics and contact pattern. J Orthop Res 2000;18(1):101-8.
66. Kwak SD, Ahmad CS, Gardner TR, Grelsamer RP, Henry JH, Blankevoort L et al. Hamstrings and iliotibial band forces affect knee kinematics and contact pattern. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2000;18(1).
67. Puniello MS. Iliotibial band tightness and medial patellar glide in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1993;17(3):144-8.
68. Ivkovic A, Franic M, Bojanic I, Pecina M. Overuse injuries in female athletes. Croat Med J 2007;48(6):767-78.
69. Juhn MS. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: a review and guidelines for treatment. Am Fam Physician 1999;60(7):2012-22.
70. Cosca DD, Navazio F. Common problems in endurance athletes. Am Fam Physician 2007;76(2):237-44.
71. Huberti HH, Hayes WC. Patellofemoral contact pressures. The influence of q-angle and tendofemoral contact. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984;66(5):715-24.
72. Mascal CL, Landel R, Powers C. Management of patellofemoral pain targeting hip, pelvis, and trunk muscle function: 2 case reports. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003;33(11):647-60.
73. Dierks TA, Manal KT, Hamill J, Davis IS. Proximal and distal influences on hip and knee kinematics in runners with patellofemoral pain during a prolonged run. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008;38(8):448-56.
74. Willson JD, Davis IS. Lower extremity mechanics of females with and without patellofemoral pain across activities with progressively greater task demands. Clin Biomech 2008;23(2):203-11.
75. Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG, Rodgers MM, Romani WA. Muscles testing and function with posture and pain 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippncott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
76. Pare EB, Stern JT, Jr., Schwartz JM. Functional differentiation within the tensor fasciae latae. A telemetered electromyographic analysis of its locomotor roles. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1981;63(9):1457-71.
77. Piva SR, Goodnite EA, Childs JD. Strength around the hip and flexibility of soft tissues in individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2005;35(12):793-801.
78. Soderberg GL, Dostal WF. Electromyographic study of three parts of the gluteus medius muscle during functional activities. Phys Ther 1978;58(6):691-6.
79. Gottschalk F, Kourosh S, Leveau B. The functional anatomy of tensor fasciae latae and gluteus medius and minimus. J Anat 1989;166:179-89.
80. Karlsson E, Jonsson B. Function of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle. An Electromyographic Study. Acta Morphol Neerl Scand 1965;6:161-9.
81. Delp SL, Hess WE, Hungerford DS, Jones LC. Variation of rotation moment arms with hip flexion. J Biomech 1999;32(5):493-501.
82. Willson JD, Davis IS. Lower extremity strength and mechanics during jumping in women with patellofemoral pain. J Sport Rehabil 2009;18(1):76-90.
83. Souza RB, Powers CM. Predictors of hip internal rotation during running: an evaluation of hip strength and femoral structure in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Am J Sports Med 2009;37(3):579-87.
84. Loudon JK, Wiesner D, Goist-Foley HL, Asjes C, Loudon KL. Intrarater Reliability of Functional Performance Tests for Subjects With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. J Athl Train 2002;37(3):256-61.
85. Earl JE, Monteiro SK, Snyder KR. Differences in lower extremity kinematics between a bilateral drop-vertical jump and a single-leg step-down. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37(5):245-52.
86. McLean SG, Huang X, van den Bogert AJ. Association between lower extremity posture at contact and peak knee valgus moment during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury. Clin Biomech 2005;20(8):863-70.
87. Chmielewski TL, Hodges MJ, Horodyski M, Bishop MD, Conrad BP, Tillman SM. Investigation of clinician agreement in evaluating movement quality during unilateral lower extremity functional tasks: a comparison of 2 rating methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37(3):122-9.
88. Wang SC, Brede C, Lange D, Poster CS, Lange AW, Kohoyda-Inglis C et al. Gender differences in hip anatomy: possible implications for injury tolerance in frontal collisions. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 2004;48:287-301.
89. Dixit SG, Kakar S, Agarwal S, Choudhry R. Sexing of human hip bones of Indian origin by discriminant function analysis. J Forensic Leg Med 2007;14(7):429-35.
90. Kernozek TW, Torry MR, H VANH, Cowley H, Tanner S. Gender differences in frontal and sagittal plane biomechanics during drop landings. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37(6):1003-12; discussion 13.
91. Pollard CD, Sigward SM, Powers CM. Gender differences in hip joint kinematics and kinetics during side-step cutting maneuver. Clin J Sport Med 2007;17(1):38-42.
92. Gajdosik RL, Rieck MA, Sullivan DK, Wightman SE. Comparison of four clinical tests for assessing hamstring muscle length. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1993;18(5):614-8.
93. Harvey D. Assessment of the flexibility of elite athletes using the modified Thomas test. Br J Sports Med 1998;32(1):68-70.
94. Blackburn JT, Riemann BL, Myers JB, Lephart SM. Kinematic analysis of the hip and trunk during bilateral stance on firm, foam, and multiaxial support surfaces. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2003;18(7):655-61.
95. Coventry E, O'Connor KM, Hart BA, Earl JE, Ebersole KT. The effect of lower extremity fatigue on shock attenuation during single-leg landing. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2006;21(10):1090-7.
96. Piazza SJ, Okita N, Cavanagh PR. Accuracy of the functional method of hip joint center location: effects of limited motion and varied implementation. J Biomech 2001;34(7):967-73.
97. Baker R. ISB recommendation on definition of joint coordinate systems for the reporting of human joint motion—part I: ankle, hip and spine. Journal of Biomechanics 2003;36(2):300-2.
98. Eng JJ, Pierrynowski MR. The effect of soft foot orthotics on three-dimensional lower-limb kinematics during walking and running. Physical Therapy 1994;74(9):836.
99. Hermens HJ, Freriks B. Surface ElectroMyoGraphy for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles [cited 2008 05 10]. Available from: URL: http://www.seniam.org/.
100. Yang JF, Winter DA. Electromyographic amplitude normalization methods: improving their sensitivity as diagnostic tools in gait analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984;65(9):517-21.
101. Laforest S, St-Pierre DM, Cyr J, Gayton D. Effects of age and regular exercise on muscle strength and endurance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1990;60(2):104-11.
102. Lee TQ, Yang BY, Sandusky MD, McMahon PJ. The effects of tibial rotation on the patellofemoral joint: assessment of the changes in in situ strain in the peripatellar retinaculum and the patellofemoral contact pressures and areas. J Rehabil Res Dev 2001;38(5):463-9.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊