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研究生:呂珮瑜
研究生(外文):Pei-Yu Lu
論文名稱:骨質疏鬆症治療藥物與心血管相關不良反應之探討-Alendronate vs. Raloxifene
論文名稱(外文):The Association between Cardiovascular Events and the Use of Osteoporosis Medications- Alendronate vs. Raloxifene
指導教授:黃文鴻黃文鴻引用關係蔡憶文蔡憶文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Weng-Foung HuangYi-Wen Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:衛生福利研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:AlendronateRaloxifene心房纖維顫動中風心肌梗塞
外文關鍵詞:AlendronateRaloxifeneAtrial fibrillationStrokeacute myocardial infarction
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背景:
雙磷酸鹽類為目前最常用來治療骨質疏鬆症之藥物,但2007年的一篇臨床試驗研究顯示雙磷酸鹽類藥物可能會增加發生心房纖維顫動之風險,而心房纖維顫動與中風或心肌梗塞等心臟血管疾病之間常存在著依存關係,因此,有鑑於此藥品的廣泛使用,有必要了解在台灣使用雙磷酸鹽類的病患是否也有產生心房纖維顫動或其他心臟血管相關不良反應。

目的:
首先探討骨質疏鬆症病人使用雙磷酸鹽類藥物alendronate,相較於raloxifene,發生心房纖維顫動、中風或心肌梗塞之風險,並同時將alendronate之劑型分開探討;另外,並分析影響服用雙磷酸鹽類藥物alendronate及raloxifene之病患發生心房纖維顫動、中風或心肌梗塞之其他危險因子。

研究方法:
本研究為回溯性世代研究,使用2000-2007年之全民健康保險資料檔進行分析。研究對象為2002-2006年間初次使用alendronate或raloxifene藥品之50歲以上女性病患,其藥品使用前一年必須有骨折病史,而骨折病史前一年必須有骨質疏鬆症之病史。以alendronate為觀察組,raloxifene則為對照組,追蹤兩組人在使用藥品後一年內發生心房纖維顫動、中風或心肌梗塞之情況。使用Cox-proportional hazards model分析alendronate之使用是否會影響心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞發生之風險。

研究結果:
本研究對象共有9,609人,其中使用alendronate人數為6,949人,使用raloxifene人數為2,660人。存活分析顯示,使用alendronate組比起raloxifene組發生心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險顯著較低,HR值依序為0.60 (95% CL:0.422-0.848)、0.47 (95% CL:0.387-0.572)及0.51 (95% CL:0.358-0.722)。獨立分析有心臟血管疾病史之病患依然顯示alendronate組發生心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險顯著較raloxifene組低。將觀察時間點區分為6個月、9個月及12個月,結果呈現無論是在哪個時間點,alendronate組發生心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險均顯著較raloxifene組低。
將alendronate之劑型分別與raloxifene比較,其結果顯示alendronate 10 mg QD組發生心房纖維顫動及中風之風險顯著較raloxifene組高,HR值分別為1.66 (95% CL:1.117-2.456)及1.56 (95% CL:1.233-1.978),在心肌梗塞方面則無顯著差異;而alendronate 70 mg QW組發生心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險則顯著較raloxifene組低,HR值依序為0.28 (95% CL:0.177-0.430)、0.23 (95% CL:0.181-0.296)及0.27 (95% CL:0.177-0.409)。此外,單純比較alendronate兩種劑型,Alendronate 70 mg QW發生心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險皆顯著較alendronate 10 mg QD組低,HR值依序為0.17 (95% CL:0.103-0.266)、0.16 (95% CL:0.118-0.218)及0.21 (95% CL:0.132-0.345)。
藥品持有率方面,在alendronate 10 mg QD組及Alendronate 70 mg QW組中,隨著藥品持有率上升,發生任一心臟血管疾病之風險也顯著上升,HR值分別為1.27 (95% CL:1.230-1.310)及1.06 (95% CL:1.057-1.066)。獨立分析Alendronate 70 mg QW組,結果顯示藥品持有率上升,發生心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險皆顯著增加,HR值依序為1.07 (95% CL:1.061-1.084)、1.06 (95% CL:1.056-1.066)及1.08 (95% CL:1.069-1.091)。

結論:
整體來說,無論是在所有研究對象或有心臟血管疾病史之病患中,使用alendronate比起raloxifene組發生心房纖維顫動、中風或心肌梗塞之風險並無顯著較高。但alendronate 10 mg QD比起raloxifene或alendronate 70 mg QW有較高的心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險,值得臨床醫師及中央主管機關注意,使用此類藥品時,應密切注意病患心臟血管疾病狀況,或考慮以其他骨質疏鬆症治療藥物替代雙磷酸鹽類。
Background:
With well evidences to lower the risk of fracture, bisphosphonates is the most common medication using to treat osteoporosis. However, in 2007, there was a raising concern about using of bisphosphonates may induce the happening of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is a less serious cardiovascular disease, but it has a strong association with other fatal cardiovascular diseases, like stroke or acute myocardial infarction. For the widespread using of bisphosphonates, there is a necessity to explore the relationship between bisphosphonates and atrial fibrillation or other cardiovascular diseases in Taiwan.

Objectives:
To compare the risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke and acute myocardial infarction among women with postmenopausal fractures taking alendronate or raloxifene. We also study the different dosage forms of alendronate to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. To explore the risk factors of atrial fibrillation, stroke and acute myocardial infarction.

Methods:
We used the population-based National Health Insurance database in Taiwan to conduct a retrospective cohort study for the period of 2000 to 2007. The study population had to conform to three critireas:1) women who took alendroante or raloxifene at first time during 2002 to 2006 and age >=50 years old. 2) must had a fracture history during one year before the day taking medications. 3) must had a osteoporosis diagnosis during one year before of the day of fracture history. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to analyze the risk of AF, stroke or AMI development.

Results:
The study population was 9,609 women, among them 6,949 used alendronate and 2,660 used raloxifene. After controlling for medication possession ratio and other risk factors, alendronate group was not associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke or acute myocardial infarction compared to raloxifene group, HR value were 0.60, 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. The results remained the same no matter we divided the time after medication into 6, 9 and 12 months or confined the study population to those who had a cardiovascular diseases.
Users who received alendronate 10 mg QD were at a significantly higher risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke in comparison to raloxifene users, HR value were 1.66 and 1.56, respectively. However, alendronate 70 mg QW group were at a lower risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke and acute myocardial infarction comparing to raloxifene group, HR value were 0.28, 0.23 and 0.27, respectively. Comparing to alendronate 10 mg QD, those who used alendronate 70 mg QW were at a lower risk of all three cardiovascular outcomes, HR value were 0.17, 0.16 and 0.21, respectively.
Both in alendronate 10 mg QD group and alendroante 70 mg QW group, the medication possession ratio had a positive association with the risk of any cardiovascular outcomes, HR value were 1.27 and 1.06, respectively. In alendronate 70 mg QW group, those who had higher medication possession ratio were at a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke and acute myocardial infarction, HR value were 1.07, 1.06 and 1.08, respectively.

Conclusions:
Overall, using alendronate was not associated with higher rsik of atrial fibrillation, stroke or acute myocardial infarction when comparing to raloxifene. However, in comparing to raloxifene or alendronate 70 mg QW users, users of alendronate 10 mg QD were found to have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke or acute myocardial infarction. These results remind the doctors and the authority to be caustion when using these medications. For those who had a history of AF, stroke or AMI, cautions should be taken when daily dose of alendronate is prescribed.
誌謝 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstracts iv
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究緣起 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究問題 2
第四節 研究重要性 2
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 骨質疏鬆症與骨折 4
第二節 雙磷酸鹽類藥物介紹 9
第三節 心房纖維顫動之介紹 14
第四節 中風之介紹 17
第五節 心肌梗塞之介紹 18
第六節 雙磷酸鹽類藥物與心血管不良反應之探討 20
第三章 材料與方法 27
第一節 研究設計 27
第二節 研究架構 28
第三節 研究假設 30
第四節 研究對象 31
第五節 資料來源 33
第六節 資料處理流程 34
第七節 研究變項定義 36
第八節 統計分析 39
第四章 研究結果 40
第一節 基本特質分析 40
第二節 追蹤期間描述性分析 43
第三節 Alendronate與心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之存活分析 66
第四節 藥品持有率與心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之存活分析 86
第五章 討論 93
第一節 Alendronate與心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險 93
第二節 不同劑型alendronate與心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞之風險 95
第三節 藥品持有率與心房纖維顫動、中風及心肌梗塞發生之風險 97
第四節 研究限制 98
第六章 結論與建議 99
第一節 結論 99
第二節 建議 100
參考文獻 101
附件一 109
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