跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.120.150) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/03 07:14
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:王聖帆
研究生(外文):Sheng-Fan Wang
論文名稱:人類A型流行性感冒病毒血球凝集蛋白之病毒學與免疫學研究
論文名稱(外文):Immunological and Virological Studies on Hemagglutinin Protein of Human Influenza A Virus
指導教授:黃智生黃智生引用關係陳宜民陳宜民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jason C. HuangYi-Ming Arthur Chen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:醫學生物技術暨檢驗學系暨研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學技術及檢驗學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:189
中文關鍵詞:血球凝集蛋白抗原決定位抗原漂移抗原轉變DC-SIGN單株抗體親源演化H5N1
外文關鍵詞:HemagglutininAntigenic regionAntigenic driftAntigenic shiftDC-SIGNMonoclonal antibodyPhylogenyH5N1
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:355
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:93
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
A型流感病毒具有抗原漂移(antigenic drift)與抗原轉變(antigenic shift)的特性也造成每年全球的流感的流行甚至大流行。在二十世記的歷史上有名的大流行包括: 1918年的西班牙流感、1957年亞洲型流感與1968年香港型流感,之後的研究也證實了這些病毒株屬於抗原轉變株有部分基因產生重組(reassortment)的現象造成抗原的大改變。然而,自1997年香港爆發首例的H5N1禽流感病毒感染到人體,之後全世界各地也陸續有傳出H5N1人感染的案例出現,根據WHO的統計至2008年9月,已有307人感染其中245人死亡 (死亡率約為 60%),但是主要的致死原因與機制仍不清楚但大多數感染者都出現全身性的症狀。此外,由於流感病毒的血球凝集蛋白(Hemagglutinin; HA) 構成流感病毒的主要套模蛋白,對於病毒與宿主細胞的受體反應、病毒進入宿主細胞與複製後病毒離開宿主細胞扮演了相當重要的角色。在先前的研究發現樹突狀細胞(Dendritic Cell; DC)上的DC-SIGN(Dendritic cell specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin)受體可以調節許多具有醣基化蛋白套模結構之病毒感染其宿主細胞,例如: 愛滋病毒(HIV-1)、登革熱病毒(Dengue virus)、SARS-CoV等,當這些病毒與DC-SIGN產生結合反應會促進該病毒之感染。由於A型流感病毒之套膜蛋白亦屬於醣基化蛋白,因此我們也推測HA蛋白可能會與DC-SIGN受體產生結合進而增強病毒的感染與導致全身性的症狀。我們目前的研究興趣著重在A型流感的血球凝集蛋白研究,以探討HA基因的演化趨勢、抗原特性的轉變與和免疫系統反應,特別著重在與DC-SIGN分子的探討。本研究重點包括:1.台灣地區自1980-2006年的A型流感病毒的演化分析與病毒抗原性的變異。2.利用製備出的單株抗體來作HA蛋白之 epitope mapping尋找重要的抗原決定位點。3.探討樹突狀細胞上的DC-SIGN受體與H5N1病毒的交互作用。 4.尋找HA 蛋白上重要的CD4+ T cell epitpes主要針對HLA-DRB1_1501的H5N1疫苗接受者。在流感病毒的HA基因的演化樹分析發現台灣地區的流感分離株常常會比WHO所公佈的使用之疫苗株早出現且流行,造成疫苗株的預測與流行株不一致。然而,在不同年代間流感病毒H1N1與H3N2的核酸與胺基酸的比較可以發現胺基酸的相同性時常比核酸低,由此推論在HA1主要產生的變異是屬於non-synonymous change。在H5N1單株與多株抗體的備製與應用方面,目前共篩選出8株H5單株抗體以及H5與N1多株抗體,epitope mapping發現H5單株抗體辨識的抗原位點為QNPTTYI domain位於HA的頂端的球狀區域且H5多株抗體具有中和病毒的效果。探討H5N1病毒與DC-SIGN的交互作用方面,目前的結果發現DC-SIGN能與H5N1病毒結合且調節H5N1 pesudotyped virus 與reverse-genetics strains的in cis與in trans的感染,由此證明DC-SIGN表現在帶有α-2,3 linked sialic acid (SA)的細胞會幫助H5N1 pseudotyped virus的感染率,推論DC-SIGN是H5N1病毒在樹突狀細胞(DC)的附著受體(attachment receptors)。在尋找可以活化CD4 T淋巴球的HA 蛋白上的抗原位點方面,目前的研究結果顯示在30位接受H5N1疫苗的受試者其中24位(24/30; 80%)利用ELISA方式檢驗發現產生抗體反應。利用周邊血液單何球細胞的DNA定出H5N1疫苗受試者的HLA 亞型,發現產生體液免疫反應的受試者常見的HLA_DRB1亞型為0803、1501與0901。利用胜肽片段包涵整個血球凝集淡白的HA1 domain (每段15胺基酸與鄰近胜肽有8胺基酸重疊)來進行T 細胞的epitope mapping。之後的實驗會利用上述的胜肽片段以細胞內的染色方法染細胞激素(intracellular cytokine staining ;ICS)以測量IFN-γ來評估CD4+ T淋巴球是否被活化與利用tetramer-guided epitope mapping的方式來尋找重要HLA DRB1_1501限制的的T 細胞抗原決定位。本研究的成果對於A型流感病毒的基因演化、抗原變異、致病機轉、抗原決定位點的尋找與未來疫苗備製與抗病毒藥物的開發提供重要訊息。
Influenza viruses have caused epidemics and occasional pandemics. The 1918 Spanish, 1957-1958 Asia, and 1968-1969 Hong Kong influenza strains were at the center of three 20th century pandemics. The later reports have proved that most of these viruses were reassortment strains. Any new influenza A virus subtype or reassortant virus poses a threat to human health with significant morbidity and
mortality. Recently, highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses that have spread globally via poultry and caused sporadic human infections are viewed collectively as a potential pandemic threat. Accurate and prompt H5N1 diagnosis is a critical component of the control plan for this disease. The hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein forms spikes on the surfaces of virions, thereby mediating attachment to host cell sialoside receptors and subsequent entry via membrane fusion. Changes in the antigenicity of influenza virus are the results of antigenic drifts and shifts. Most H5N1 infected individuals have systemic syndromes. We hypothesized that DC-SIGN (Dendritic cell specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin) which is expressed on dendritic cells, and reported to interact with glycosylated structures in many microbes such as HIV-1, Dengue virus and SARS-CoV, may enhance H5N1 infection via binding to HA glycoprotein. Our study was to investigate the virological and immunological characteristics of HA proteins on human influenza A viruses including H5N1. The goals of this study are: 1. Phylogenetic analysis and antigenic characterization of human influenza A viruses. 2. Preparation of anti-HA1 monoclonal antibodies to H5N1 and epitope mapping for potential use in H5N1 diagnosis. 3. Analysis of the interaction between DC-SIGN and H5N1 virus. 4. To map important epitopes on H5N1 HA protein for activation of CD4+ T lymphocyte.We retrospectively collected the epidemic strains H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses in Taiwan during 1980-2006. In phylogenetic analysis and antigenic characterization, the results revealed a continuous evolutionary topology in H3N2 isolates, but two distinct H1N1 lineages since 1992. Moreover, influenza epidemic strains isolated in Taiwan often appeared two years earlier than the vaccine strains recommended by WHO leading to mismatching of vaccine strains and epidemic strains. However, the identity was often lower in amino acid than in nucleic acid found in H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus. Such phenomenon indicates that non-synonymous change was dominant in HA proteins. For the production of mono-/polyclonal antibodies against HA and NA antigens of H5N1, we selected eight H5 monoclonal antibodies which recognized the epitope-QNPTTYI on the globular region of HA structure and demonstrated that only H5 polyclonal antibodies showed neutralizing capability to H5N1-RG viruses. Another part is to investigate the interaction between DC-SIGN and H5N1 virus. We found that B-THP-1/DC-SIGN cells are more susceptible to H5N1 pseudotyped virus infection than the B-THP-1 cells. Such phenomenon was confirmed using another pair of cell lines- THP-1/DC-SIGN and THP-1 cells. In addition, we used H5N1 pseudotyped and reverse-genetics viral particles to study their abilities to bind to DC-SIGN. Results from a capture assay show that DC-SIGN-expressing cells (including B-THP-1/DC-SIGN and THP-1/DC-SIGN and peripheral blood dendritic cells) are capable of transferring H5N1 pseudotyped and RG viral particles to target cells and the transfer can be blocked by anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies. Our data proved that DC-SIGN acts as a capture or attachment molecule for avian H5N1 virus, and also mediates infections in cis and in trans. The important epitopes involved in activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes were also mapped in this study, which is the foundation for the establishment of a platform to quantify specific T cells for vaccine evaluation. The sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 30 H5N1 vaccinees for evaluation of humoral response and HLA typing. The present results indicated that 80% H5N1 vaccinees were seropositive in ELISA and their HLA_DRB1 alleles included DRB1_0803, 1501 and 0901. The peptdes covering whole HA1 domain, each 15 a.a.of length with an adjacent 8 a.a overlapping are used for further T cell epitope mapping. , The HLA_DRB1 1501 restrcited T cell epitopes are still being studied with intracellular cytokine staining and tetramer guided epitope mapping assays. In conclusion, our results provide important information on virus evolution, antigenic variation, vaccine mismatch, possible mechanisms of systemic infection and epitopes mapping in glycosylated hemagglutinin protein of the human influenza A viruses.
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ..........................................................................................1
中文摘要.................................................................................................3
Chapter 1. General introduction ………………………………….....5
1-1. Orthomyxoviridae and Influenza A virus……………...………………....6
1-2. Pandemics of influenza A virus………………………...……………….7
1-3. Avian influenza virus and H5N1 outbreaks in human………...…………...8
1-4. Cell tropism of influenza A virus …………………………...………….9
1-5. Influenza receptors distribution in human airway ……………..………...10
1-6. The H5N1 virus isolation in human plasma ……………………..……...11
1-7. Hemagglutinin protein and antigenic regions………………………..…..11
1-8. T cell and B cell epitopes……………………………………..............13
1-9. DC-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) ………………....13
1-10. Motivation and Specific aims…………………………………….......15

Chapter 2. Materials and Methods…………………………………17
2-1. Cell lines……………………………………………………………………...18
2-2. Viruses………………………………………………………………………...18
2-3. Pseudotyped H5 virus preparation…………………………………………....18
2-4 RT-PCR and sequencing……………………………………............................18
2-5. Antigenic characteristics…………………………………...............................19
2-6. Amino acid substitution…………………………………................................19
2-7. Phylogenetic analysis………………………………………………………....20
2-8. N-linked glycosylation site predictions……………………………………….20
2-9. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin in bacteria………………………………….20
2-10. Anti-H5 mono-and polyclonal antibody preparation………………………..21
2-11. Immunoflourescence assay…………………………………………………..21
2-12. ELISA………………………………………………………………………..21
2-13. Western blot analysis………………………………………………………...22
2-14. Micro-neutralizing test……………………………………………………....23
2-15. Viral binding assay…………………………………………………………..23
2-16. Infectivity assay……………………………………………………………..24
2-17. Assessment of DC-SIGN-mediated infection in trans………………………24
2-18. p24 binding assay……………………………………………………………24
2-19. H5N1 and DC-SIGN colocalized staining…………………………………..25
2-20. Lectin staining……………………………………………………………….25
2-21. Preparation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells……………………………26
2-22. H5N1 Real-time RT-PCR……………………………………………………26
2-23. Subjects and HLA typing……………………………………………………26
2-24. Isolation of PBMC…………………………………………………………..27
2-25. H5N1 Influenza peptides…………………………………………………….27

Chapter 3. Results…………………………………………………………….28
3-1. Phylogenetic and Antigenic Characteristics of Hemagglutinin protiein of
Influenza A virus………………………………..…………………………….29
3-1-1. Phylogenetic tree analysis ………………………………………………….29
3-1-2. Parwise Comparisons of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Gene Sequences...29
3-1-3. Amino acid substitution and signature pattern analysis……………………..29
3-1-4. Antigenic characteristics and Vaccine match rate…………………………...31
3-2. Generation and characterization of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies
against HA proteins of avian H5N1 viruses…………………………………32
3-2-1. Monoclonal Antibodies and epitopes mapping……………………………...32
3-2-2. Evaluation of H5N1 mono-/polyclonal antibodies binding characteristics
with IFA assay………………………………………………………………32
3-2-3. Antigen recognization evaluation of H5 mono-/polyclonal antibodies
with Denature and Non-Denature gel……………………………………....33
3-2-4. Evaluation of H5N1 mono-/polyclonal antibodies binding and neutralizoing capability with H5N1-RG ELISA and Microneutralization assays………….33
3-2-5. Viral binding and blocking capabilities of H5N1 mono-/polyclonal
antibodies. …………………………………………………………………..34
3-3. The Interactions between Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus and
Dendritic Cell-Specific ICAM-3 Grabbing Non- Integrin (DC-SIGN)…..34
3-3-1. N-linked glycosylation sites prediction of HA protein……………………...34
3-3-2. H5/H5N1 pesudotyped viruses establishment …………………...................34
3-3-3. DC-SING mediates H5N1 virus infection in cis……………...……………..35
3-3-4. DC-SING mediates H5N1 virus infection in trans…………………………..36
3-3-5. DC-SING expressed on dendritic cells mediates H5N1 virus infection
in cis and in trans……………………………………………………………..37
3-4. To map important epitopes on H5N1 HA protein for CD4+ T
Lymphocyte activation……………………………………………...………..37
3-4-1. The H5N1 vaccinees and HLA typing……………………………………….38
3-4-2 Humoral response evaluation after H5N1 vaccination……………………….38

Chapter 4. Discussion…………………………………………………….........39
4-1. The representative Taiwanese influenza A epidemic isolates………………......40
4-2. The criteria of phylogenetic analytic methods…………….................................40
4-3.Antigenic variation and evolutionary topology of the Taiwanese influenza
A isolates……...…………………………………………………………………41
4-4. Antigenic characteristics and vaccine match of the Taiwanese influenza
A virus…………………………………………………………………….. ……42
4-5. The increases of N-linked glycosylation sites on the HA protein……………....43
4-6. The detection and diagnosis of avain H5N1 virus……………………………...44
4-7. The immunogenic targets for monolcal antibodies generation…………………45
4-8. Our H5 monoclonal antibodies recognized the denatured and liner
form epitope. …………………………………………………………………..46
4-9. Our H5 polyclonal antibodies have viral neutralizing capability………………47
4-10. Avian H5N1 viruses cause systemic infection in human……………………..48
4-11. Influenza viruses interact with dendritic cells………………………………...48
4-12. DC-SIGN on dendritic cells mediates pathogens with glycosylated infection..49
4-13. H5N1 pseudotyped virus is useful for glycosylated envelope characteristics analysis ……………………………………………………………………….50
4-14. DC-SIGN as an attached molecule facilitates H5N1 viral infection………….50
4-15.Immature DCs expressed high DC-SIGN molecules showed higher viral transport capability than mature DCs …………………………………………………..51
4-16. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in influenza virus infection………………….52
4-17. Peptide-MHC II complex activates CD4+ T cells in influenza vaccination or
infection……………………………………………………………………….53
4-18. ICS and tetramer assays are more sensitive to map T cell epitopes…………..54
4-19. CD4+ T cell epitopes mapping is important for H5N1 vaccine development…54
4-20. Humoral immune response is associated with CD4+ T cell activation………..56
4-21. HA1 domian is specific for H5N1 virus under CD4+ T cell epitope mapping..57

Chapter 5. Figures and Tables…………………………………….………...58
Figure 5-1. Antigenic sites of influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 viruses……..……….59
Figure 5-2. Phylogenetic analysis of human influenza A virus in Taiwan from
1980 to 2006 (Neighbor-Joining trees)…..…………………………....60
Figure 5-3. Phylogenetic analysis of human influenza A virus in Taiwan from
1980 to 2006 (Maximum Parsimony trees) …...……………………...62
Figure 5-4. Amino acid alignment of the human H1N1 influenza virus…………..64
Figure 5-5. Amino acid alignment of the human H3N2 influenza virus…………..66
Figure 5-6. Amino acid substitution patterns on major antigenic sites of the
human influenza A virus in Taiwan from 1980 to 2006………………69
Figure 5-7. Cloning and protein expression of H5HA1 domain ………………….71
Figure 5-8. Isotype determination and epitope mapping of monoclonal
antibodies……………………………………………………………...72
Figure 5-9. H5 mono-/polyclonal antibody reactivity as measured by IFA……….73

Figure 5-10. H5 mono-/polyclonal antibody reactivity to native or denatured form
of HA protein as measured by Western blotting…..……………………74
Figure 5-11. H5 mono-/polyclonal antibody reactivity to clinical vaccine strains as measured by Western blotting…..……………………….…………….75
Figure 5-12. Evaluation of viral neutralizing and binding ability of H5
mono- /polyclonal antibodies……………………………………….....76
Figure 5-13.Neutralization of virus infection by sera from mouse
monoclonal antibodies…….………………………………………….....77
Figure 5-14. Viral binding capabilities of mono-/polyclonal antibodies evaluated by flow cytometry………………………………………………………...78
Figure 5-15. Prediction of N-linked glycosylation on hemagglutinin of H5N1 influenza strain A/Vietnem/1203/04 by NetNGlyc 1.0 Server, displayed on 3D structure with DS ViewerPro Trial program…………………………..79
Figure 5-16. DC-SIGN as an attachment receptor for H5N1 pseudotyped virus and enhanced H5N1 pseudotyped virus infection in cis…………………...80
Figure 5-17. DC-SIGN is not the major receptor for H5N1 infection……………….82
Figure 5-18. DC-SIGN specifically interacts with glycosylated HA proteins of H5N1 viruses………………………………………………….………………83
Figure 5-19. Differences in cell markers and morphologies between immature and mature DCs…………………………………………………………….84
Figure 5-20. DC-SIGN mediates trans infection by H5N1 pseudotyped and reverse -genetics viruses……………………………………………………......85
Figure 5-21. DC-SIGN mediates H5N1 reverse-genetics virus infection in cis……...86
Figure 5-22. Compare possible peptides with online computing algorithms ………...87
Figure 5-23. Direct mapping of the DRB1_1501 restricted CD4+ T cell epitopes on the HA of H5 identified in this study………………………………………89
Table 5-1. Subtypes and Accession Numbers of Influenza Virus Isolates from Clinical Specimens…………………………………………………….90
Table 5-2. Parwise Comparisons of Influenza H3N2 and H1N1 Virus Hemagglutinin
Gene Sequences……………….…....………….………………………91
Table 5-3. Antigenic Relationships between Taiwan epidemic Isolates and Corresponding Vaccine Strains….………....….………………………92
Table 5-4. Degrees of Matches between Taiwan Epidemic Strains and World Health Organization-recommended Influenza A Vaccine Strains……………….93
Table 5-5. Hemagglutination and cell susceptibility of H5N1 pseudotyped virus…...94
Table 5-6. DC-SIGN could specifically capture H5N1 pesudotyped viruses………...95
Table 5-7. DC-SIGN binding pathogens………....…………………………………...96
Table 5-8. Sero-reactivity to H5N1 and HLA-DR alleles of the H5N1-vaccinees…...97
Table 5-9. Synthetic peptides covering the whole HA1 domain of
A/Vietnam / 1203 /04…………………………………………………….98

Chapter 6. Conclusions an References …………………………….....99
6-1 Conclusions…………………………………………………..……….100
6-2 References………………...…………………………………………..102

APPENDIX …………..……………………………………………….124
I. Publication List, Book Chapters and Conference Abstracts
II. Published Paper
1. 2004. Assessment of risk to human health associated with outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in poultry--situation as at 14 May 2004. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 79:203-4.
2. 2007. Avian influenza update: recent outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry worldwide. Euro Surveill 12:E070125 2.
3. 2005. H5N1 avian influenza virus expands its range. Vet Rec 157:242-3.
4. 2008. Update: WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection, November 2003-May 2008. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 83:415-20.
5. Abdel-Ghafar, A. N., T. Chotpitayasunondh, Z. Gao, F. G. Hayden, D. H. Nguyen, M. D. de Jong, A. Naghdaliyev, J. S. Peiris, N. Shindo, S. Soeroso, and T. M. Uyeki. 2008. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. N Engl J Med 358:261-73.
6. Abe, Y., E. Takashita, K. Sugawara, Y. Matsuzaki, Y. Muraki, and S. Hongo. 2004. Effect of the addition of oligosaccharides on the biological activities and antigenicity of influenza A/H3N2 virus hemagglutinin. J Virol 78:9605-11.
7. Abed, Y., I. Hardy, Y. Li, and G. Boivin. 2002. Divergent evolution of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes in recent influenza A:H3N2 viruses isolated in Canada. J Med Virol 67:589-95.
8. Ahmed, R. K., and M. J. Maeurer. 2009. T-cell epitope mapping. Methods Mol Biol 524:427-38.
9. Air, G. M. 1981. Sequence relationships among the hemagglutinin genes of 12 subtypes of influenza A virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78:7639-43.
10. Alvarez, C. P., F. Lasala, J. Carrillo, O. Muniz, A. L. Corbi, and R. Delgado. 2002. C-type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN mediate cellular entry by Ebola virus in cis and in trans. J Virol 76:6841-4.
11. Angata, T., and A. Varki. 2002. Chemical diversity in the sialic acids and related alpha-keto acids: an evolutionary perspective. Chem Rev 102:439-69.
12. Appelmelk, B. J., I. van Die, S. J. van Vliet, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, T. B. Geijtenbeek, and Y. van Kooyk. 2003. Cutting edge: carbohydrate profiling identifies new pathogens that interact with dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin on dendritic cells. J Immunol 170:1635-9.
13. Babakir-Mina, M., E. Balestra, C. F. Perno, and S. Aquaro. 2007. Influenza virus A (H5N1): a pandemic risk? New Microbiol 30:65-78.
14. Banchereau, J., F. Briere, C. Caux, J. Davoust, S. Lebecque, Y. J. Liu, B. Pulendran, and K. Palucka. 2000. Immunobiology of dendritic cells. Annu Rev Immunol 18:767-811.
15. Banchereau, J., and R. M. Steinman. 1998. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 392:245-52.
16. Barth, H., A. Ulsenheimer, G. R. Pape, H. M. Diepolder, M. Hoffmann, C. Neumann-Haefelin, R. Thimme, P. Henneke, R. Klein, G. Paranhos-Baccala, E. Depla, T. J. Liang, H. E. Blum, and T. F. Baumert. 2005. Uptake and presentation of hepatitis C virus-like particles by human dendritic cells. Blood 105:3605-14.
17. Bartosch, B., J. Dubuisson, and F. L. Cosset. 2003. Infectious hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles containing functional E1-E2 envelope protein complexes. J Exp Med 197:633-42.
18. Bashirova, A. A., T. B. Geijtenbeek, G. C. van Duijnhoven, S. J. van Vliet, J. B. Eilering, M. P. Martin, L. Wu, T. D. Martin, N. Viebig, P. A. Knolle, V. N. KewalRamani, Y. van Kooyk, and M. Carrington. 2001. A dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-related protein is highly expressed on human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and promotes HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med 193:671-8.
19. Bashirova, A. A., L. Wu, J. Cheng, T. D. Martin, M. P. Martin, R. E. Benveniste, J. D. Lifson, V. N. KewalRamani, A. Hughes, and M. Carrington. 2003. Novel member of the CD209 (DC-SIGN) gene family in primates. J Virol 77:217-27.
20. Bean, W. J., M. Schell, J. Katz, Y. Kawaoka, C. Naeve, O. Gorman, and R. G. Webster. 1992. Evolution of the H3 influenza virus hemagglutinin from human and nonhuman hosts. J Virol 66:1129-38.
21. Beare, A. S., and R. G. Webster. 1991. Replication of avian influenza viruses in humans. Arch Virol 119:37-42.
22. Beigel, J. H., J. Farrar, A. M. Han, F. G. Hayden, R. Hyer, M. D. de Jong, S. Lochindarat, T. K. Nguyen, T. H. Nguyen, T. H. Tran, A. Nicoll, S. Touch, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. N Engl J Med 353:1374-85.
23. Belshe, R. B. 2005. The origins of pandemic influenza--lessons from the 1918 virus. N Engl J Med 353:2209-11.
24. Bender, A., U. Amann, R. Jager, M. Nain, and D. Gemsa. 1993. Effect of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor on human monocytes infected with influenza A virus. Enhancement of virus replication, cytokine release, and cytotoxicity. J Immunol 151:5416-24.
25. Betts, M. R., M. C. Nason, S. M. West, S. C. De Rosa, S. A. Migueles, J. Abraham, M. M. Lederman, J. M. Benito, P. A. Goepfert, M. Connors, M. Roederer, and R. A. Koup. 2006. HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. Blood 107:4781-9.
26. Bhardwaj, N., A. Bender, N. Gonzalez, L. K. Bui, M. C. Garrett, and R. M. Steinman. 1994. Influenza virus-infected dendritic cells stimulate strong proliferative and cytolytic responses from human CD8+ T cells. J Clin Invest 94:797-807.
27. Boon, A. C., E. Fringuelli, Y. M. Graus, R. A. Fouchier, K. Sintnicolaas, A. M. Iorio, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2002. Influenza A virus specific T cell immunity in humans during aging. Virology 299:100-8.
28. Boshchenko Iu, A., V. M. Zaides, and V. M. Zhdanov. 1982. [Association of influenza virus intracellular ribonucleoproteins with the nonstructural virus-specific protein NS1]. Vopr Virusol 27:47-52.
29. Bragstad, K., L. P. Nielsen, and A. Fomsgaard. 2008. The evolution of human influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006: a complete genome study. Virol J 5:40.
30. Brassard, D. L., G. P. Leser, and R. A. Lamb. 1996. Influenza B virus NB glycoprotein is a component of the virion. Virology 220:350-60.
31. Brocker, T., M. Riedinger, and K. Karjalainen. 1997. Targeted expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules demonstrates that dendritic cells can induce negative but not positive selection of thymocytes in vivo. J Exp Med 185:541-50.
32. Brusic, V., V. B. Bajic, and N. Petrovsky. 2004. Computational methods for prediction of T-cell epitopes--a framework for modelling, testing, and applications. Methods 34:436-43.
33. Cambi, A., K. Gijzen, J. M. de Vries, R. Torensma, B. Joosten, G. J. Adema, M. G. Netea, B. J. Kullberg, L. Romani, and C. G. Figdor. 2003. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209) is an antigen-uptake receptor for Candida albicans on dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 33:532-8.
34. Carr, C. M., and P. S. Kim. 1993. A spring-loaded mechanism for the conformational change of influenza hemagglutinin. Cell 73:823-32.
35. Carrat, F., and A. Flahault. 2007. Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift. Vaccine 25:6852-62.
36. Carter, N. J., and G. L. Plosker. 2008. Prepandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 (split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted) [Prepandrix]: a review of its use as an active immunization against influenza A subtype H5N1 virus. BioDrugs 22:279-92.
37. Caton, A. J., G. G. Brownlee, J. W. Yewdell, and W. Gerhard. 1982. The antigenic structure of the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (H1 subtype). Cell 31:417-27.
38. Cecconi, V., M. Moro, S. Del Mare, P. Dellabona, and G. Casorati. 2008. Use of MHC class II tetramers to investigate CD4+ T cell responses: problems and solutions. Cytometry A 73:1010-8.
39. Chan, C. H., K. L. Lin, Y. Chan, Y. L. Wang, Y. T. Chi, H. L. Tu, H. K. Shieh, and W. T. Liu. 2006. Amplification of the entire genome of influenza A virus H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 136:38-43.
40. Cheli, R., and M. U. Dianzani. 1955. Adsorption of PR 8 influenza virus on the red cells of guinea pigs treated with haemolytic serum. Acta Haematol 14:15-22.
41. Chen, J., K. H. Lee, D. A. Steinhauer, D. J. Stevens, J. J. Skehel, and D. C. Wiley. 1998. Structure of the hemagglutinin precursor cleavage site, a determinant of influenza pathogenicity and the origin of the labile conformation. Cell 95:409-17.
42. Chutinimitkul, S., P. Bhattarakosol, S. Srisuratanon, A. Eiamudomkan, K. Kongsomboon, S. Damrongwatanapokin, A. Chaisingh, K. Suwannakarn, T. Chieochansin, A. Theamboonlers, and Y. Poovorawan. 2006. H5N1 influenza A virus and infected human plasma. Emerg Infect Dis 12:1041-3.
43. Connor, R. J., Y. Kawaoka, R. G. Webster, and J. C. Paulson. 1994. Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates. Virology 205:17-23.
44. Cormier, E. G., R. J. Durso, F. Tsamis, L. Boussemart, C. Manix, W. C. Olson, J. P. Gardner, and T. Dragic. 2004. L-SIGN (CD209L) and DC-SIGN (CD209) mediate transinfection of liver cells by hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14067-72.
45. Cox, N. J., Z. S. Bai, and A. P. Kendal. 1983. Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses in 1980-81: antigenic and genomic analyses. Bull World Health Organ 61:143-52.
46. Cunliffe, S. L., J. R. Wyer, J. K. Sutton, M. Lucas, G. Harcourt, P. Klenerman, A. J. McMichael, and A. D. Kelleher. 2002. Optimization of peptide linker length in production of MHC class II/peptide tetrameric complexes increases yield and stability, and allows identification of antigen-specific CD4+T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Eur J Immunol 32:3366-75.
47. Curtis, B. M., S. Scharnowske, and A. J. Watson. 1992. Sequence and expression of a membrane-associated C-type lectin that exhibits CD4-independent binding of human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:8356-60.
48. Danke, N. A., and W. W. Kwok. 2003. HLA class II-restricted CD4+ T cell responses directed against influenza viral antigens postinfluenza vaccination. J Immunol 171:3163-9.
49. Davenport, F. M. 1973. Control of influenza. Med J Aust:Suppl:33-8.
50. de Jong, M. D., C. P. Simmons, T. T. Thanh, V. M. Hien, G. J. Smith, T. N. Chau, D. M. Hoang, N. V. Chau, T. H. Khanh, V. C. Dong, P. T. Qui, B. V. Cam, Q. Ha do, Y. Guan, J. S. Peiris, N. T. Chinh, T. T. Hien, and J. Farrar. 2006. Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia. Nat Med 12:1203-7.
51. Dowling, W., E. Thompson, C. Badger, J. L. Mellquist, A. R. Garrison, J. M. Smith, J. Paragas, R. J. Hogan, and C. Schmaljohn. 2007. Influences of glycosylation on antigenicity, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of ebola virus GP DNA vaccines. J Virol 81:1821-37.
52. Du, A., T. Daidoji, T. Koma, M. S. Ibrahim, S. Nakamura, U. C. de Silva, M. Ueda, C. S. Yang, T. Yasunaga, K. Ikuta, and T. Nakaya. 2009. Detection of circulating Asian H5N1 viruses by a newly established monoclonal antibody. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 378:197-202.
53. Duda, A., L. Lee-Turner, J. Fox, N. Robinson, S. Dustan, S. Kaye, H. Fryer, M. Carrington, M. McClure, A. R. McLean, S. Fidler, J. Weber, R. E. Phillips, and A. J. Frater. 2009. HLA-associated clinical progression correlates with epitope reversion rates in early human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 83:1228-39.
54. Elliot, A. J., D. A. Steinhauer, R. S. Daniels, and J. S. Oxford. 2006. Functional and antigenic analyses of the 1918 influenza virus haemagglutinin using a recombinant vaccinia virus expression system. Virus Res 122:11-9.
55. Enshell-Seijffers, D., D. Denisov, B. Groisman, L. Smelyanski, R. Meyuhas, G. Gross, G. Denisova, and J. M. Gershoni. 2003. The mapping and reconstitution of a conformational discontinuous B-cell epitope of HIV-1. J Mol Biol 334:87-101.
56. Foster, B., C. Prussin, F. Liu, J. K. Whitmire, and J. L. Whitton. 2007. Detection of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry. Curr Protoc Immunol Chapter 6:Unit 6 24.
57. Fournillier, A., C. Wychowski, D. Boucreux, T. F. Baumert, J. C. Meunier, D. Jacobs, S. Muguet, E. Depla, and G. Inchauspe. 2001. Induction of hepatitis C virus E1 envelope protein-specific immune response can be enhanced by mutation of N-glycosylation sites. J Virol 75:12088-97.
58. Gagneux, P., M. Cheriyan, N. Hurtado-Ziola, E. C. van der Linden, D. Anderson, H. McClure, A. Varki, and N. M. Varki. 2003. Human-specific regulation of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acids. J Biol Chem 278:48245-50.
59. Gambaryan, A. S., A. I. Karasin, A. B. Tuzikov, A. A. Chinarev, G. V. Pazynina, N. V. Bovin, M. N. Matrosovich, C. W. Olsen, and A. I. Klimov. 2005. Receptor-binding properties of swine influenza viruses isolated and propagated in MDCK cells. Virus Res 114:15-22.
60. Gauduin, M. C. 2006. Intracellular cytokine staining for the characterization and quantitation of antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses. Methods 38:263-73.
61. Geijtenbeek, T. B., D. S. Kwon, R. Torensma, S. J. van Vliet, G. C. van Duijnhoven, J. Middel, I. L. Cornelissen, H. S. Nottet, V. N. KewalRamani, D. R. Littman, C. G. Figdor, and Y. van Kooyk. 2000. DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells. Cell 100:587-97.
62. Geijtenbeek, T. B., R. Torensma, S. J. van Vliet, G. C. van Duijnhoven, G. J. Adema, Y. van Kooyk, and C. G. Figdor. 2000. Identification of DC-SIGN, a novel dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 receptor that supports primary immune responses. Cell 100:575-85.
63. Geijtenbeek, T. B., S. J. van Vliet, G. C. van Duijnhoven, C. G. Figdor, and Y. van Kooyk. 2001. DC-SIGN, a dentritic cell-specific HIV-1 receptor present in placenta that infects T cells in trans-a review. Placenta 22 Suppl A:S19-23.
64. Gerhard, W., J. Yewdell, M. E. Frankel, and R. Webster. 1981. Antigenic structure of influenza virus haemagglutinin defined by hybridoma antibodies. Nature 290:713-7.
65. Glezen, W. P., L. H. Taber, A. L. Frank, W. C. Gruber, and P. A. Piedra. 1997. Influenza virus infections in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16:1065-8.
66. Goffard, A., N. Callens, B. Bartosch, C. Wychowski, F. L. Cosset, C. Montpellier, and J. Dubuisson. 2005. Role of N-linked glycans in the functions of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins. J Virol 79:8400-9.
67. Grosjean, I., C. Caux, C. Bella, I. Berger, F. Wild, J. Banchereau, and D. Kaiserlian. 1997. Measles virus infects human dendritic cells and blocks their allostimulatory properties for CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med 186:801-12.
68. Guo, Y., H. Feinberg, E. Conroy, D. A. Mitchell, R. Alvarez, O. Blixt, M. E. Taylor, W. I. Weis, and K. Drickamer. 2004. Structural basis for distinct ligand-binding and targeting properties of the receptors DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. Nat Struct Mol Biol 11:591-8.
69. Hanna, S. L., T. C. Pierson, M. D. Sanchez, A. A. Ahmed, M. M. Murtadha, and R. W. Doms. 2005. N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity. J Virol 79:13262-74.
70. Harari, A., C. Cellerai, F. B. Enders, J. Kostler, L. Codarri, G. Tapia, O. Boyman, E. Castro, S. Gaudieri, I. James, M. John, R. Wagner, S. Mallal, and G. Pantaleo. 2007. Skewed association of polyfunctional antigen-specific CD8 T cell populations with HLA-B genotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16233-8.
71. Harari, A., S. Petitpierre, F. Vallelian, and G. Pantaleo. 2004. Skewed representation of functionally distinct populations of virus-specific CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected subjects with progressive disease: changes after antiretroviral therapy. Blood 103:966-72.
72. Harari, A., F. Vallelian, P. R. Meylan, and G. Pantaleo. 2005. Functional heterogeneity of memory CD4 T cell responses in different conditions of antigen exposure and persistence. J Immunol 174:1037-45.
73. Hay, A. J., V. Gregory, A. R. Douglas, and Y. P. Lin. 2001. The evolution of human influenza viruses. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:1861-70.
74. He, Q., S. Velumani, Q. Du, C. W. Lim, F. K. Ng, R. Donis, and J. Kwang. 2007. Detection of H5 avian influenza viruses by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using H5-specific monoclonal antibody. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:617-23.
75. Hillis, D. M. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis. Curr Biol 7:R129-31.
76. Hillis, D. M. 1998. Taxonomic sampling, phylogenetic accuracy, and investigator bias. Syst Biol 47:3-8.
77. Hoelscher, M. A., N. Singh, S. Garg, L. Jayashankar, V. Veguilla, A. Pandey, Y. Matsuoka, J. M. Katz, R. Donis, S. K. Mittal, and S. Sambhara. 2008. A broadly protective vaccine against globally dispersed clade 1 and clade 2 H5N1 influenza viruses. J Infect Dis 197:1185-8.
78. Hoffmann, E., J. Stech, Y. Guan, R. G. Webster, and D. R. Perez. 2001. Universal primer set for the full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses. Arch Virol 146:2275-89.
79. Horimoto, T., N. Fukuda, K. Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Y. Guan, W. Lim, M. Peiris, S. Sugii, T. Odagiri, M. Tashiro, and Y. Kawaoka. 2004. Antigenic differences between H5N1 human influenza viruses isolated in 1997 and 2003. J Vet Med Sci 66:303-5.
80. Hsieh, Y. C., H. Y. Chen, J. J. Yen, D. P. Liu, L. Y. Chang, C. Y. Lu, P. L. Shao, C. Y. Lee, and L. M. Huang. 2005. Influenza in Taiwan: seasonality and vaccine strain match. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 38:238-43.
81. Hu, H. P., S. C. Hsieh, C. C. King, and W. K. Wang. 2007. Characterization of retrovirus-based reporter viruses pseudotyped with the precursor membrane and envelope glycoproteins of four serotypes of dengue viruses. Virology 368:376-87.
82. Ibricevic, A., A. Pekosz, M. J. Walter, C. Newby, J. T. Battaile, E. G. Brown, M. J. Holtzman, and S. L. Brody. 2006. Influenza virus receptor specificity and cell tropism in mouse and human airway epithelial cells. J Virol 80:7469-80.
83. Ikic, D., S. Smerdel, T. Manhalter, N. Pasini, and N. Delimar. 1977. HI antibody response in volunteers vaccinated with live influenza A/New Jersey/76 vaccine. Dev Biol Stand 39:67-71.
84. Ilyushina, N. A., E. A. Govorkova, T. E. Gray, N. V. Bovin, and R. G. Webster. 2008. Human-like receptor specificity does not affect the neuraminidase-inhibitor susceptibility of H5N1 influenza viruses. PLoS Pathog 4:e1000043.
85. Inglis, S. C., A. R. Carroll, R. A. Lamb, and B. W. Mahy. 1976. Polypeptides specified by the influenza virus genome I. Evidence for eight distinct gene products specified by fowl plague virus. Virology 74:489-503.
86. Ito, T., J. N. Couceiro, S. Kelm, L. G. Baum, S. Krauss, M. R. Castrucci, I. Donatelli, H. Kida, J. C. Paulson, R. G. Webster, and Y. Kawaoka. 1998. Molecular basis for the generation in pigs of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. J Virol 72:7367-73.
87. Jian, J. W., G. W. Chen, C. T. Lai, L. C. Hsu, P. J. Chen, S. H. Kuo, H. S. Wu, and S. R. Shih. 2008. Genetic and epidemiological analysis of influenza virus epidemics in Taiwan during 2003 to 2006. J Clin Microbiol 46:1426-34.
88. Jones, K. E., N. G. Patel, M. A. Levy, A. Storeygard, D. Balk, J. L. Gittleman, and P. Daszak. 2008. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451:990-3.
89. Jung, T., U. Schauer, C. Heusser, C. Neumann, and C. Rieger. 1993. Detection of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 159:197-207.
90. Kannanganat, S., C. Ibegbu, L. Chennareddi, H. L. Robinson, and R. R. Amara. 2007. Multiple-cytokine-producing antiviral CD4 T cells are functionally superior to single-cytokine-producing cells. J Virol 81:8468-76.
91. Kasson, P. M., and V. S. Pande. 2008. Structural basis for influence of viral glycans on ligand binding by influenza hemagglutinin. Biophys J 95:L48-50.
92. Kaverin, N. V., I. A. Rudneva, E. A. Govorkova, T. A. Timofeeva, A. A. Shilov, K. S. Kochergin-Nikitsky, P. S. Krylov, and R. G. Webster. 2007. Epitope mapping of the hemagglutinin molecule of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus by using monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 81:12911-7.
93. Kayali, G., S. F. Setterquist, A. W. Capuano, K. P. Myers, J. S. Gill, and G. C. Gray. 2008. Testing human sera for antibodies against avian influenza viruses: horse RBC hemagglutination inhibition vs. microneutralization assays. J Clin Virol 43:73-8.
94. Keet, I. P., J. Tang, M. R. Klein, S. LeBlanc, C. Enger, C. Rivers, R. J. Apple, D. Mann, J. J. Goedert, F. Miedema, and R. A. Kaslow. 1999. Consistent associations of HLA class I and II and transporter gene products with progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in homosexual men. J Infect Dis 180:299-309.
95. Kendal, A. P., D. J. Phillips, R. G. Webster, G. G. Galland, and C. B. Reimer. 1981. Effect of test system on the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect antigenic drift in influenza A(H1N1) virus haemagglutinins. J Gen Virol 54:253-61.
96. Kiepiela, P., A. J. Leslie, I. Honeyborne, D. Ramduth, C. Thobakgale, S. Chetty, P. Rathnavalu, C. Moore, K. J. Pfafferott, L. Hilton, P. Zimbwa, S. Moore, T. Allen, C. Brander, M. M. Addo, M. Altfeld, I. James, S. Mallal, M. Bunce, L. D. Barber, J. Szinger, C. Day, P. Klenerman, J. Mullins, B. Korber, H. M. Coovadia, B. D. Walker, and P. J. Goulder. 2004. Dominant influence of HLA-B in mediating the potential co-evolution of HIV and HLA. Nature 432:769-75.
97. Koch, M., M. Pancera, P. D. Kwong, P. Kolchinsky, C. Grundner, L. Wang, W. A. Hendrickson, J. Sodroski, and R. Wyatt. 2003. Structure-based, targeted deglycosylation of HIV-1 gp120 and effects on neutralization sensitivity and antibody recognition. Virology 313:387-400.
98. Korteweg, C., and J. Gu. 2008. Pathology, Molecular Biology, and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans. Am J Pathol 172:1155-70.
99. Koup, R. A. 1994. Virus escape from CTL recognition. J Exp Med 180:779-82.
100. Kraan, J., M. Arroz, M. Keeney, M. Freire, K. Weir, I. Heijnen, and J. W. Gratama. 2003. Flow cytometric enumeration of Class I HLA-restricted, peptide-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes using tetramer technology and single-platform absolute T-cell counting. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 17:268-78.
101. Kumar, S., K. Tamura, and M. Nei. 2004. MEGA3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5:150-63.
102. Kwon, D. S., G. Gregorio, N. Bitton, W. A. Hendrickson, and D. R. Littman. 2002. DC-SIGN-mediated internalization of HIV is required for trans-enhancement of T cell infection. Immunity 16:135-44.
103. Kwon, Y. K., S. J. Joh, M. C. Kim, H. W. Sung, Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, E. K. Lee, and J. H. Kim. 2005. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in the commercial domestic ducks of South Korea. Avian Pathol 34:367-70.
104. Kwon, Y. K., H. W. Sung, S. J. Joh, Y. J. Lee, M. C. Kim, J. G. Choi, E. K. Lee, S. H. Wee, and J. H. Kim. 2005. An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 in broiler breeders, Korea. J Vet Med Sci 67:1193-6.
105. Lamb, R. A., and P. W. Choppin. 1977. Synthesis of influenza virus polypeptides in cells resistant to alpha-amanitin: evidence for the involvement of cellular RNA polymerase II in virus replication. J Virol 23:816-9.
106. Lan, Y. C., T. T. Liu, J. Y. Yang, C. M. Lee, Y. J. Chen, Y. J. Chan, J. J. Lu, H. F. Liu, C. A. Hsiung, M. S. Ho, K. J. Hsiao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. M. Chen. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infections in Taiwan. J Infect Dis 191:1478-89.
107. Lavanchy, D. 1998. The WHO update on influenza A (H5N1) in Hong Kong. Euro Surveill 3:23-25.
108. Lee, B., G. Leslie, E. Soilleux, U. O'Doherty, S. Baik, E. Levroney, K. Flummerfelt, W. Swiggard, N. Coleman, M. Malim, and R. W. Doms. 2001. cis Expression of DC-SIGN allows for more efficient entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses via CD4 and a coreceptor. J Virol 75:12028-38.
109. Li, Y. G., P. Thawatsupha, M. Chittaganpitch, K. Rungrojcharoenkit, G. M. Li, T. Nakaya, W. Auwanit, K. Ikuta, and P. Sawanpanyalert. 2008. Higher in vitro susceptibility of human T cells to H5N1 than H1N1 influenza viruses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
110. Ligon, B. L. 2005. Avian influenza virus H5N1: a review of its history and information regarding its potential to cause the next pandemic. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 16:326-35.
111. Ligon, B. L. 2004. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: review of general contributing factors and of West Nile virus. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 15:199-205.
112. Lim, A. P., S. K. Wong, A. H. Chan, C. E. Chan, E. E. Ooi, and B. J. Hanson. 2008. Epitope characterization of the protective monoclonal antibody VN04-2 shows broadly neutralizing activity against highly pathogenic H5N1. Virol J 5:80.
113. Lin, J. H., S. C. Chiu, C. H. Lee, Y. J. Su, H. C. Tsai, Y. T. Peng, and H. S. Wu. 2008. Genetic and antigenic analysis of epidemic influenza viruses isolated during 2006-2007 season in Taiwan. J Med Virol 80:316-22.
114. Lin, Y. T., Y. C. Lan, Y. J. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. M. Lee, T. T. Liu, W. W. Wong, J. Y. Yang, C. T. Wang, and Y. M. Chen. 2007. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection and full-length genomic analysis of circulating recombinant form 07_BC strains from injection drug users in Taiwan. J Infect Dis 195:1283-93.
115. Liu, C. K., G. Wei, and W. J. Atwood. 1998. Infection of glial cells by the human polyomavirus JC is mediated by an N-linked glycoprotein containing terminal alpha(2-6)-linked sialic acids. J Virol 72:4643-9.
116. Lopez-Vazquez, A., L. Rodrigo, and C. Lopez-Larrea. 2007. Association of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their HLA Class I ligands with progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Tissue Antigens 69 Suppl 1:241-2.
117. Lu, X., L. E. Edwards, J. A. Desheva, D. C. Nguyen, A. Rekstin, I. Stephenson, K. Szretter, N. J. Cox, L. G. Rudenko, A. Klimov, and J. M. Katz. 2006. Cross-protective immunity in mice induced by live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines against highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Vaccine 24:6588-93.
118. Maeda, N., J. Nigou, J. L. Herrmann, M. Jackson, A. Amara, P. H. Lagrange, G. Puzo, B. Gicquel, and O. Neyrolles. 2003. The cell surface receptor DC-SIGN discriminates between Mycobacterium species through selective recognition of the mannose caps on lipoarabinomannan. J Biol Chem 278:5513-6.
119. Mahmood, K., R. A. Bright, N. Mytle, D. M. Carter, C. J. Crevar, J. E. Achenbach, P. M. Heaton, T. M. Tumpey, and T. M. Ross. 2008. H5N1 VLP vaccine induced protection in ferrets against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. Vaccine.
120. Mareckova, H., A. Ravdan, T. Fucikova, and I. Janatkova. 2002. [Detection of the production of intracellular cytokines by T lymphocytes using flow cytometry--methodologic problems]. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 51:111-8.
121. Matrosovich, M., A. Tuzikov, N. Bovin, A. Gambaryan, A. Klimov, M. R. Castrucci, I. Donatelli, and Y. Kawaoka. 2000. Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals. J Virol 74:8502-12.
122. Matrosovich, M. N., A. S. Gambaryan, S. Teneberg, V. E. Piskarev, S. S. Yamnikova, D. K. Lvov, J. S. Robertson, and K. A. Karlsson. 1997. Avian influenza A viruses differ from human viruses by recognition of sialyloligosaccharides and gangliosides and by a higher conservation of the HA receptor-binding site. Virology 233:224-34.
123. Matrosovich, M. N., T. Y. Matrosovich, T. Gray, N. A. Roberts, and H. D. Klenk. 2004. Human and avian influenza viruses target different cell types in cultures of human airway epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4620-4.
124. Naficy, K. 1963. Human Influenza Infection with Proved Viremia. Report of a Case. N Engl J Med 269:964-6.
125. Nagata, T., T. Aoshi, M. Uchijima, and Y. Koide. 2008. In vivo hierarchy of individual T-cell epitope-specific helper T-cell subset against an intracellular bacterium. Vaccine 26:5123-7.
126. Nandi, B., K. Hogle, N. Vitko, and G. M. Winslow. 2007. CD4 T-cell epitopes associated with protective immunity induced following vaccination of mice with an ehrlichial variable outer membrane protein. Infect Immun 75:5453-9.
127. Nefkens, I., J. M. Garcia, C. S. Ling, N. Lagarde, J. Nicholls, D. J. Tang, M. Peiris, P. Buchy, and R. Altmeyer. 2007. Hemagglutinin pseudotyped lentiviral particles: characterization of a new method for avian H5N1 influenza sero-diagnosis. J Clin Virol 39:27-33.
128. Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and C. Sellwood. 2007. Avian influenza and the threat of the next human pandemic. J Hosp Infect 65 Suppl 2:10-3.
129. Nicholson, K. G., J. M. Wood, and M. Zambon. 2003. Influenza. Lancet 362:1733-45.
130. Novak, E. J., A. W. Liu, J. A. Gebe, B. A. Falk, G. T. Nepom, D. M. Koelle, and W. W. Kwok. 2001. Tetramer-guided epitope mapping: rapid identification and characterization of immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitopes from complex antigens. J Immunol 166:6665-70.
131. Novak, E. J., A. W. Liu, G. T. Nepom, and W. W. Kwok. 1999. MHC class II tetramers identify peptide-specific human CD4(+) T cells proliferating in response to influenza A antigen. J Clin Invest 104:R63-7.
132. O'Neill, R. E., J. Talon, and P. Palese. 1998. The influenza virus NEP (NS2 protein) mediates the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins. EMBO J 17:288-96.
133. Ohmit, S. E., J. C. Victor, J. R. Rotthoff, E. R. Teich, R. K. Truscon, L. L. Baum, B. Rangarajan, D. W. Newton, M. L. Boulton, and A. S. Monto. 2006. Prevention of antigenically drifted influenza by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. N Engl J Med 355:2513-22.
134. Ohuchi, M., A. Feldmann, R. Ohuchi, and H. D. Klenk. 1995. Neuraminidase is essential for fowl plague virus hemagglutinin to show hemagglutinating activity. Virology 212:77-83.
135. Ohuchi, M., M. Orlich, R. Ohuchi, B. E. Simpson, W. Garten, H. D. Klenk, and R. Rott. 1989. Mutations at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin after the pathogenicity of influenza virus A/chick/Penn/83 (H5N2). Virology 168:274-80.
136. Openshaw, P., E. E. Murphy, N. A. Hosken, V. Maino, K. Davis, K. Murphy, and A. O'Garra. 1995. Heterogeneity of intracellular cytokine synthesis at the single-cell level in polarized T helper 1 and T helper 2 populations. J Exp Med 182:1357-67.
137. Pantaleo, G., and R. A. Koup. 2004. Correlates of immune protection in HIV-1 infection: what we know, what we don't know, what we should know. Nat Med 10:806-10.
138. Parida, R., M. S. Shaila, S. Mukherjee, N. R. Chandra, and R. Nayak. 2007. Computational analysis of proteome of H5N1 avian influenza virus to define T cell epitopes with vaccine potential. Vaccine 25:7530-9.
139. Pawitan, J. A. 2007. Human H5N1 influenza. N Engl J Med 356:1375; author reply 1376-7.
140. Payungporn, S., S. Chutinimitkul, A. Chaisingh, S. Damrongwantanapokin, C. Buranathai, A. Amonsin, A. Theamboonlers, and Y. Poovorawan. 2006. Single step multiplex real-time RT-PCR for H5N1 influenza A virus detection. J Virol Methods 131:143-7.
141. Peiris, J. S., M. D. de Jong, and Y. Guan. 2007. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. Clin Microbiol Rev 20:243-67.
142. Pekosz, A., and R. A. Lamb. 1997. The CM2 protein of influenza C virus is an oligomeric integral membrane glycoprotein structurally analogous to influenza A virus M2 and influenza B virus NB proteins. Virology 237:439-51.
143. Ping, J., C. Li, G. Deng, Y. Jiang, G. Tian, S. Zhang, Z. Bu, and H. Chen. 2008. Single-amino-acid mutation in the HA alters the recognition of H9N2 influenza virus by a monoclonal antibody. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 371:168-71.
144. Pinto, L. H., L. J. Holsinger, and R. A. Lamb. 1992. Influenza virus M2 protein has ion channel activity. Cell 69:517-28.
145. Plotkin, J. B., and J. Dushoff. 2003. Codon bias and frequency-dependent selection on the hemagglutinin epitopes of influenza A virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7152-7.
146. Pohlmann, S., F. Baribaud, and R. W. Doms. 2001. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR: helping hands for HIV. Trends Immunol 22:643-6.
147. Poland, G. A., R. M. Jacobson, and P. V. Targonski. 2007. Avian and pandemic influenza: an overview. Vaccine 25:3057-61.
148. Pontoriero, A. V., E. G. Baumeister, A. M. Campos, V. L. Savy, Y. P. Lin, and A. Hay. 2003. Antigenic and genomic relation between human influenza viruses that circulated in Argentina in the period 1995-1999 and the corresponding vaccine components. J Clin Virol 28:130-40.
149. Prabhu, N., M. Prabakaran, H. T. Ho, S. Velumani, J. Qiang, M. Goutama, and J. Kwang. 2009. Monoclonal antibodies against the fusion peptide of hemagglutinin protect mice from lethal influenza A virus H5N1 infection. J Virol 83:2553-62.
150. Profeta, M. L., and G. Palladino. 1986. Serological evidence of human infections with avian influenza viruses. Brief report. Arch Virol 90:355-60.
151. Raymond, F. L., A. J. Caton, N. J. Cox, A. P. Kendal, and G. G. Brownlee. 1986. The antigenicity and evolution of influenza H1 haemagglutinin, from 1950-1957 and 1977-1983: two pathways from one gene. Virology 148:275-87.
152. Reading, P. C., J. L. Miller, and E. M. Anders. 2000. Involvement of the mannose receptor in infection of macrophages by influenza virus. J Virol 74:5190-7.
153. Redlberger, M., S. W. Aberle, F. X. Heinz, and T. Popow-Kraupp. 2007. Dynamics of antigenic and genetic changes in the hemagglutinins of influenza A/H3N2 viruses of three consecutive seasons (2002/2003 to 2004/2005) in Austria. Vaccine 25:6061-9.
154. Reijonen, H., and W. W. Kwok. 2003. Use of HLA class II tetramers in tracking antigen-specific T cells and mapping T-cell epitopes. Methods 29:282-8.
155. Renegar, K. B. 1992. Influenza virus infections and immunity: a review of human and animal models. Lab Anim Sci 42:222-32.
156. Richardson, J. C., and R. K. Akkina. 1991. NS2 protein of influenza virus is found in purified virus and phosphorylated in infected cells. Arch Virol 116:69-80.
157. Roberts, P. C., W. Garten, and H. D. Klenk. 1993. Role of conserved glycosylation sites in maturation and transport of influenza A virus hemagglutinin. J Virol 67:3048-60.
158. Roggen, E. L. 2006. Recent developments with B-cell epitope identification for predictive studies. J Immunotoxicol 3:137-49.
159. Roti, M., J. Yang, D. Berger, L. Huston, E. A. James, and W. W. Kwok. 2008. Healthy human subjects have CD4+ T cells directed against H5N1 influenza virus. J Immunol 180:1758-68.
160. Rowe, T., R. A. Abernathy, J. Hu-Primmer, W. W. Thompson, X. Lu, W. Lim, K. Fukuda, N. J. Cox, and J. M. Katz. 1999. Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. J Clin Microbiol 37:937-43.
161. Ruigrok, R. W., A. Aitken, L. J. Calder, S. R. Martin, J. J. Skehel, S. A. Wharton, W. Weis, and D. C. Wiley. 1988. Studies on the structure of the influenza virus haemagglutinin at the pH of membrane fusion. J Gen Virol 69 ( Pt 11):2785-95.
162. Saito, T. 2006. [Review on replication cycle of influenza virus]. Nippon Rinsho 64:1803-7.
163. Scheibenbogen, C., K. H. Lee, S. Stevanovic, M. Witzens, M. Willhauck, V. Waldmann, H. Naeher, H. G. Rammensee, and U. Keilholz. 1997. Analysis of the T cell response to tumor and viral peptide antigens by an IFNgamma-ELISPOT assay. Int J Cancer 71:932-6.
164. Schielen, P., W. van Rodijnen, J. Tekstra, R. Albers, and W. Seinen. 1995. Quantification of natural antibody producing B cells in rats by an improved ELISPOT technique using the polyvinylidene difluoride membrane as the solid support. J Immunol Methods 188:33-41.
165. Schnorr, J. J., S. Xanthakos, P. Keikavoussi, E. Kampgen, V. ter Meulen, and S. Schneider-Schaulies. 1997. Induction of maturation of human blood dendritic cell precursors by measles virus is associated with immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:5326-31.
166. Seo, S. H., and R. G. Webster. 2001. Cross-reactive, cell-mediated immunity and protection of chickens from lethal H5N1 influenza virus infection in Hong Kong poultry markets. J Virol 75:2516-25.
167. Shaw, M. W., E. W. Lamon, and R. W. Compans. 1982. Immunologic studies on the influenza A virus nonstructural protein NS1. J Exp Med 156:243-54.
168. Shen, S., G. Mahadevappa, H. L. Oh, B. Y. Wee, Y. W. Choi, L. A. Hwang, S. G. Lim, W. Hong, S. K. Lal, and Y. J. Tan. 2008. Comparing the antibody responses against recombinant hemagglutinin proteins of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus expressed in insect cells and bacteria. J Med Virol 80:1972-83.
169. Sheth, M. T., and C. I. Jhala. 1976. Seropatterns of influenza HI antibodies. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 19:1-14.
170. Shih, S. R., G. W. Chen, C. C. Yang, W. Z. Yang, D. P. Liu, J. H. Lin, S. C. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, K. C. Tsao, C. G. Huang, Y. L. Huang, C. K. Mok, C. J. Chen, T. Y. Lin, J. R. Wang, C. L. Kao, K. H. Lin, L. K. Chen, H. L. Eng, Y. C. Liu, P. Y. Chen, J. S. Lin, J. H. Wang, C. W. Lin, Y. J. Chan, J. J. Lu, C. A. Hsiung, P. J. Chen, and I. J. Su. 2005. Laboratory-based surveillance and molecular epidemiology of influenza virus in Taiwan. J Clin Microbiol 43:1651-61.
171. Shih, Y. P., C. Y. Chen, S. J. Liu, K. H. Chen, Y. M. Lee, Y. C. Chao, and Y. M. Chen. 2006. Identifying epitopes responsible for neutralizing antibody and DC-SIGN binding on the spike glycoprotein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virol 80:10315-24.
172. Shinya, K., M. Ebina, S. Yamada, M. Ono, N. Kasai, and Y. Kawaoka. 2006. Avian flu: influenza virus receptors in the human airway. Nature 440:435-6.
173. Shinya, K., M. Hatta, S. Yamada, A. Takada, S. Watanabe, P. Halfmann, T. Horimoto, G. Neumann, J. H. Kim, W. Lim, Y. Guan, M. Peiris, M. Kiso, T. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Kawaoka. 2005. Characterization of a human H5N1 influenza A virus isolated in 2003. J Virol 79:9926-32.
174. Skehel, J. J., D. J. Stevens, R. S. Daniels, A. R. Douglas, M. Knossow, I. A. Wilson, and D. C. Wiley. 1984. A carbohydrate side chain on hemagglutinins of Hong Kong influenza viruses inhibits recognition by a monoclonal antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:1779-83.
175. Skeik, N., and F. I. Jabr. 2008. Influenza viruses and the evolution of avian influenza virus H5N1. Int J Infect Dis 12:233-8.
176. Skowronski, D. M., C. Masaro, T. L. Kwindt, A. Mak, M. Petric, Y. Li, R. Sebastian, M. Chong, T. Tam, and G. De Serres. 2007. Estimating vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza using a sentinel physician network: results from the 2005-2006 season of dual A and B vaccine mismatch in Canada. Vaccine 25:2842-51.
177. Smith, C. B., N. J. Cox, K. Subbarao, L. H. Taber, and W. P. Glezen. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H3N2) virus reinfections. J Infect Dis 185:980-5.
178. Steinhauer, D. A. 1999. Role of hemagglutinin cleavage for the pathogenicity of influenza virus. Virology 258:1-20.
179. Steinman, R. M. 2001. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity: enhancing the efficiency of antigen presentation. Mt Sinai J Med 68:160-6.
180. Steinman, R. M., A. Granelli-Piperno, M. Pope, C. Trumpfheller, R. Ignatius, G. Arrode, P. Racz, and K. Tenner-Racz. 2003. The interaction of immunodeficiency viruses with dendritic cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 276:1-30.
181. Subbarao, K., and C. Luke. 2007. H5N1 viruses and vaccines. PLoS Pathog 3:e40.
182. Sun, J. C., M. A. Williams, and M. J. Bevan. 2004. CD4+ T cells are required for the maintenance, not programming, of memory CD8+ T cells after acute infection. Nat Immunol 5:927-33.
183. Tassaneetrithep, B., T. H. Burgess, A. Granelli-Piperno, C. Trumpfheller, J. Finke, W. Sun, M. A. Eller, K. Pattanapanyasat, S. Sarasombath, D. L. Birx, R. M. Steinman, S. Schlesinger, and M. A. Marovich. 2003. DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells. J Exp Med 197:823-9.
184. Taubenberger, J. K., A. H. Reid, R. M. Lourens, R. Wang, G. Jin, and T. G. Fanning. 2005. Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature 437:889-93.
185. Thitithanyanont, A., A. Engering, P. Ekchariyawat, S. Wiboon-ut, A. Limsalakpetch, K. Yongvanitchit, U. Kum-Arb, W. Kanchongkittiphon, P. Utaisincharoen, S. Sirisinha, P. Puthavathana, M. M. Fukuda, and S. Pichyangkul. 2007. High susceptibility of human dendritic cells to avian influenza H5N1 virus infection and protection by IFN-alpha and TLR ligands. J Immunol 179:5220-7.
186. Tseng, R. K., H. Y. Chen, and C. B. Hong. 1996. Influenza virus infections in Taiwan from 1979 to 1995. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 49:77-93.
187. Tumpey, T. M., C. F. Basler, P. V. Aguilar, H. Zeng, A. Solorzano, D. E. Swayne, N. J. Cox, J. M. Katz, J. K. Taubenberger, P. Palese, and A. Garcia-Sastre. 2005. Characterization of the reconstructed 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic virus. Science 310:77-80.
188. Tynan, F. E., D. Elhassen, A. W. Purcell, J. M. Burrows, N. A. Borg, J. J. Miles, N. A. Williamson, K. J. Green, J. Tellam, L. Kjer-Nielsen, J. McCluskey, J. Rossjohn, and S. R. Burrows. 2005. The immunogenicity of a viral cytotoxic T cell epitope is controlled by its MHC-bound conformation. J Exp Med 202:1249-60.
189. Uiprasertkul, M., P. Puthavathana, K. Sangsiriwut, P. Pooruk, K. Srisook, M. Peiris, J. M. Nicholls, K. Chokephaibulkit, N. Vanprapar, and P. Auewarakul. 2005. Influenza A H5N1 replication sites in humans. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1036-41.
190. Underwood, P. A., J. J. Skehel, and D. C. Wiley. 1987. Receptor-binding characteristics of monoclonal antibody-selected antigenic variants of influenza virus. J Virol 61:206-8.
191. van Die, I., S. J. van Vliet, A. K. Nyame, R. D. Cummings, C. M. Bank, B. Appelmelk, T. B. Geijtenbeek, and Y. van Kooyk. 2003. The dendritic cell-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN is a receptor for Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens and recognizes the glycan antigen Lewis x. Glycobiology 13:471-8.
192. van Kooyk, Y., and T. B. Geijtenbeek. 2003. DC-SIGN: escape mechanism for pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol 3:697-709.
193. Van Overtvelt, L., E. Wambre, B. Maillere, E. von Hofe, A. Louise, A. M. Balazuc, B. Bohle, D. Ebo, C. Leboulaire, G. Garcia, and P. Moingeon. 2008. Assessment of Bet v 1-specific CD4+ T cell responses in allergic and nonallergic individuals using MHC class II peptide tetramers. J Immunol 180:4514-22.
194. van Reeth, K. 2006. Avian influenza in swine: a threat for the human population? Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 68:81-101.
195. Vigerust, D. J., K. B. Ulett, K. L. Boyd, J. Madsen, S. Hawgood, and J. A. McCullers. 2007. N-linked glycosylation attenuates H3N2 influenza viruses. J Virol 81:8593-600.
196. Wakefield, L., and G. G. Brownlee. 1989. RNA-binding properties of influenza A virus matrix protein M1. Nucleic Acids Res 17:8569-80.
197. Wambre, E., L. Van Overtvelt, B. Maillere, R. Humphreys, E. von Hofe, L. Ferhat, D. Ebo, and P. Moingeon. 2008. Single cell assessment of allergen-specific T cell responses with MHC class II peptide tetramers: methodological aspects. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 146:99-112.
198. Wang, M., K. Lamberth, M. Harndahl, G. Roder, A. Stryhn, M. V. Larsen, M. Nielsen, C. Lundegaard, S. T. Tang, M. H. Dziegiel, J. Rosenkvist, A. E. Pedersen, S. Buus, M. H. Claesson, and O. Lund. 2007. CTL epitopes for influenza A including the H5N1 bird flu; genome-, pathogen-, and HLA-wide screening. Vaccine 25:2823-31.
199. Wang, S. F., K. H. Chen, A. Thitithanyanont, L. Yao, Y. M. Lee, Y. J. Chan, S. J. Liu, P. Chong, W. T. Liu, J. C. Huang, and Y. M. Chen. 2009. Generating and characterizing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against avian H5N1 hemagglutinin protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 382:691-6.
200. Wang, S. F., J. C. Huang, Y. M. Lee, S. J. Liu, Y. J. Chan, Y. P. Chau, P. Chong, and Y. M. Chen. 2008. DC-SIGN mediates avian H5N1 influenza virus infection in cis and in trans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 373:561-6.
201. Webster, R. G., W. G. Laver, G. M. Air, and G. C. Schild. 1982. Molecular mechanisms of variation in influenza viruses. Nature 296:115-21.
202. Wiley, D. C., and J. J. Skehel. 1977. Crystallization and x-ray diffraction studies on the haemagglutinin glycoprotein from the membrane of influenza virus. J Mol Biol 112:343-7.
203. Wiley, D. C., I. A. Wilson, and J. J. Skehel. 1981. Structural identification of the antibody-binding sites of Hong Kong influenza haemagglutinin and their involvement in antigenic variation. Nature 289:373-8.
204. Wilson, I. A., and N. J. Cox. 1990. Structural basis of immune recognition of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Annu Rev Immunol 8:737-71.
205. Wilson, I. A., J. J. Skehel, and D. C. Wiley. 1981. Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at 3 A resolution. Nature 289:366-73.
206. Wittig, I., and H. Schagger. 2005. Advantages and limitations of clear-native PAGE. Proteomics 5:4338-46.
207. Wu, W. L., Y. Chen, P. Wang, W. Song, S. Y. Lau, J. M. Rayner, G. J. Smith, R. G. Webster, J. S. Peiris, T. Lin, N. Xia, Y. Guan, and H. Chen. 2008. Antigenic profile of avian H5N1 viruses in Asia from 2002 to 2007. J Virol 82:1798-807.
208. Yamada, S., Y. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, M. Q. Le, C. A. Nidom, Y. Sakai-Tagawa, Y. Muramoto, M. Ito, M. Kiso, T. Horimoto, K. Shinya, T. Sawada, T. Usui, T. Murata, Y. Lin, A. Hay, L. F. Haire, D. J. Stevens, R. J. Russell, S. J. Gamblin, J. J. Skehel, and Y. Kawaoka. 2006. Haemagglutinin mutations responsible for the binding of H5N1 influenza A viruses to human-type receptors. Nature 444:378-82.
209. Yang, J., J. A. Gebe, L. Huston, E. James, V. Tan, B. B. Yue, G. T. Nepom, and W. W. Kwok. 2009. H5N1 strain-specific Hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell epitopes restricted by HLA DR4. Vaccine 27:3862-9.
210. Yao, L., C. Korteweg, W. Hsueh, and J. Gu. 2008. Avian influenza receptor expression in H5N1-infected and noninfected human tissues. FASEB J 22:733-40.
211. Yasuda, J., S. Nakada, A. Kato, T. Toyoda, and A. Ishihama. 1993. Molecular assembly of influenza virus: association of the NS2 protein with virion matrix. Virology 196:249-55.
212. Ye, Z. P., R. Pal, J. W. Fox, and R. R. Wagner. 1987. Functional and antigenic domains of the matrix (M1) protein of influenza A virus. J Virol 61:239-46.
213. Yen, H. L., A. S. Lipatov, N. A. Ilyushina, E. A. Govorkova, J. Franks, N. Yilmaz, A. Douglas, A. Hay, S. Krauss, J. E. Rehg, E. Hoffmann, and R. G. Webster. 2007. Inefficient transmission of H5N1 influenza viruses in a ferret contact model. J Virol 81:6890-8.
214. Zebedee, S. L., and R. A. Lamb. 1988. Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions. J Virol 62:2762-72.
215. Zhang, M., B. Gaschen, W. Blay, B. Foley, N. Haigwood, C. Kuiken, and B. Korber. 2004. Tracking global patterns of N-linked glycosylation site variation in highly variable viral glycoproteins: HIV, SIV, and HCV envelopes and influenza hemagglutinin. Glycobiology 14:1229-46.
216. Zhou, T., Y. Chen, L. Hao, and Y. Zhang. 2006. DC-SIGN and immunoregulation. Cell Mol Immunol 3:279-83.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊