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研究生:顏毓萱
研究生(外文):Yu-Shiuan Yen
論文名稱:情緒調控注意力資源分配之兩性差異
論文名稱(外文):Gender Difference in Emotion Modulation of Attentional Resource Allocation
指導教授:陳麗芬陳麗芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Fen Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:腦科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:兩性差異情緒調節注意力偏誤情緒性go/nogo作業
外文關鍵詞:gender differenceemotion regulationattentional biasemotional go/nogo task
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「注意力控制」為認知控制在情緒調節上的一種策略,可使個體轉移注意力至其它特定目標。而注意力控制會受到「情感價值」的影響而產生偏誤,這種注意力的偏誤在執行情緒的Go/Nogo作業時,會導致對負向情緒go目標的反應時間變長,以及對正向情緒的nogo非目標產生高錯誤率的行為。然而注意力偏誤對兩性在情緒調節上的機制尚未了解,根據跨文化研究顯示發現,女性罹患憂鬱症的比例明顯高於男性,因此本研究假設女性的注意力偏誤會比男性趨向負向刺激。
為瞭解兩性在情緒調節上的差異,本研究採用二十位右利手受試者 (十位男性,年齡介於19至32歲之間)來執行情緒的Go/Nogo作業,此作業包含4個情境:「中性go/害怕nogo」、「中性go/愉快nogo」、「害怕go/中性nogo」及「愉快go/中性nogo」。每一情境go出現的機率為70%,每張表情呈現的時間為700毫秒,兩表情刺激呈現的平均間距為2000毫秒。本實驗使用全腦腦磁波儀來記錄腦磁波訊號,並使用Maximum Contrast Beamformer方法分析腦磁波訊號在毫秒尺度上的最大訊號來源,及利用SPM工具比較兩性大腦在情緒調節上的差異並建立兩性的情緒調節模型。
結果顯示女性在害怕nogo的情境作業上表現出顯著多於男性的錯誤率,因此我們認為害怕的臉孔對女性而言是較具顯要的威脅性刺激。而在神經造影的結果上發現女性在120 毫秒兩側的dorsal anterior cingulate cortex活化程度明顯高於男性,顯示女性將認知資源放在情緒事件的偵測;並在該時間後右側的superior temporal gyrus呈現持續活化的狀態,顯示女性對於害怕臉孔會不斷地進行再次評估。男性在270毫秒的doraolateral prefrontal cortex活化比女性高,顯示男性在此時分配較多的認知資源到抑制控制上,而造成錯誤率比女性低的結果。此外,男性在愉快go情境作業的反應時間比女性短。男性在130毫秒的medial prefrontal cortex活比程度比女性高顯示男性在早期的時段就把認知資源分配到執行功能上。然而女性在毫秒170右側的insula, inferior frontal gyrus 及caudate區域的活化比男生高,顯示女性將認知資源分配到偵測正向刺激,造成反應時間比男性長。
整體而言,男性的情緒反應天性趨向正向情緒,且資訊處理類型為目標導向行為,而正向情緒會提昇目標導向行為的資訊處理導致愉快go情境的快速反應。女性的注意力偏誤比男性更趨向負向的刺激,資訊處理類型則傾向評估刺激內容,而負向情緒會提昇女性的評估刺激內容的資訊處理,導致女性缺乏認知資源去抑制已經習慣的行為反應模式,造成女性在害怕nogo情境的高錯誤率。此外女性對於情緒刺激的神經反應機制與憂鬱性疾患的神經反應機制相似,因此本研究提供了一個神經機制解釋高比例的女性罹患憂鬱症的成因。
As a form of cognitive control in emotion regulation, attentional control can transform one’s attention to a specific target and might be biased by the affective value of stimuli. Such attentional bias caused slower reaction time (RT) for negative stimuli and higher false alarm (FA) for positive stimuli, whereas the gender effects on attentional bias is still unclear. Several cross-national studies reported that the proportion of females in major depression patients was significantly larger than that of males. In this study, we hypothesized that females tend to exhibit an attentional bias towards negative stimuli more than males.
Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers (10 male, aged 19-34 years) without neurological/psychiatric disorders were recruited and provided informed consent for participation. These subjects were asked to perform an emotional Go/Nogo task (Neutral-Go/Fearful-Nogo, NeutralGo-/Happy-Nogo, Fearful-Go/Neutral-Nogo, and Happy-Go/Neutral-Nogo). The magnetoencephalography were recorded with a 306-channel whole-head neuromagnetometer. The pre-processed signals underwent a source analysis procedure, Maximum Contrast Beamformer, to estimate spatiotemporal neuronal activities. We performed statistics analyses for source distribution images between genders using SPM5 and correlations between brain activation and RTs/FAs using SPSS.
The behavior results of cross-gender comparison showed that females exhibited higher FAs while facing fear stimuli and males had shorter RTs for happy stimuli. For the fearful-nogo condition, females showed higher bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation than males and the right superior temporal gyrus displayed a strong sustained activation after 120 ms, which implicated that the bottom-up reappraisal system was engaged to evaluate the fearful signal repeatedly. Besides, the higher dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in males indicated that males allocated major resources to inhibition control so as to display lower FAs. With regard to the happy-go condition, the higher medial prefrontal cortex activation in males showed that males allocated more cognitive resources to executive function at very early stage M130. However, the activation of right insula, inferior frontal gyrus and caudate at M170 in females were higher than males, which caused females shifted their attention to positive emotional context and resulted in delayed responses.
In conclusion, the emotional response tendency towards positive signals in males enhanced the information processing style of goal-directed behavior and resulted in fast behavioral response. However, females in the present study exhibited an attentional bias towards negative signals. This tendency bias boosted the information style of context evaluation and made females be short of capacity for cognitive control to inhibit the habitual behavioral response. Besides, the neural activation patterns of hyperactive appraisal system were similar to the previous neuroimaging researches in the depressive patient. These findings suggested a possible neural mechanism about the cause of higher proportion of females among the patients with major depressive disorder.
Signature Page i
Thesis Approval Form ii
Acknowledgments iii
Chinses Abstract v
English Abstract vii
Table of Contents ix
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
Abbreviation xiv
Introduction 1
Materials and Methods 9
Subjects 9
Stimuli 9
Procedure 11
Data Acquisition 12
Behavioral Data Analysis 12
MEG Data Analysis 13
Results 16
Behavioral Results 16
Imaging Results 17
Effect of negative emotion on inhibition control 19
Effect of positive emotion on response execution 23
Discussion 27
Behavior findings 27
The emotion regulation model 28
The model of high tendency towards negative signals 29
The model of low tendency towards negative signals 31
The models of tendencies towards positive signals 33
Limitation and Future works 36
Conclusions 38
References 39
Appendix: Taiwanese Facial Expression Image Database 48
Introduction 48
Materials and Methods 48
Model Recruitments 49
Photographic Procedures 49
Facial movement of emotional expression 50
Image Processing 51
Statistical Evaluation of the reliability of the TFEID 53
Subjects 53
Materials 53
Statistical Analysis 54
Results 54
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