# 臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

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 目的：為了瞭解十二小時超級馬拉松運動選手比賽中的排尿量及排尿頻率，並探討排尿量及運動成績的相關性。實驗設計：前瞻性觀察型研究。場合：2005年東吳國際超級馬拉松比賽十二小時組。參與者：在賽前講習會中說明此觀察型研究，並邀請所有參與十二小時超級馬拉松賽的選手自由參與。介入：無。主要測量：參與研究選手比賽前後之體重，比賽中所有排尿時之排尿時間及體積，每單一小時選手成績及其累計成績。結果：十二小時超級馬拉松運動選手比賽中尿量較少者（少於0.5mL/kg/h），其整體比賽成績比多尿者為佳（P=0.020）。進一步分析每單一小時的跑步距離，少尿組在前十一小時的成績和多尿組之間有顯著的差異（P<0.05）。將選手依成績等分為三組，其組間的總尿量有顯著差異，而跑最快組其賽前體重最輕、體重變化最大，但未達統計差異。線性迴歸分析發現比賽前之體重及比賽中的總尿量，和比賽成績有明顯的負相關，而選手年齡、比賽前後體重變化、及排尿頻率則和比賽成績沒有統計上的相關。結論：十二小時超級馬拉松運動選手比賽中尿量較少者，其整體成績較佳。單一時間點對點比較，少尿組在前十一小時的跑步成績和多尿組有顯著差異。線性迴歸分析中，比賽中的總尿量及比賽前之體重，和比賽成績有明顯的負相關。
 Objective: To understand the urination pattern and to determine the relationships between urine output and performance of ultra-marathon runners.Design: Prospective observational study.Setting: The 2005 Soochow University international ultra-marathon, in which each athlete ran for 12 hours.Participants: All entrants in the 12-hour race were invited to participate in the study.Interventions: None.Main Outcome Measurements: Athletes were weighed immediately before and after the race. Urine samples were collected during the race and immediately after the race.Results: There was a trend toward better performance of the group with less urination, although the difference was not statistically significant. Further analysis of hourly running distances between groups showed better performance in the group with less urination during the first 11 hours of the competition. Comparison of athletes in three levels of running distance (tertiles) showed statistically significant differences between groups in total urine output. The fastest tertile had lower prerace body weight and greater body weight change than the slowest and intermediate tertiles, but the differences were not statistically significant. Linear regression analysis using the stepwise method showed that total urine output and prerace body weight were negatively associated with performance.Conclusions: Runners with less urination had better performance during the first 11 hours of the competition. Linear regression analysis showed that total urine output and prerace body weight were negatively associated with performance.
 目錄目錄……………………………………………………………………..ii表目錄…………………………………………………………………..iv圖目錄………………………………………………………………….. v摘要…………………………………………………………………….. 1中文摘要……………………………………………………………….. 2英文摘要……………………………………………………………….. 4第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………. 6 1.1 超級馬拉松概論………………………………………………….7 1.1.1 馬拉松競賽之起源………………………………………… 7 1.1.2 超級馬拉松競賽之定義與類型…………………………… 7 1.1.3 台灣超級馬拉松競賽之現況……………………………… 8 1.2 研究背景………………………………………………………….9 1.3 本研究的重要性………………………………………………..10 1.4 研究目的及假說………………………………………………. 13第二章 材料與方法………………………………………………….. 15 2.1 研究族群與設計………………………………………………..16 2.2 資料收集及定義………………………………………………..16 2.3 資料分析與統計………………………………………………..17第三章 結果…………………………………………………………….19第四章 討論…………………………………………………………….32第五章 結論…………………………………………………………….39參考文獻…………………………………………………………………41中英文索引………………………………………………………………44本研究相關之個人著作…………………………………………………48表目錄表1.1.3 國際超級馬拉松總會（IAU）24小時世界挑戰賽成績（24h World Challenge）一覽……………………………………………….14表3.1、運動選手依尿量分組之生理變數比較……………………….23表3.2、運動選手依比賽完成距離分組之變數比較………………….24圖目錄圖3.1、十二小時超級馬拉松選手每小時累計排尿量（n=21）…… 25圖3.2、十二小時超級馬拉松選手排尿量次數分布及累計百分比（51個樣本）………………………………………………………………. 26圖3.3、超級馬拉松選手少尿組及多尿組之累計跑步距離成績比較………………………………………………………………………. 27圖3.4、超級馬拉松選手少尿組及多尿組之每小時跑步距離成績比較………………………………………………………………………. 28圖3.5、超級馬拉松選手少尿組及多尿組之累計排尿量比較……… 29圖3.6、超級馬拉松選手跑步成績和總排尿量之相關分析………….30圖3.7、超級馬拉松選手跑步成績和賽前體重之相關分析………….31
 參考文獻1.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marathon#cite_ref-Gynn_14-0(access on 2009/01/17)2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultramarathon (access on 2009/01/17)3.http://ultrarunning.scu.edu.tw/ultrarunning/ultra_tw/ultra_tw.php (access on 2009/01/17)4.Kruseman M, Bucher S, Bovard M, et al. Nutrient intake and performance during a mountain marathon: an observational study. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005;94:151-157.5.Fallon KE, Broad E, Thompson MW, et al. Nutritional and fluid intake in a 100-km ultramarathon. Int J Sport Nutr. 1998;8:24-35.6.Sharwood K, Collins M, Goedecke J, et al. Weight changes, sodium levels, and performance in the South African ironman triathlon. Clin J Sport Med. 2002;12:391-399.7.Kao WF, Shyu CL, Yang XU, et al. Athletic performance and serial weight changes during 12- and 24-hour ultra-marathons. Clin J Sport Med. 2008;18:155-158.8.Speedy DB, Noakes TD, Schneider C. Exercise-associated hyponatremia: a review. Emerg Med. 2001;13:17-27.9.Casa DJ. Proper hydration for distance running: identifying individual fluid needs. Track Coach. 2004;167:5321-5328.10.Noakes TD. IMMDA AIMS advisory statement on guidelines for fluid replacement during marathon running. New Stud Athlet. 2002;17:15-24.11.Rogers G, Goodman C, Rosen C. Water budget during ultra-endurance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:1477-1481.12.Irving RA, Noakes TD, Raine RI, Van Zyl Smit R. Transient oliguria with renal tubular dysfunction after a 90 km running race. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(6):756-61.13.Galun E, Tur-Kaspa I, Assia E, Burstein R, Strauss N, Epstein Y, Popovtzer MM. Hyponatremia induced by exercise: a 24-hour endurance march study. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1991;17(5):315-20.14.Von Duvillard SP, Braun WA, Markofski M, et al. Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance. Nutrition. 2004;20:651-656.15.American College of Sports Medicine, Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ, Stachenfeld NS. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(2):377-90.16.Sawka MN, Noakes TD. Does dehydration impair exercise performance? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1209-17.17.Noakes T. IMMDA. Fluid replacement during marathon running. Clin J Sport Med. 2003;13:309-318.18.Coyle EF. Physiological determinants of endurance exercise performance. J Sci Med Sport. 1999;2:181-189.19.Rehrer NJ. Fluid and electrolyte balance in ultra-endurance sport. Sports Med. 2001;31:701-715.20.Speedy DB, Noakes TD, Kimber NE, et al. Fluid balance during and after an iron triathlon. Clin J Sport Med. 2001;11:44-50.21.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/24-hour_race_(athletics) (access on 2009/02/02)
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