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研究生:鄭泳宜
研究生(外文):Yung-yi Cheng
論文名稱:閱讀策略教學對於台灣高職生英語閱讀能力改善之成效
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Reading Strategies Instruction on the Improvement of Reading Comprehension of Vocational High School Students in Taiwan
指導教授:許麗瑩
指導教授(外文):Li-Ying Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:追蹤成效閱讀策略認知閱讀策略策略教學
外文關鍵詞:Reading strategies perceptionsReading strategiesStrategies instructionRetention effects
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本論文目的在研究明示閱讀策略教學對於台灣高職生閱讀能力之效益,文中探究學生對閱讀策略的認知與閱讀表現有無相關。並探究此策略教學對高職生在回答不同閱讀測驗題型有無影響。另外,高職生對閱讀策略教學的回應與策略教學後一個月的追蹤效果亦在本文中加以探討。
參與本實驗的受試者為來自嘉義市一所高職之255位學生。255位學生填寫對於閱讀策略認知的問卷與進行前測(採用中級全民英檢閱讀測驗)。從255名學生中挑選39名學生進行策略教學,學生在六個星期內接受六種閱讀策略的訓練,策略包括確認主題與主旨、略讀了解主旨、利用上下文猜測生字的意思、重複閱讀、掃描找出特定細節及利用文章推論內容。訓練方式採明示策略教學,老師說明及示範、引導練習、自我練習及應用。分析研究主題之資料時,蒐集自受試者於實驗前後之閱讀測驗成績、對閱巻之回應與閱讀策略檢查表,予以統計分析,此外,實驗後一個月蒐集受試者之追蹤閱讀測驗成績與閱讀策略檢查表,同樣給予統計分析。
本研究之主要發現如下:
1. 學生對於閱讀策略之認知與閱讀成績有相關。
2. 明示閱讀策略教學有助於提高學生對英文閱讀策略的認知,在策略教學後,大部分學生閱讀理解能力確有提昇。
3. 明示閱讀策略教學對沒有英檢初級證照(低成就)之學生的效果比有英檢初級證照(高成就)之學生顯著,且以沒有英檢初級證照(低成就)之學生的獲益最大。
4. 實驗組大部份學生對閱讀策略教學之成效給予正面的回應
5. 明示閱讀策略教學有助於增進學生對確認主旨、文章細節及推論理解等測驗題型之理解力,但對猜測字義題型的題目沒有顯著的差異。
6. 實驗後一個月,雖然部分學生仍無法養成使用閱讀策略習慣,但明示閱讀策略教學仍有助於提高學生閱讀理解能力。
本實驗的研究結果建議高職生應學習閱讀策略以提昇閱讀理解能力,並且英文老師們應使用明示教學法教導閱讀策略,另外,英文老師們應自編合適教材將閱讀策略教學融入英文課中。在評量學生的閱讀理解能力時,英文老師們應盡量避免只使用選擇題來測試學生對於文章字面上的意義有無了解。再者,英文老師們應鼓勵學生廣泛閱讀不同文章並且練習使用閱讀策略。最後,老師們應提供學生有較多的機會練習使用策略及進一步培養學生的閱讀興趣與動機。
The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of the explicit reading strategies instruction on EFL vocational high school students’ reading comprehension. The correlation between students’ perceptions of reading strategies and their reading performances is examined. The students’ comprehension for different types of questions in the tests is also investigated. In addition, the students’ responses to the strategies instruction and the retention effects of the strategies instruction are discussed as well.
The participants of this study were 255 students from National Chia-yi Vocational High School. They responded to one questionnaire on their perceptions of the reading strategies and took the pre-test. 39 students were chosen to receive six-week strategies instruction. The experimental group was divided into two subgroups: one with GEPT Basic Certificate and the other without GEPT Basic Certificate. The explicit strategies instruction involved the instruction of the selected six strategies. These strategies were taught in an explicit approach which emphasized modeling, guided practice, independent practice, and application. Besides, pre-, post- and follow-up tests were conducted before, after and one month after the treatment to collect the related data for analysis and discussion. Another questionnaire was conducted to explore the students’ responses to the strategies instruction. One checklist of reading strategies was designed to know what strategies the students had used when taking the pre-, post- and follow-up tests.
The major findings of the study are summarized as follows.
1. The correlation between the participants’ perceptions of reading strategies and
their reading performances is significant.
2. The strategies instruction helps cultivate the experimental group of students’ perceptions and use of the instructed strategies.
3. The students of the subgroup without GEPT Basic Certificate benefit most from the strategies instruction.
4. Most of the students in the experimental group have a positive response to the strategies instruction.
5. The strategies instruction helps the experimental group of students perform better in main ideas, details, and inference questions, but not for word-guessing questions.
6. The strategies instruction still has positive effects on the experimental group of students’ reading comprehension even one month after the strategies instruction.
The findings suggest several pedagogical implications. First, EFL teachers should explicitly teach the students the reading strategies. Second, EFL teacher should design their own teaching materials so as to incorporate the strategies instruction into the regular English classes. Third, in assessing the students’ reading comprehension, EFL teachers should avoid using multiple-choice questions which only focus on literal meanings of the texts. Fourth, EFL teachers should inspire and encourage students to read extensively, especially after the students have acquired the reading strategies. Finally, EFL teachers should make students practice adopting the reading strategies, and further motivate them to read English extensively.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chinese Abstract…………………………………………………………………... i
English Abstract…………………………………………………………………… iii
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………… v
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………. vi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………… x
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………….. xii

CHAPTER ONE …………………..…………………………………………….. 1
Background and Motivation….………………………………………………… 1
Statement of the Problem………………………..………….………………….. 5
Purpose of the Study..………………………………………………………….. 8
Research Questions…………………………………………………………….. 9
Research Hypotheses…………………………………………………………... 10
Significance of the Study………………………………………………………. 10
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………….. 11

CHAPTER TWO LITERAURE REVIEW..…………………………………… 15
The Nature of Reading…………………………………………………………. 16
Psycholinguistic Models of Reading Comprehension………………………..… 18
The Schema Theory.………………………………………………………... 18
Bottom-up Model…………………………………………………………… 19
Top-down Model……………………………………………………………. 20
Interactive Model…………………………………………………………… 21
Metacognition and Reading Comprehension……….………………………..…. 22
The Role of Reading Strategy…………………………………………………... 25
Explicit Comprehension Instruction……………………………………………. 26
Studies on EFL Reading Comprehension Instruction in Taiwan……………….. 29



CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY……..………………………………. 33
Participants…………………….…………………………………………………. 33
Instruments………………………..………….……………………………….…. 33
Materials for the Strategies Instruction and Practice….…………………….. 34
Questionnaire about the Students’ Perceptions of Reading Strategies……… 34
Reading Comprehension Test……………………………………………….. 35
Questionnaire about the Students’ Responses to the Explicit Strategies Instruction………………………………………………………………….... 37
Procedures……………………………………………………………………….. 38
The Pilot Study……………………………………………………………… 38
The Pre-treatment Phase……………………………………………………. 38
The Reading Strategies Instruction…………………………………………. 39
The Post-treatment Phase…………………………………………………… 40
Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………. 41

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………………… 44
Correlation between the Participants’ Strategies Perception Scores and Reading Comprehension Performances………………………………………………….. 45
Results of the Correlation between Perceptions of Reading Strategies and Reading Performances………………………………………………………. 44
Discussion on the Correlation between Perceptions of Reading Strategies and Reading Performances………………………………………………….. 48
Effects of the Explicit Reading Strategies Instruction on the Experimental
Group of Students’ Reading Comprehension…………………………………… 53
Comparison of the Effects of the Explicit Reading Strategies Instruction Between the Pre- and Post-test……………………………………………… 54
Discussion on the Effects of the Explicit Reading Strategies Instruction Between the Pre- and Post-test……................................................................ 54
Comparison of the Effects of the Explicit Reading Strategies Instruction Between the Pre- and Post-test for two Subgroups..……............................... 55
Discussion on the Effects of the Explicit Reading Strategies Instruction Between the Pre- and Post-test for two Subgroups ........................................ 56
The Experimental Group of Students’ Responses to the Reading Strategies Instruction……………………………………………………………………….. 57
Results of Students’ Acquisition of the Reading Strategies…………………. 58
Discussion on Results of Students’ Acquisition of the Reading Strategies…. 62
Results of Students’ Application of the Reading Strategies…………………. 62
Discussion on Results of Students’ Application of the Reading Strategies…. 64
Results of Students’ Reaction to the Reading Strategies Instruction………... 64
Discussion on Results of Students’ Reaction to the Reading Strategies Instruction…………………………………………………………………… 67
Results of Students’ Feedback on the Reading Strategies Instruction………. 68
Discussion on results of Students’ Feedback on the Reading Strategies Instruction…………………………………………………………………… 70
Effects of the Strategies Instruction on Different Types of Reading Comprehension Questions………………………………………………………. 73
Comparison of the Effects of the Strategies Instruction on Different Types of Questions Between the Pre- and Post-test ……………………………….. 73
Discussion on the Effects of the Strategies Instruction on Different Types of Questions Between the Pre- and Post-test…………....................................... 75
The Retention Effects of the Strategies Instruction on the Experimental Group of Students One Month after Six-Week Instruction…………………………….. 76
Comparison of the Retention Effects of the Explicit Reading Strategies Instruction Between the Post- and Follow-up test …………………………. 77
Discussion on the Retention Effects of the Explicit Reading Strategies Instruction Between the Post- and Follow-up test ………………………….. 78
Results of Reading Strategies Checklist……………………………………... 79
Discussion on Results of Reading Strategies Checklist …………………….. 80

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION……………………………………………… 82
Summary of Significant Findings in this Study…………………………………. 82
Pedagogical Implications………………………………………………………... 87
Limitations of the Study……………………………………………………….... 90
Suggestions for Future Research………………………………………………... 90

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………… 93

APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………. 101
APPENDIX A Questionnaire about the Students’ Perceptions of Reading
Strategies…………………………………………………………… 101
APPENDIX B Questionnaire on Students’ Responses to the Explicit Strategies
Instruction………………………………………………………….. 103
APPENDIX C Pre-Reading Comprehension Test…………………………………. 105
APPENDIX D Post-Reading Comprehension Test………………………………... 112
APPENDIX E Follow-up Reading Comprehension Test………………………….. 119






















LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Descriptive statistics of students’ questionnaire and test scores………... 46
Table 4.2 Frequencies and percent of students’ questionnaire scores…………….. 47
Table 4.3 Frequencies and percent of students’ test scores……………………….. 48
Table 4.4 Correlations between students’ questionnaire scores and test scores…… 49
Table 4.5 Correlations between students’ questionnaire scores and test scores on word-guessing strategy and items….....………………………………… 50
Table 4.6 Correlations between students’ questionnaire scores and test scores on skimming for and identifying the main idea strategy and items…...…… 51
Table 4.7 Correlations between students’ questionnaire scores and test scores on scanning for specific details strategy and items…...……………………. 51
Table 4.8 Correlations between students’ questionnaire scores and test scores on making inferences and rereading strategy and items…...………………. 52
Table 4.9 Means and standard deviation of the pre- and post-test scores for the experimental group of students………………………………………… 53
Table 4.10 Means and standard deviation of the pre- and post-test scores for the experimental group of students with GEPT Basic Certificate and without GEPT Basic Certificate……………………………………… 55
Table 4.11 Frequencies and percentages of the experimental group of students’ responses to their acquisition of the reading strategies………………. 59
Table 4.12 Frequencies and percentages of the experimental group of students’ responses to their application of the reading strategies………………. 62
Table 4.13 Frequencies and percentages of the experimental group of students’ reaction to the reading strategies instruction…………………………. 65
Table 4.14 Frequencies and percentages of the experimental group of students’ feedback on the reading strategies instruction………………………... 68
Table 4.15 Frequencies and percentages of the experimental group of students’ negative feedback on the reading strategies instruction………………. 72
Table 4.16 Means and standard deviation of the pre- and post-test scores for the experimental group of students on each type of questions……………. 73
Table 4.17 Means and standard deviation of the pre- and post-test scores for the experimental group of students………………………………………... 78
Table 4.18 Reading strategies checklist--percentages of using the selected strategies when taking the pre-, post- and follow-up test……………... 80
































LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 3.1 The flow chart of the study procedures………………………………... 43
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