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研究生:賈中豪
研究生(外文):Jung-Hau Jar
論文名稱:銀奈米物理顯影劑製備與在多孔及非多孔性表面潛伏指紋顯現之應用
論文名稱(外文):Preparation of nano-silver physical developer and its application in developing latent fingerprints on porous and non-porous surfaces
指導教授:張幼珍
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材料科學學系
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:潛伏指紋奈米銀物理顯影劑多孔性表面非多孔性表面
外文關鍵詞:latent fingerprintnano-silverphysical developerporous surfacenon-porous surface
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物理顯影劑的研究者常指出,物理顯影劑是一種對於潛伏指紋上的非水溶性成份最靈敏的一種試劑。然而在非多孔性表面的顯影與延長物理顯影劑顯影時間的實證研究仍相當缺乏,傳統物理顯影劑配製的程序相當複雜,而且並沒有研究探討物理顯影劑能顯影浸在水中多久的潛伏指紋樣品,因此本研究旨在探討如何簡化物理顯影劑的配製程序,使用新式物理顯影劑在非多孔與多孔性表面上顯影潛伏指紋,以及此新顯影劑能顯影浸在水中多久的潛伏指紋樣品,以期能調製出一個較傳統物理顯影劑有更長使用期限的新式物理顯影劑。
本研究中使用化學還原法來配製奈米銀新式物理顯影劑,並利用場發射電子顯微鏡來觀察顯影劑中銀顆粒的大小。研究結果顯示配製出來的物理顯影劑含有奈米級銀微粒,且將其應用在多孔性及非多孔性表面上均能成功的將潛伏指紋予以顯影。本研究中也利用不同觀察方法來解釋表面材質對顯影的影響。總結,本研究除測試新式物理顯影劑的穩定性,也探討其在多孔性及非多孔性表面上和非新鮮指紋及其在特殊環境下的顯影能力,也嘗試解釋物理顯影劑的機制。
Researchers of physical developer (PD) have often think about the most sensitive reagent for reacting with water-insoluble components in latent fingerprints. However, research on time needed to develop latent fingerprints on non-porous surface and how to increase shelf-life are still lacking. For traditional PD, there is a complex preparation procedure and no one has discussed the time needed for developing a latent fingerprint on wet items. Therefore, the aims of this research are to explore how to simplify the synthesis procedure, to apply a nano-silver-based PD to develop latent fingerprints on non-porous and porous surfaces, to determine the time needed for the new PD to develop latent fingerprint on wet items, and to extend the shelf-life of new PD.
For the preparation of the nano-silver PD, the chemical reduction method was used. FESM was used to examine and confirm the size range of the silver particles. In addition, microscopy examination was made to explain how well silver nanoparticles adhere to different substrates. The result of this study showed the new PD is a stable suspension of nano-silver particles. Application of the new PD to develop latent fingerprints on both porous and non-porous surfaces was successful. To conclude, this study is of importance in testing the stability of a new PD and its ability to develop fresh and non-fresh latent fingerprint on both porous and non-porous surfaces in normal and special environment. A reaction mechanisms of the new PD was also proposed.
Chinese Abstract..i
English Abstract..ii
Contents..........iii
List of Figures...v
List of Tables....viii
Chapter 1 Introduction....................................1
1.1 Preface...............................................1
1.2 Motivation of this Study..............................2
Chapter 2 Literature Review ...............................4
2.1 History of Fingerprint Applications...................4
2.2 History of Fingerprint Research.......................6
2.3 Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Latent Fingerprints..............................................7
2.3.1 Physical characteristics of latent fingerprints.....9
2.3.2 Optical characteristics of latent fingerprints.....13
2.3.3 Chemical characteristics of latent fingerprints....14
2.3.4 Organic components of latent fingerprints..........16
2.3.5 Lipids in fingerprints.............................18
2.4 Research on Lipids in Latent Fingerprints............20
2.5 History of Physical Developer........................24
2.5.1 Physical developer.................................24
2.5.2 Reaction mechanism of traditional PD...............26
2.6 Application of Nano-Silver-based PD..................31
2.7 Fingerprint Identify.................................35
2.7.1 Fingerprint grain classification...................35
2.7.2 Fingerprint identify...............................36
2.7.3 Methods of fingerprint identify....................37
Chapter 3 Experimental..................................40
3.1 Chemicals............................................40
3.2 Materials............................................40
3.3 Instrumentation and Equipments.......................42
3.4 Preparation of PD Solutions..........................42
3.5 Permeability and Contact Angle of Substrates.........44
3.6 Specimen Characterization using Scanning Electron Microscopy...............................................46
3.7 Preparation of Specimen on Different Substrates......47
3.7.1 Sepcimen on porous substrates......................47
3.7.2 Sepcimen on non-porous substrates..................47
Chapter 4 Results........................................49
4.1 New Physical Developer...............................49
4.2 Permeability of Various Types of Porous Substrates...50
4.3 Contact Angle Observation............................60
4.4 SEM..................................................64
4.5 FESM.................................................72
4.6 Effect of Surfactants Used in PD Formulation.........74
4.7 Development of Latent Fingerprints on Porous Substrates...............................................87
4.8 Development of Latent Fingerprints on Non-porous Substrates...............................................89
4.9 Development of Aged Latent Fingerprints..............91
4.10 Development of Water-soaked of Substrates...........94
Chapter 5 Discussion.....................................95
5.1 Formulation of New PDs...............................95
5.1.1 Effect of pH on the stability of PD................95
5.1.2 Effect of changing from citric acid to sodium citrate..................................................95
5.1.3 Effect of surfactant concentration on shelf-life of PD.......................................................96
5.2 Physical Observation of Fingerprint Developed on Porous and Non-porous Substrates........................96
5.3 Visual Observation of Fingerprint Developed on Porous Substrates..............................................100
5.4 Visual Observation of Fingerprints Developed on Non-Porous Substrates.......................................101
5.5 Aged Fingerprint on A4 papers.......................105
5.6 Effect of Surfactant Concentration on PD Shelf-Life.105
5.7 Water-soaked of Substrates..........................105
Chapter 6 Conclutions...................................107
6.1 Proposed Chemical Mechanism of the New PD...........107
6.2 Proposed Reaction Mechanism of the New PD...........107
6.3 Ability of New PD to Develop Fingerprint on Different Substrates under Different Condition....................108
6.3.1 Porous Substrates.................................108
6.3.2 Non-porous Substrates.............................108
6.2.3 Aged Latent Fingerprints..........................108
6.3.4 Water-soaked of Substrates........................108
6.4 Recommendations for Future Research.................109
References..............................................110
Appendix................................................115
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