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研究生:彭莉娟
研究生(外文):Li-Chuah Peng
論文名稱:微胞輔助超過濾對工業廢水中金屬離子之去除與結垢分析
論文名稱(外文):Metal Rejection and Fouling Analysis in Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration of Industrial Wastewaters
指導教授:莊瑞鑫莊瑞鑫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Shin Juang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材料科學學系
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:微胞輔助超過濾修正阻塞指數界面活性劑
外文關鍵詞:Micellar-Enhanced UltrafiltrationModified fouling indexSurfactant
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微胞輔助超過濾(MEUF)是一種過濾技術,利用此技術可獲得高品質之透過濾液。在MEUF中,應用界面活性劑,在污水中添加在一個濃度高於臨界微胞濃度下,形成之微胞可與污染物鍵結,幫助在超過濾程序中污染物的去除。本研究以界面活性劑,十二苯基磺酸鈉(sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate;SDBS)和十二烷基磺酸鈉(Sodium dodecyl sulfate ; SDS),添加在廢水中,使得溶液中形成高電荷之微胞,微胞能與金屬離子吸附或鍵結,再以選擇孔洞大小足以阻隔微胞通過之濾膜進行超過濾。
實驗中採用再生醋酸纖維薄膜(YM10),在有界面活性劑下,觀察薄膜對金屬離子分離情形。實驗分三部分進行:(1)使用表面張力計,測量界面活性劑之CMC值;(2)於操作不同pH 值、金屬濃度及壓力之變因,尋找出最佳操作壓力,並觀察薄膜對金屬離子截留率之關係。最後以修正阻塞指數(Modified fouling index,MFI)及Blocking filtration law來分析阻塞機制。
Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) is a filtering technology, by applying such technology, a high quality filtrate can be achieved. In MEUF, specific surfactants at a concentration higher than the critical micelle concentration are applied to assist in an ultrafiltration process by forming micelles with the pollutants for removing the bound pollutants from the sewerage. In this research, surfactants, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are added to a polluted water stream to form highly charged micelles onto which the metal ions are adsorbed or bound. Then the solution is processed by an ultrafiltration membrane with pore sizes small enough to block the passage of the micelles and adsorbed ions.
The study is designed to apply a regenerated cellulose membrane (Millipore YM10, MWCO 10,000) with the assitance of the surfactants and investigate the separation efficiencies of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The experiment procedures comprises three parts which are (1) determination of the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants in the water stream by using surface tensiometer, (2) Achieving best metal pollutants retention rate by investigating separation conditions of pH, metal concentration and operating pressure in ultrafiltration, (3) fouling mechanism analysis by applying principles of Modified Fouling Index and Blocking Filtration Law.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
符號說明 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 薄膜分離概述 3
1.2.1 薄膜分離技術類型 5
1.2.2 超過濾模組件 9
1.2.3 薄膜分離技術的優缺點 11
1.2.4 影響超過濾通量之因素 15
1.2.5 薄膜清洗與保存 16
1.3 界面活性劑 17
1.3.1 界面活性劑結構 19
1.3.2 界面活性劑的分類 20
1.3.3 界面活性劑水溶液的性質 21
1.3.4 臨界微胞濃度性質 21
1.3.5 微胞的結構 23
1.4 臨界微胞濃度(CMC)的測定法 27
1.5 研究動機與目的 28
第二章 文獻回顧 32
2.1 過濾堵塞機制 32
2.2修正阻塞指數(Modified Fouling Index) 36
2.3 MEUF相關文獻 38
第三章 實驗部份 42
3.1 實驗儀器與藥品 42
3.1.1 實驗儀器 42
3.1.2 實驗藥品 43
3.2 實驗裝置 44
3.3 實驗步驟及過濾方法 46
3.3.1. 計算公式 46
3.3.2. 界面活性劑臨界微胞濃度(CMC)的測定 46
3.3.3. 界面活性劑微胞大小的測定 47
3.3.4. 單成份金屬超過濾實驗 47
第四章 結果與討論 48
4.1 界面活性劑臨界微胞濃度(CMC)測定 48
4.2 界面活性劑微胞大小的測定 49
4.3 單成份金屬離子之恆壓攪拌過濾分析 52
4.3.1 改變金屬進料濃度對金屬去除率之影響 52
4.3.2 改變pH值對金屬去除率之影響 54
4.3.3 操作壓力之影響 56
4.3.4 不同轉速之影響 60
4.3.5 通透量之分析 61
4.4 薄膜阻塞機制之探討 69
4.4.1修正阻塞指數(Modified fouling index) 69
4.4.2 過濾阻塞機制 73
第五章 結論 81
參考文獻 82
自述 88
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