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研究生:蕭惠文
研究生(外文):Hui-Wen Hsiao
論文名稱:網路關鍵字廣告配置對廣告效果之影響:個人面和執行面因素調和效果之探討
論文名稱(外文):Measuring Online Keyword Advertising Placement Effects: Individual and Executional Factors as Moderators
指導教授:廖淑伶廖淑伶引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:國際企業學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:228
中文關鍵詞:網路關鍵字廣告效果關鍵字廣告配置一致性效果廣告明顯效果網路態度廣告懷疑論最適刺激程度瀏覽模式
外文關鍵詞:keyword advertising effectskeyword advertising placementcongruity effectsad prominenceattitude toward web adsskepticism toward adsoptimum stimulation levelnavigation style
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網路關鍵字廣告是個新型態的網路行銷方式,是目前最熱門的一種,因為這種廣告強調於廣告內容和網頁內容是具一致性的,所以消費者會較易接受此類型的廣告,但是若消費者對於廣告配置和廣告型態具有一定的知識。因此,關鍵字廣告被配置於不同的網頁型態時會產生不同的廣告效果,故本研究探討不同的關鍵字廣告配置、不同的情節連結程度、不同的廣告明顯程度,對於消費者的廣告識別、態度和點選意圖有何影響。再者,個人觀點不盡相同,所以本研究加以考慮消費者對網路廣告的態度、懷疑廣告的程度、最適刺激的程度與不同的瀏覽模式,是否會對上述的效果產生調節作用。
本研究透過實驗設計法來進行實驗假設推論之驗證,實驗為四因子組間實驗設計:4(關鍵字廣告配置:搜尋行銷廣告配置-搜尋引擎&站內搜尋/內容相關廣告配置-部落格&電子郵件)× 2(瀏覽模式:資訊搜尋者/網路瀏覽者)× 2(廣告產品與網頁配置內容之一致性:一致/不一致)× 2(廣告明顯程度:明顯/隱約),共32 個實驗版本之實驗矩陣。另外三個因子為網路廣告態度(有益/無益)、廣告懷疑論(高/低)與最適刺激程度(高/低),則以問卷來衡量,以中位數將受測者分為兩群,來進行研究分析。
本研究主要發現:1)關鍵字廣告配置會對廣告識別、態度和點選意圖產生顯著影響。2)使用者對於網路廣告的態度、廣告懷疑程度與最適刺激程度會干擾對關鍵字廣告的態度和點選意圖。當使用者相對喜歡網路廣告、低度懷疑廣告、或最適刺激程度較高時,關鍵字廣告配置的不同,會對關鍵字廣告的態度和點選意圖產生顯著差異;若使用者相對不喜歡網路廣告、高度懷疑廣告或最適刺激程度較低時,關鍵字廣告配置的不同,則對態度和點選意圖沒有顯著影響。3)使用者的瀏覽模式會干擾對關鍵字廣告的識別、態度和點選意圖。當使用者的目的為搜尋資訊時,關鍵字廣告配置的不同,會對於廣告效果產生顯著差異。整體來說,資訊搜尋者對於內容相關廣告配置的廣告產生較高的廣告效果。4)廣告產品與網頁配置內容之一致性會干擾廣告識別、態度和點選意圖。一致的廣告對於廣告效果之干擾較大;不一致的廣告對於廣告效果之干擾較小。5)廣告明顯程度會干擾廣告識別與態度。較明顯的廣告,會對關鍵字廣告的識別產生顯著差異,但對關鍵字廣告的態度,不會產生顯著差異;較不明顯的廣告則會對關鍵字廣告的識別,不會產生顯著差異,但對關鍵字廣告的態度,產生顯著差異。
Online keyword advertising is highly visible on the Internet. This kind of advertisement put emphasis on the relevance of advertisement to webpage content for consumer viewing. Web viewers tend to ignore online keyword ads if they notice the content of webpage with commercial intention. There exists ad avoidance effect in the online keyword ad placement. Ad avoidance is a kind of viewers’ web related schema. Thus, this research aims to investigate if keyword advertising will cause different advertising effectiveness when keyword advertising placement differs.
Five-factor experiment design is taken to test hypotheses in this research. It is a 2 (keyword advertising placement: keyword-targeted/ content-targeted) by 2 (navigation style: information-seeker/ web-surfer) by 2 (ad congruity: congruent/ incongruent) by 2 (ad prominence: prominent/ subtle) analysis. The other three factors, attitude toward web ad, skepticism toward ad, and optimum stimulation level, are measured and divided into two levels by median split.
The results of the research find that 1) content-targeted placement has better advertising effects as compared to keyword-targeted placement; 2) for content-targeted placement, favorable attitude toward web ads and low skepticism toward ads has better advertising effects than unfavorable attitude toward web ads and high skepticism toward ads; 3) the keyword ad effect on attitude toward keyword ads and click intention performs better in the content-targeted placement under high optimum stimulation level; 4) in content-targeted placement information-seeker has better advertising effects than web-surfer. Keyword ad placement works when web users are information-seekers; 5) congruent ad obtains much better ad attitudes and click intention in content-targeted placement than incongruent one; 6) for keyword-targeted placement, prominent ad is more memorable but with less favorable ad attitudes than subtle ad; 7) the keyword ad placement effects is more influenced by ad prominence when web users are web-surfers, while information-seekers show distinct advertising effect on keyword-targeted and content-targeted placement under subtle ads.
Title Page…………………………………………………………………………i
Letter of Approval……………………………………………………………ii
Letter of Authority…………………………………………………………iii
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………iv
English Abstract…………………………………………………………………v
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………vi
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………vii
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………ix
List of Figures………………………………………………………………xii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................ 1
1.1 Research Background ............................................... 1
1.2 Research Motivation ............................................... 2
1.3 Research Questions ................................................ 4
1.4 Research Objectives ............................................... 5
1.5 Research Procedure ................................................ 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................. 7
2.1 Keyword Advertising ..................................................... 7
2.2 Product Placement .................................................... 23
2.3 Schema Theory ........................................................ 26
2.4 Ad Avoidance Effect ...................................................28
2.5 Elaboration Likelihood Model ......................................... 29
2.6 Attitude toward Web Advertising .......................................30
2.7 Skepticism toward Advertising ........................................ 32
2.8 Optimum Stimulation Level ............................................ 33
2.9 Navigation Style ..................................................... 35
2.10 Congruity Theory .................................................... 38
2.11 Stimulus Prominence ................................................. 40
2.12 Internet Advertising Effectiveness................................... 42
2.13 Hypotheses Inferences ............................................... 46
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................... 55
3.1 Research Framework ...................................................... 55
3.2 Research Hypotheses .................................................. 57
3.3 Operational Definitions and Variables Measurement ......... 60
3.4 Pilot Studies .................................................................. 68
3.5 Experimental Design ................................................................ 80
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESUTLS ......................... 94
4.1 Data Analysis ........................................................... 94
4.2 Reliability Analysis ...................................................... 98
4.3 Manipulation Check ............................................................102
4.4 Median Split Analysis ....................................................106
4.5 Hypotheses Testing .................................................. 109
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS ......................................... 169
5-1 Research Conclusions ................................................ 169
5-2 Contributions and Implications ...................................... 178
REFERENCE .............................................................. 185
APPENDIX ................................................................198
Appendix 1 Pilot Stimuli—Keyword advertisements................................. 198
Appendix 2 Pilot Stimuli—Web Pages .................................. 201
Appendix 3 Pilot Study Questionnaire ..................................208
Appendix 4 Experiment Stimuli—Table of Questionnaire Web Pages ...... 215
Appendix 5 Experiment Stimuli—Web Pages ............................. 216
Appendix 6 Experimental Questionnaire ................................ 222
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