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研究生:林珊宇
研究生(外文):Shan-Yu Lin
論文名稱:AnInvestigationofConsumers’BrandAttitudetowardProductInnovationFailure:TheRoleofBrandEquity
論文名稱(外文):An Investigation of Consumers’ Brand Attitude toward Product Innovation Failure: The Role of Brand Equity
指導教授:廖淑伶廖淑伶引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:國際企業學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:187
中文關鍵詞:品牌權益品牌態度創新失敗消費者歸因
外文關鍵詞:Brand EquityInnovation FailureBrand AttitudeConsumer Attribution
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在科技日新月異的環境下,獲得資訊的時間縮短,競爭日趨激烈,無論品牌公司大小,大家無不絞盡腦汁以期推出符合目標市場需求新商品。無奈的是,真正成功的商品少之又少,且大家的重點似乎都放在如何創新成功、創新成功關鍵,而忽略了創新失敗對於品牌會帶來怎樣的衝擊。

既然無論大小品牌都會創新、且都有失敗的可能。 本研究的重點在於:消費大眾對於高權益品牌及低權益品牌的創新失敗,是否會抱持不一樣的態度及反應。 若加入不同干擾變數,是否會影響消費者品牌態度轉變? 本篇論文的應變數為品牌權益,依變數為失敗後的品牌態度,而干擾變數為產品創新程度、事先宣傳、失敗嚴重程度、失敗歸因以及意見領袖出面緩頰與否,這裡必須要注意的是,失敗後的品牌態度為避免受到失敗前品牌態度的共變影響,因此本研究採用ANCOVA分析。

在正式問卷中,本研究以虛擬故事法將情境設計其中,為了讓消費者更融入情境,因此事先執行了三次的前測問卷,第一次選出高度及低度創新產品,第二次再根據產品性質找出可能推出該產品之品牌,並選出最高權益及最低權益之品牌。 同時選出具有說服力的領導者。 最後,在第三次前測問卷中,選出消費者認為最輕微的失敗情境及最嚴重的失敗情境以及列出可能導致產品失敗的因素、讓消費者歸因。 正式問卷分成兩個研究,總共有二十四個實驗設計,研究一包含失敗前會發生的變數(產品創新程度、事先宣傳)、共有八個實驗設計,研究二包含失敗後會發生的變數(失敗嚴重程度、失敗歸因、領導人出面緩頰)、共有十六個實驗設計。

研究結果建議高權益品牌可多從事高度創新、若推出低度創新,產品推出前的宣傳要多加謹慎以及預防嚴重的失誤發生。 而低品牌權益,本研究建議若推出高度創新商品,產品推出前的宣傳要多加謹慎、若失敗發生,可考慮邀請具有說服力的意見領袖發言緩頰以及避免內部造成的失敗。
Nowadays, the competition among firms becomes fiercer due to the prosperity of technology. Firms try to do their best and launch new products to meet consumers’ desires. However, the failure rate of putting new products on the market is surprisingly high. In fact, most research related to innovation focus on “how to innovate successfully” or “the keys to generate a success innovation” instead of “the impact of a failed new product on its brand.”

Also, Haig (2005) suggested that the failure rate of high-equity brands is not lower than their success rate. Hence, consumers’ post-failure brand attitude toward innovation failure based on low and high-equity brand will be explored in this research. Furthermore, whether the relationship between brand equity and post-failure brand attitude is moderated by product innovativeness, pre-announcement, failure severity, locus of failure and opinion leader’s WOM will also be discussed in this research. In order to avoid the post-failure brand attitude correlating with pre-failure brand attitude, ANCOVA is applied to this study.

There are two studies in this research, one is the pre-failure stage (brand equity, product innovativeness and pre-announcement) and the other one is the post-failure stage (brand equity, failure severity, locus of failure and opinion leader’s WOM). The experimental designs in the pre-failure and the post-failure stage are 2×2×2 (8 experiments) and 2×2×2×2 (16 experiments) respectively. The questionnaire is composed of a number of scenarios, which are manipulated by the results of pilot studies or manipulated control.

At the end, the results suggest high-equity brand could launch more highly innovative products, should be careful about the pre-announcement when the new product is low-innovativeness, and prevent the severe failure happening. As to low-equity brand, the suggestions are being careful about the pre-announcement when the new product is high-innovativeness, inviting powerful leader to speak for the failure, and preventing the internal failure.
Title Page i
Letter of Approval ii
Letter of Authority iii
Abstract in Chinese iv
Abstract in English v
Acknowledgements vi
Table of Content vii
Lists of Table ix
Lists of Figure xi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 3
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Research Purposes 5
Chapter 2 Literature Review 6
2.1 Brand equity 6
2.2 Product Innovativeness 9
2.3 Pre-announcement 11
2.4 Innovation Failure 13
2.5 Opinion Leader’s Word-of-Mouth 16
2.6 Brand Attitude 17
2.7 Hypotheses Inference 18
Chapter 3 Methodology 26
3.1 Research Framework 26
3.2 Research Hypotheses 28
3.3 Operational Definition and Variables Measurement 30
3.4 Pilot Studies 35
3.5 Experimental Design 45
3.6 Statistical Methods 54
Chapter 4 Results 56
4.1 Data Structure and Descriptive Statistics 56
4.2 Reliability Analysis 62
4.3 Manipulation Check 65
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 72
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Implications 94
5.1 Conclusions 94
5.2 Research Contributions 97
5.3 Research Limitations & Future Research 101
Reference 103
Appendix 116
Appendix 1 Pilot Study 1a 116
Appendix 2 Pilot Study 1b 127
Appendix 3 Pilot Study 2 137
Appendix 4 Pilot Study 3 150
Appendix 5 Questionnaire: Study 1 – Version 2 159
(Low-Equity Brand/ Low-Product Innovativeness/ Pre-announcement) 159
Appendix 6 Questionnaire: Study 1 – Version 8 166
(High-Equity Brand/ High-Product Innovativeness/ Pre-announcement ) 166
Appendix 7 Questionnaire: Study 2 – Version 1 173
(Low-Equity Brand/ Mild Failure / Internal Failure/ Opinion Leader’s WOM) 173
Appendix 8 Questionnaire: Study 2 – Version 16 180
(High-Equity Brand/ Severe Failure / External Failure/ Opinion Leader’s WOM) 180
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