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研究生:張恩瑞
研究生(外文):En-Rui Zhang
論文名稱:無線感測網路中改善定向擴散之路由協定
論文名稱(外文):An Improved Routing Protocol for Directed Diffusion in Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:劉如生
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:33
中文關鍵詞:無線感測網路應用導向Directed Diffusion緊急訊息
外文關鍵詞:Wireless Sensor Networksapplication-awareDirected Diffusionurgent event
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無線感測網路是由多個具有感測、通訊能力的感測節點所組成的網路系統。無線感測元件通常是屬於低成本、低電量、低傳輸功力的電子元件,因此在資料的傳送上,通常會因為本身電力受限的因素下,隨著時間以及感測節點進行偵測、通訊等工作後,節點的電力也會逐漸減弱直至電量完全耗盡,導致網路完全失去功用,因此現在許多研究上,都以降低電力的消耗、有效的利用電力、提升資料傳輸的品質及提高路由的穩定性為主要研究方向。
以應用為導向的Directed Diffusion[3]及REEP[4]協定中,當使用者對於環境中對某事件有興趣或是有興趣知道現在有哪些事件發生,透過資料收集點發出興趣訊息後,感測節點才會進行偵測並將收集到的資料傳送給資料收集點,但是DD及REEP並無考量路由節點的數量且傳送訊號時使用較多的廣播傳送方式,對此可能造成網路中的感測節點必須處理過多的廣播封包而導致花費較多的網路資源,縮短網路壽命。
因此,本篇利用鄰居節點的路由節點數(hop-count)及剩餘電量做為挑選路徑傳送資料的條件,並以HEQ(Hop-count & Energy Queue)以及Urgent欄位紀錄之;利用路由節點數控制訊息傳遞時路由節點的數量,選擇HEQ中的單一節點傳送訊號,減少原本DD中廣播傳送的次數,降低整體網路的負載以延長網路的生存時間。此外,本篇針對緊急事件提供有效處理訊息傳送的方法,結合HEQ、Urgent欄位以及剩餘電量門檻機制的使用,利用多條路徑的傳送,確保資料傳送的成功率,並防止多餘的封包充斥於網路環境中,降低網路電量的負擔。
Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a lot of sensor nodes that have sensing, communications capabilities. The sensor nodes are usually the electronic components with low-cost, low power, low transmission ability. Therefore, the node''s power will be gradually consumed and finally exhausted, resulting in a total loss of service of the network. Recently, many researchers focus on reducing power consumption, efficient use of electricity, to enhance the quality of service and the stability of routing as their research topics.
Based on application-aware mechanisms, the Directed Diffusion and REEP are two popular routing protocols. When the user is interested in a specific or general event in the environment, the data collection point (sink) will broadcast the interest message. Then, the sensor node starts to detect the environment, collect data and transmit to the sink. Due to not considering the number of routing hop-count and transmitting signals with many broadcasts, DD and REEP may result in consuming power quickly and the network lifetime will be shorten.
In this paper, we use the hop-count and remaining energy to select transmission path, and record the HEQ (Hop-count & Energy Queue) and the attribute of Urgent. Our mechanisms could control the number of routing nodes and reduce the overall power consumption to extend the life time of the network. In addition, this paper proposes an effective method to handle the urgent event. Utilizing HEQ, Urgent attributes, and the energy threshold mechanism, we provide multiple transmission paths to ensure that the success rate of the data transmission and also avoid flooding to reduce the burden for the network.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VI
第一章、 導論 1
1.1. 研究背景 1
1.2. 研究目的 2
1.3. 研究貢獻 2
1.4. 論文架構 2
第二章、 相關研究 3
2.1. Directed Diffusion 3
2.2. Reliable and energy efficient protocol(REEP) 7
2.3. 問題探討 12
第三章、 研究方法 14
3.1. 環境設定 14
3.2. 感測訊息的傳送 15
3.3. 資訊訊息的傳送 17
3.4. 需求訊息及感測資料的傳送 18
3.5. 傳輸路徑的維護 20
3.6. 緊急封包的處理 22
第四章、 模擬結果 25
4.1. 網路剩餘電量 26
4.2. 考量網路中有產生緊急事件後的網路剩餘電量 28
4.3. 網路生存時間 29
4.4. 平均消耗成本 30
4.5. 資料接收封包數 31
第五章、 結論與未來研究方向 32
參考文獻 33
[1]I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, ”A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 40, Issue 8, pp. 102-144, Aug. 2002.
[2]D. Puccinelli and M. Haenggi, ”Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications and Challenges of Ubiquitous Sensing,” IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 19 - 31, 3rd quarter 2005.
[3]C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, D. Estrin, J. Heidemann, F. Silva, ”Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking,” IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 11, NO. 1, PP. 2-16, FEB. 2003.
[4]F. Zabin, S. Misra, I. Woungang, H.F. Rashvand, N.-W. Ma, M. Ahsan Ali “REEP: data-centric, energy-efficient and reliable routing protocol for wireless sensor networks,” IET Communication, Vol. 2, No. 8, pp. 995–1008, sep. 2008.
[5]W. Jincheng,L. Deshi,Z. Mi, D Ghosal, “Data Collection with Multiple Mobile Actors in Underwater Sensor Networks,” The 28th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, pp. 216 – 221, June 2008.
[6]W. Chen, W. Li, H. Shou, B. Yuan, “A QoS-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 1947 - 1952, June 2006.
[7]S. Bajij, L. Breslau, D. Estrin, K. Fall, S. Floyd, P. Haldar, M. Handley,A. Helmy, J. Heidemann, P. Huang, S. Kumar, S. McCanne, R. Rejaie,P. Sharma, K. Varadhan, Y. Xu, H. Yu, and D. Zappala, “Improving simulation for network research,” Univ. Southern California, Los Angeles,Tech. Rep. 99-702b, 1999.
[8]Kevin Fall, Kannan Varadhan, "The NS Manual," http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ns-documentation.html, March 9, 2006.
[9]Ns2, http://nsnam.isi.edu/nsnam/index.php/User_Information, access on Feb. 2009.
[10]I-LENSE Directed Diffusion, http://www.isi.edu/ilense/software/diffusion/index.html, access on Feb. 2009.
[11]D. Coffin, D. Van Hook, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, and F. Silva, “Network routing application programmer’s interface (api) and walk through 8.0,” Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Tech. Rep. 01-741, 2001.
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