跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.206.76.226) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/30 21:46
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林瑜瑩
研究生(外文):Yu-Ying Lin
論文名稱:不同性別直屬主管之情緒表現及領導風格對領導效能之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of Emotional Expression and Leadership Styleson Leadership Effectiveness for Supervisors in Different Gender
指導教授:李弘暉李弘暉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung-Hui Li
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:情緒表現領導風格領導效能性別角色刻板印象
外文關鍵詞:emotional expressionleadership stylesleadership effectivenessgender-role stereotype
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
  • 點閱點閱:795
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
受到性別角色刻板印象的影響,女性領導者由於其性別角色與傳統男性化的領導者角色不符合,往往導致其領導效能被低估;在華人組織中,受到傳統男尊女卑觀念的影響,關於性別角色刻板印象的認知,與強調女男平等的西方社會應有不同的意涵。然而,過去的領導研究多從西方的觀點出發,往往無法真正瞭解華人組織中的特殊現象及其意義,故而本研究兼採華人的家長式領導理論,企圖從華人文化的觀點,重新檢視華人企業中,直屬主管的情緒表現與領導風格符合性別角色刻板印象與否對於部屬所知覺的領導效能之影響。本研究以二因子變異數分析回收的345份問卷,結果顯示,主管情緒表現及領導風格確實會影響其領導效能,然而,主管的性別對於領導效能卻無顯著影響。在考量主管性別與情緒表現及領導風格的交互作用後發現,男女性主管展現負向情緒、交易型領導、威權領導及仁慈領導時的領導效能確實會有顯著的差異存在,而在展現正向情緒、轉型領導、德行領導時的領導效能則無顯著差異。意即,性別本身並不會直接影響部屬所知覺的領導效能,然而,主管的情緒表現及領導風格是否符合其性別角色期待,的確對其領導效能具有顯著的影響效果,此結果也間接證實了性別角色刻板印象確實深植人心。本研究並據此研究結果提出後續的學術研究及管理上的建議。
The leadership effectiveness of female leaders is often underestimated because of their gender-role stereotype does not fit managerial stereotype. The past researches on the effects of gender-role stereotype are mainly developed from Western theories, without regarding the cultural differences in societies and organizations between the East and the West. As a result, the critical points and particular situations in realizing Chinese organizations could be mistakenly ignored. Therefore, this study utilizes both Western and Eastern theories, to examine the leadership effectiveness on the fitting between supervisor’s gender-role stereotype and their emotional expression and leadership styles in Chinese organization. After two-way ANOVA analysis of 345 questionnaires, the result shows, the emotional expression and leadership styles certainly affect leadership effectiveness, nevertheless, gender doesn’t. When consider the interactions, there are significant differences between male and female supervisors’ leadership effectiveness on negative emotional expression, transactional leadership, authoritarian leadership, and benevolent leadership, however, no significant differences exist on positive emotional expression, transformational leadership, and moral leadership. Which means, the fitting of supervisors’ leadership behaviors and their gender-role is more important than gender itself on improving their leadership effectiveness. This result implies that the gender-role stereotype has not been changed by time. The direction for further research and implications for practice in leadership were discussed finally.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與背景…………………………………………………..…..…..1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………………………….…….3
第二章 文獻探討與研究假說
第一節 性別與領導效能…………………………………………………………..4
第二節 領導效能相關研究…………………………………………..………..…13
第三節 領導風格與領導效能……………………………………………………14
第四節 主管情緒表現與領導效能………………………………………………31
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構…………………………………………………………………40
第二節 研究對象…………………………………………………………………41
第三節 研究變項之定義與衡量工具……………………………………………43
第四節 資料分析方法……………………………………………………………50
第四章 研究結果
第一節 研究變項之相關分析……………………………………………………52
第二節 變異數分析……………………………………………………..……..…55
第五章 討論與建議
第一節 研究結果總結……………………………………………………………67
第二節 研究限制與未來研究方向………………………...………………….....74
第三節 學術上的意涵…………………………………...…..…………………...77
第四節 管理實務上的意涵………………………………….…………………...78
附錄一…………………………………………………………………….………….79
參考文獻……………………………………….………………….…….…………...87
中文部分
1.李美枝 (1992)。社會心理學。大洋出版社。
2.李美枝、鐘秋玉 (1996)。性別與性別角色析論。本土心理研究,6,260-299。
3.吳宗祐、鄭伯壎 (2003)。組織情緒研究之回顧與前瞻。應用心理研究,19(9),137-173。
4.吳靜吉,林合懋 (1998)。轉型領導量表與交易領導量表的建立。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,45(2),57-88。
5.林姿葶、鄭伯壎 (2007)。性別與領導角色孰先孰後?主管-部屬性別配對、共事時間及家長式領導。中華心理學刊,49(4),433-450。
6.林宴夙、徐荷譯 (1995)。柔性優勢:女人的領導風格。台灣:允晨文化出版。譯自"The Female Advantage: Women''s Ways of Leadership"作者:Sally Helgeson。
7.姜定宇、鄭伯壎、任金剛、謝宜君 (2005)。主管忠誠:華人本土構念的美國驗證。中華心理學刊,47(2),139-156。
8.徐瑋伶、鄭伯壎 (2004)。績效知覺、領導範型契合度與領導效能的關係。中華心理學刊,46 (1),75–89。
9.彭台光、高月慈、林鉦琴 (2006)。管理研究中的共同方法變異:問題本質、影響、測試和補救。管理學報,23 (1),77–98。
10.張春興 (1989)。張氏心理學辭典。東華書局。
11.黃光國 (1999)。華人的企業文化與生產力。應用心理學研究,1,163-185。
12.馮觀富 (2005)。情緒心理學。心理出版社。
13.楊國樞 (1995)。家族化歷程、泛家族主義及組織管理。海峽兩岸組織文化暨人力資源管理研討會論文。
14.劉惠琴 (1990)。從心理學看女人。張老師出版社。
15.蔡青宏 (1996)。企業主管領導效能評量之研究。國立成功大學企業管理學系碩士論文。
16.鄭伯壎 (1993)。家長權威價值與領導行為之關係探討。國科會專題研究報告。
17.鄭伯壎 (1995a)。家長權威與領導行為之關係:一個台灣民營企業主持人的個案研究,中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,台北,79,19-173。
18.鄭伯壎 (1995b)。不同家長權威價值與領導作風的關係:台灣民營企業的實証研究。國科會專題研究報告。
19.鄭伯壎 (1995c)。差序格局與華人組織行為。台北:本土心理研究,3,142–219。
20.鄭伯壎、周麗芳、樊景立 (2000)。家長式領導:三元模式的建構與測量。本土心理學研究,14,3-64。
21.鄭伯壎、周麗芳、黃敏萍、樊景立、彭泗清 (2003)。家長式領導的三元模式:中國大陸企業組織的證據。本土心理學研究,20(12),209-250。
22.鄭伯壎、謝佩鴛、周麗芳(2002)。校長領導作風、上下關係品質及教師角色外行為:轉型式與家長式領導的效果。本土心理學研究,17(06),105-161。
23.樊景立、鄭伯壎 (1998)。華人組織的家長式領導:一項文化觀點的分析。本土心理學研究,靶子論文。

英文部分
1.Ashkanasy, N.M., Hartel, E.J., & Daus, C.S. (2002), Diversity and Emotion: The New Frontiers in Organizational Behavior Research. Journal of Management, 28(3), 307-338.
2.Bartol, K. & Butterfield, D. (1976), Sex Effects in Evaluating Leaders. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 446-454.
3.Bass, B. M. (1985), Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. NY: Free Press.
4.Bass, B. M. (1998), Transformational Leadership: Industry, Military, and Educational Impact. Mahwah, NJ: Macmilllan.
5.Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1990), Transformational Leadership Development: Manual for Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1990.
6.Bass, B. M. & Stogdill, R. M. (1990), Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research and Managerial Applications (3rd.ed). New York: The Free Press. 11-18.
7.Bem, S. L. (1974). The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162.
8.Bem, S. L. (1981), Gender Schema Theory: A Cognitive Account of Sex Typing. Psychological Review, 88(3), 354-364.
9.Bem, S. L. (1985), Androgyny and Gender Schema Theory: A Conceptual and Empirical Integration. In T. B. Sondergger (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Psychology and Gender. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 32, 179-226.
10.Bem, S. L., Martyna, W., & Watson, C. (1976). Sex Type and an-drogyny: Further Explorations of the Expressive Domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1016-1023.
11.Bennis, W. G. & Nanus, B. (1985), Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. NY: Harper & Row.
12.Bergen, D. J. & Williams, J. E. (1991), Sex Stereotypes in the United States Revisited: 1972-1988. Sex Roles, 24, 413-423.
13.Blake, R. R., Mouton, J. A., Barnes, L. B., & Greiner, L. E. (1964), Breakthrough in Organization Development. Harvard Business Review, November-December, 136.
14.Brenner, O. C., Tomkiewica, J. & Schein, V.E.(1989), The Relationship between Sex Role Stereotypes and Requisite Management Characteristics Revisited. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 662-669.
15.Brewer, M. B. (1979), In-group Bias in the Minimal Intergroup Situation: A Cognitive-motivational Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 307-324.
16.Brody, L. R. (1999), Gender, Emotion, and the Family, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
17.Brody, L. R. & Hall, J. A. (2002), Gender, Emotion, and Expression. In Lewis M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M.(Eds.). Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.). NY: The Guilford Press, 338-349.
18.Brown, C. S. & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1994), An Assessment of the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Service Friendliness. Journal of Organization Behavior Management, 14, 55-75.
19.Bryman, A. (1992), Charisma and Leadership in Organizations, Lodon: Sage.
20.Burns, J. M. (1978), Leadership. NY: Harper & Row.
21.Campbell, D. J., Bommer, W., & Yeo, E.(1993), Perceptions of Appropriate Leadership Style: Participation versus Consultation across Two Cultures. Asia Pacific. Journal of Management, 10(1), 1-19.
22.Cann, A. & Siegfried, W. D. (1990), Gender Stereotypes and Dimensions of Effective Leader Behavior. Sex Roles, 23, 413-419.
23.Chen, X. P., & Farh, J. L. (1999), The Effectiveness of Transactional and Transformational Leader Behaviors in Chinese Organizations: Evidence from Taiwan. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago.
24.Conger, J. A. & Kanango, R. N. (1987), Toward a Behavioral Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Setting. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637-647.
25.Darley, J. M., Glucksberg, S., & Kinchla, R. A. (1991), Psychology (5th ed.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
26.Darwin, C. R. (1872), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, London: Albemarle.
27.Davis, K. A. & Newstrom, J. W. (2001), Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. NY: McGraw-Hill, 4.
28.Day, C. (2000). Beyond transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 57(7), 56-59.
29.Deal, J. J. & Stevenson, M. A. (1998), Perceptions of Female and Male Managers in the 1990s, Sex Roles, 38(3/4), 287-300.
30.Deaux, K. (1985), Sex Differences. Annual Review of Psychology. 36, 49-82.
31.Deluga, R. J. (1988), Relationship of Transformational and Transactional Leadership with Employee Influencing Strategies. Group and Organization Studies, 13, 456-467.
32.Den Hartog, D. N., Van Muijen, J. J., & Koopman, P. L. (1997), Transactional versus Transfornational Leadership: An Analysis of the MLQ. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 70, 19-34.
33.Downton, J. V. (1973), Rebel Leadership, NY: Free Press.
34.Eagly, A. H. (1987), Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-role Interpretation. Erlbaum, NJ: Hillsdale.
35.Eagly, A. H., & Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., (2001), The Leadership Styles of Women and Men. Journal of Social Issues, 57,781-797.
36.Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. T. (1990), Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-analysis. Phychologteal Bulletin, 108, 233-256.
37.Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002), Role Congruity Theory of Prejudice toward Female Leaders. Psychological Review, 109, 573-598.
38.Eagly, A. H., Makhijani, M. G. & Klonsky, B. G. (1992), Gender and Evaluation of Eeaders: A Meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin: Washington, 111(1), 3-22.
39.Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000), Social Role Theory of Sex Differences and Similarities: A Current Appraisal. In Eckes T. & Trautner H. M. (Eds.), The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 123-174.
40.Ekman, P., & Oster, H. (1979), Facial Expression of Emotion, Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 527-554.
41.Eysenck, H. J. (1967), The Biological Basis of Personality, Springfield, Ill: Charles, C. Thomas.
42.Farh, J. L. & Cheng, B. S. (2000), A Cultural Analysis of Paternalistic Leadership in Chinese Organization. In J. T. Li, A. S. Tsui, & E. Weldon (Eds.), Management and Organizations in the Chinese Context. London: Macmillan.
43.Fiedler, F. E. (1967), A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, NY: McGraw Hill.
44.Friedman, H. S., Price, L. M., & Riggio, R. E. (1980), Understanding and Assessing Nonverbal Expressiveness: The Affective Communication Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(2), 333-351.
45.Fulk, J. & Wendler, E. R. (1982), Dimensionality of Leader-subordinate Interactions: A path-goal Investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 241-264.
46.Gardner, J. W. (1989), On Leadership, RPT ed., NY: Free Press, 2-15.
47.Goldshmidt, O. T. & Weller, L. (2000), Talking Emotions: Gender Differences in a Variety of Conversational Contexts. Symbolic Interaction. 23, 117-134.
48.Goleman, D. (1995), 張美惠(1997)譯。組織訓練(Training in Organizations)。台北:時報文化出版社。
49.Goleman, D.(1998), 李瑞玲等譯。EQⅡ(工作EQ)(Working with Emotional Intelligence)。台北:時報文化出版社。
50.Gonzales, P. M., Blanton, H., & Williams, K. J. (2002), The Effects of Stereotype Threat and Double-minority Status on the Test Performance of Latino Women. Personality and Social Psychology, 28(5), 659-670.
51.Graen, G. B. & Cashman, J. (1975), A Role-making Model of Leadership in Formal Organizations: A Developmental Approach. In Hunt J. G. & Larson L. L. (Eds.). Leadership Frontiers. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 143–165,
52.Gross, J. J. & John, O. P. (1995), Facets of Emotional Expressivity: Three Self-report Factors and Their Correlates. Personality and Individual Difference, 19, 555-568.
53.Gross, J. J. & John, O. P. (1998), Mapping the Domain of Expressivity: Multimethod Evidence for a Hierarchical Model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 74(1), 170-191.
54.Hall, C. S., Lindzey, G. & Campbell, J. B. (1998), Theories of Personality.(4th ed.). NY: John Wiley & Sons.
55.Hamphill, J. K. & Coons, A. E. (1957), Development of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire. In Stogdill R. M. & Coons A. E. (Eds.), Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement. OH: Eereau of Business Research, Ohio State University.
56.Hochschild, A. R. (1983), The Managed Heart. Berkely, CA: University of Califirnia Press.
57.Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work- related values. Beverly Hill, CA: Sage.
58.Hofstede, G. (1983). National Cultures in Four Dimensions: A Research-Based Theory of Cultural Differences Among Nations. International Studies of Management and Organization, 13 (1-2), 46-74.
59.Hofstede G. (1991), Culture and Organization: Software of the Mind. International Cooperation and its Importance for Survival. London: McGraw-Hill.
60.Hofstede, G. (l993), Cultural Constraints in Management Theories¸ Academy of Management Executive (AEX). 7 (1), 81-94.
61.Hofstede, G. (1997), Culture and Organization: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill Press.
62.Horner, M. (1978), The Measurement and Behavioral Implications of Fear of Succession Women, In Atkinson J. W. and Raynor J. O. (eds.), Personality, Motivation, and Achievement, Washington, D. C.: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1978.
63.House, R. J. (1971), A Path-goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16(3), 321-339.
64.House, R. J. (1977), Theory of Charismatic Leadership. In Hunt J. G. and Larson L. L. (Eds), Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
65.Howell, J. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1993), Transformational Leadership, Lransactional Leadership, Locus of Control, and Support Innovation: Key Predictor of Consolidated-business Unit Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 891-902.
66.Hunt, J. G. (1991), Leadership: A New Synthesis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
67.Jones G. R., George J. M., & Hill C. W. L. (2000), Contemporary Management, 2nded., McGraw-Hill, p.470.
68.Jung, D. I. & Avolio, B. J. (1999), Effects of Leadership Style and Followers'' Cultural Orientation on Performance in Group and Individual Task Conditions. Academy of Management Journal, 42(2), 208-218.
69.Keller, J. & Dauenheimer, D. (2003). Stereotype Threat in the Classroom: Dejection Mediates the Disrupting Threat Effect on Women’s Math Performance. Personality and Social Psychology, 29(3), 371-381.
70.Kenny, D. A., Zaccaro, S. J. (1983), An Estimate of Variance due to Traits in Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 678-685.
71.Kirkpatrick, S. A. & Locke, E. A. (1991), Leadership: Do Traits Matter? Academy of Management Executive, 5(2), 48-60.
72.Kunda, Ziva (1999), Social Cognition: Making Sense of People, Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.
73.Levant, R. F. (1980), A Male Perspective on Parenting and Non-parenting. Leipzig, West Germany: International Congress of Psychology.
74.Levy, B. (1996), Improving Memory in Old Age through Implicit Self-stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1092-1107.
75.Lewin, K., White, R. K., & Lippit, R. (1953), Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created Social Culture. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 402-410.
76.Lewis, K. M. (2000), When Leaders Display Emotion: How Followers Respond to Negative Emotional Expression of Male and Female Leaders. Journal of Organization Behavior, 21, 221-234.
77.Likert, R. (1961), New Patterns of Management. NY: McGraw Hill, 3-29.
78.London, M., & Poplawski, J. R. (1976), Effects of Stereotypes Development in Performance Appraisal and Interview Context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61(2), 199-205.
79.Lyness, K.S. & Thompson, D.E. (1997), Above the Glass Ceiling ?A Comparison of Matched Samples of Female and Male Executives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3: 359-373.
80.MacKenzie, S. B. Podsakoff, P. M., & Rich, G. A. (2000), Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Salesperson Performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 115-134.
81.Maslach, C. & Jackson, S. E. (1985), The Roleof Sex and Family Variables in Burnout. Sex Roles, 12, 837-851.
82.Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997), What is Emotional Intelligence? In Salovey P. & sluyter D. J. (Eds.), Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence, 3-31.
83.Mogan, L.A.(1998), Glass-ceiling effect or cohort effect? A Longitudinal Study of the Gender Earnings Gap for Engineers, 1982 to 1989. American Sociological Review, 63: 479-483.
84.Moskowitz, D. W., Suh, E. J., & Desaulniers, J. (1994). Situational Influences on Gender Differences in Agency and Communion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 753-761.
85.Murray, H. (1938), Explorations in Personality. NY: Oxford University Press.
86.Niemann, Y.F. (2001), Stereotypes about Chicanas and Chicanos: Implications for Counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 29(1), 55-90.
87.Northouse, P. (2001), Leadership: Theory and Practice (2nd Ed.). CA: Sage Publications.
88.Oakley, J. G. (2000), Gender-based Barriers to Senior Management Positions: Understanding the Scarcity of Female CEO''s. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(4), 321-334.
89.Peterson, P. L. (1977), Interactive Effects of Students Anxiety, Achievement Orientation, and Teacher Behavior on Student Achievementand and Attitude. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(6), 779-792.
90.Phillips, D. (1995), The Gender Gap. Entrepreneur, 110-112.
91.Podsakoff, P. M. & Organ, D. M. (1990), Accounting for Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Leader Fairness and Task Scope versus Satisfaction. Journal of Management, 16(4), 705-721.
92.Powell, G. N. & Butterfield, D. A. (1979), The Good Manager: Masculine or Androgynous? Academy of Management Journal, 22, 395-403.
93.Powell, G. N., Butterfield, D. A. & Parent, J. D. (2002), Gender and Managerial Stereotypes: Have the Times Changed? Journal of Management, 28(2), 177-193.
94.Pye, L. W. (1981), Dynamics of Chinese Politics. Cambrige, MA: OG & H.
95.Pye, L. W. (1985), Asia Power and Politics. Cambrige: Harvard University Press.
96.Rafaeli, A. (1989a), When Cashier Meet Customers: A Analysis of the Role of Supermarket Cashiers. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 245-273.
97.Rafaeli, A. (1989b), When Clerksmeet Customers: A test of Variables Related to Emotional Expressions on the Job. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 385-393.
98.Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1987), Expression of Emotion as Part of the Work Role. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 23-27.
99.Rafaeli, A. & Sutton, R .I. (1989), The Expression of Emotion in Organizational Life. In Staw B. & Cummings L. L. (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 11, 1-42.
100.Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1990), Busy Stores and Demanding Customers: How Do They Affect the Display of Positive Emotion? Academy of Management Journal, 33, 623-637.
101.Rafaeli, A. & Sutton, R. I. (1991), Emotional Contrast Strategies as Means of Social Iinfluence: Lessons form Criminal Interrogarot and Bill Collectors. Academy of Management Journal, 34(4), 749-775.
102.Rafaeli, A. & Worline, M. (2001), Individual Emotion in Work Organization, Social Science Information, 40(1), 95-123.
103.Ragins, B. R. (1991), Gender Effects in Subordinate Evaluations of Leaders: Real or Artifact? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 259-268.
104.Reddin, W. J. (1970), Management Effectiveness, NY: Mc-Graw Hill,206.
105.Redding, S. G. (1983), Management Style: East and West. Orient Airlines Association Manila Conference.
106.Redding, S. G. (1990), The spirit of Chinese capitalism. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
107.Ridgeway, C. L. (1997), Interaction and the Conservation of Gender Inequality: Considering Employment. American Sociological Review, 62(2), 218-236.
108.Rojahn, K. & Willemsen, T. M. (1994), The Evaluation of Effectiveness and Likeability of Gender-role Comgruent and Gender-role Incongruent Leaders. Sex Roles, 30(1), 109 -119.
109.Rosener, J. (1990), Ways women lead. Harvard Business Review, 68(6), 119-125.
110.Ross, S. & Offermann L. (1997), Transformational Leaders: Measurement of Attributes and Work Group Performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(10), 1078-1086.
111.Sashkin, M. (1988), The Visionary Leader. In Congererk J. A. and Kanungo R. N. (eds), Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
112.Schaffer, D. F. (1980), Sex Role Issues in Mental Health. Reading, Mass.: Adison-Wesley.
113.Schein, V. E., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T., & Liu, J. (1996), Think Manager-think Male: A Global Phenomenon? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 33-41.
114.Shaffer, J. (1996), Career Progression in Fortune 500 Company: Examination of the Glass Celling. IEEE Transaction on Engineering Management, 43(3), 262-271.
115.Shore, L. M., & Thornton, G. C., Ⅲ. (1986), Effects of Gender on Self-and Supervisory Ratings. Academy of Management Journal, 17(1), 31-55.
116.Silin, R. F. (1976), Leadership and Values. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
117.Smith, E. R. & Mackie, D. (2007), Social Psychology, 3nd Edition, Psychology Press.
118.Smith, P.B. & Wang, Z.M. (1996), Chinese Leadership and Organizational Structure. In Bond, M.H. (ed.), The Handbook of Chinese Psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
119.Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999), Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4-28.
120.Steele, C. M. (1997), A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613-629.
121.Steele, C. M. & Aronson, J. (1995), Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797-811.
122.Steele, C. M., Spencer, S., & Aronson, J. (2002), Contending with Group Image: The Psychology of Stereotype and Social Identity Threat. In M. Snyder (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379-440. New York: Academic.
123.Steers, R. M. (1977), Organization Effectiveness: A Behavioral View, Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.
124.Stogdill, R. M. (1974), Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research. NY: Free Press.
125.Sutton, R. J. (1991), Maintaining Norms about Expressed Emotions: The Case of Bill Collectors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 245-268.
126.Sutton, R. I. & Rafaeli, A. (1988), Untangling the Relationship between Displayed Emotions and Organizational Sales: The Case of Convenience Stores. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 461-487.
127.Tannen, D. (1990), You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Ballanyine, 56-78.
128.Tichy, N. M. & DeVanna, M. A. (1990), The Transformational Leader. NY: John Wiley.
129.Trice, H. M. & Beyer, J. M. (1991), Cultural Leadership in Organization. Organization Science, 2, 149-169.
130.Tsui, A. S. & O''Reilly, C. A., III. (1989), Beyond Simple Demographic Effects: The Importance of Relational Demography in Superior-subordinate Dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 402-423.
131.Vecchio, R. P. & Bullis, R. C. (2001), Moderators of the Influences of Supervisor-subordinate Similarity on Subordinate Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 884-896.
132.Verbeke, W. (1997), Individual Differences in Emotional Contagion of Salespersons: Its Effect on Performance and Burnout. Psychology and Marketing, 14, 617-636.
133.Walen, S. R., DiGiuseppe, R., & Dryden, W. (1992), A Practitioner’s Guide to Rational-emotive Theory. NY: Oxford.
134.Wasielewski, P. L. (1985), The Emotional Basis of Charisma. Symbolic Interaction. 8, 207-222.
135.Weiss, H. M. & Cropanzano, R. (1996), Affective Events Theory: A Theoretical Discussion of the Struature, Causes and Consequences of Affective Experiences at Work. In Staw B. & Cummings L. L. (Eds.). Research on Organizational Behavio. Creenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 18,1-47.
136.Westwood, R. I. (1997), Harmony and Patriarchy: The Cultural Basis for “Paternalistic Headship” among the Oversea Chinese. Organization Studies, 18, 445-480.
137.Westwood, R. I., & Chan, A. (1992), Headship and Leadership. In R. I. Westwood (Ed.), Organizational Behaviour: A Southeast Asian Perspective. Hong Kong: Longman Group.
138.Wofford, J. C., Whittington, J. L., & Goodwin, V. L. (2001), Follower Motive Patterns as Situational Moderators for Transformational Leadership Effectiveness. Journal of Management Issues, 8(2), 196-211.
139.Wood, W., Christensen, P. N., Hebl, M., & Rothgerber, H. (1997), Conformity to Sex-typed Norms, Affect, and Self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 523-535.
140.Yammarino, F. J., Spangler, W. D., & Bass, B.M. (1994), Transformational Leadership and Performance: A Longitudinal Investigation. Leadership Quarterly, 4(1), 81-102.
141.Yukl, G. A. (1994), Leadership in Organizations (3rd ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
142.Yukl, G. A. (1998), Leadership in Organization. Emglewood Cliffs, N J: Prentice Hall.
143.Zohar, D., Tzischinski, O., & Epstein, R. (2003), Effects of Energy Availability on Immediate and Delayed Emotional Reactions to Work Events. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 1082-1093.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 3. 吳宗祐、鄭伯壎 (2003)。組織情緒研究之回顧與前瞻。應用心理研究,19(9),137-173。
2. 3. 吳宗祐、鄭伯壎 (2003)。組織情緒研究之回顧與前瞻。應用心理研究,19(9),137-173。
3. 4. 吳靜吉,林合懋 (1998)。轉型領導量表與交易領導量表的建立。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,45(2),57-88。
4. 4. 吳靜吉,林合懋 (1998)。轉型領導量表與交易領導量表的建立。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,45(2),57-88。
5. 5. 林姿葶、鄭伯壎 (2007)。性別與領導角色孰先孰後?主管-部屬性別配對、共事時間及家長式領導。中華心理學刊,49(4),433-450。
6. 5. 林姿葶、鄭伯壎 (2007)。性別與領導角色孰先孰後?主管-部屬性別配對、共事時間及家長式領導。中華心理學刊,49(4),433-450。
7. 7. 姜定宇、鄭伯壎、任金剛、謝宜君 (2005)。主管忠誠:華人本土構念的美國驗證。中華心理學刊,47(2),139-156。
8. 7. 姜定宇、鄭伯壎、任金剛、謝宜君 (2005)。主管忠誠:華人本土構念的美國驗證。中華心理學刊,47(2),139-156。
9. 8. 徐瑋伶、鄭伯壎 (2004)。績效知覺、領導範型契合度與領導效能的關係。中華心理學刊,46 (1),75–89。
10. 8. 徐瑋伶、鄭伯壎 (2004)。績效知覺、領導範型契合度與領導效能的關係。中華心理學刊,46 (1),75–89。
11. 17. 鄭伯壎 (1995a)。家長權威與領導行為之關係:一個台灣民營企業主持人的個案研究,中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,台北,79,19-173。
12. 17. 鄭伯壎 (1995a)。家長權威與領導行為之關係:一個台灣民營企業主持人的個案研究,中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,台北,79,19-173。
13. 20. 鄭伯壎、周麗芳、樊景立 (2000)。家長式領導:三元模式的建構與測量。本土心理學研究,14,3-64。
14. 20. 鄭伯壎、周麗芳、樊景立 (2000)。家長式領導:三元模式的建構與測量。本土心理學研究,14,3-64。
15. 21. 鄭伯壎、周麗芳、黃敏萍、樊景立、彭泗清 (2003)。家長式領導的三元模式:中國大陸企業組織的證據。本土心理學研究,20(12),209-250。