跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.231.230.177) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/28 22:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:張曉娟
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Chuan Chang
論文名稱:後設認知策略訓練對英文低成就者的抽象單字學習、學習動機及後設認知的影響。
論文名稱(外文):THE EFFECTS OF METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY TRAINING ON LOW ENGLISH ACHIEVERS’ ABSTRACT VOCABULARY LEARNING, LEARNING MOTIVATION, AND METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS
指導教授:中澤一亮中澤一亮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kazuaki Nakazawa
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:應用外語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:205
中文關鍵詞:策略抽象單字低成就學習者高職生學習動機後設認知
外文關鍵詞:strategiesabstract vocabularylow English achieversvocational senior high school studentsmotivationmetacognition
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:521
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:9
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
對人們而言,擁有大量的字彙是不可或缺的。然而單字的教與學可能經常被英文教師及學生們所忽略(Zimmerman, 1997)。近來針對單字學習的研究(Chang, 2006; Norbert & Diane, 1993; Wu, 2005)已大力推薦認知策略對於英文學習者單字學習的正面影響。相較於具體單字,抽象單字的理解過程是非常不同且會增添學習者在理解字義上的困難度(Schwanenfluge, 1991)。低成就學習者和學習障礙者的學習有著極大的相似度,特別在於處理抽象單字方面。對學習障礙者而言,抽象單字的學習造成他們較大的困難(Msatropieri et al., 1999),所以同樣地,當英文低成就者在學習抽象單字時,他們會比平庸及成功學習者面臨到更大的學習困難。
此外,研究(Chen, 2006)指出高職生缺乏強烈的學習動機,不主動參與英語活動,且對於英語的學習採取被動的態度。再者,英文低成就的學生缺乏後設認知學習策略(Vann & Abraham, 1990)。後設認知被視為是與學習最相關的因素之一(Brown, 1978; Flavell, 1976, 1979; Glaser, 1990; Veenman & Elshout, 1995; Wang, Haertel, & Wallberg, 1990, 1993),與學習動機有顯著的關聯性(Brown, 1978)。
因此,為了改善高職生的英語學習現況,本研究藉著後設認知策略訓練的執行,進而探討此訓練對於私立高職學生的抽象單字學習、學習動機及後設認知技能的影響。目前,尚未有相關的研究是結合後設認知策略訓練及六個抽象單字學習策略的教學,特別是針對英語為外語的私立高職低成就學生。
本研究結果指出,經過後設認知策略訓練,台灣的英文低成就學習者可以有效的監控及處理抽象單字的學習,提升他們的學習動機,及喚醒他們的後設認知技能。除此之外,大多數的學生對於後設認知的策略訓練有著正面的認知及反應。對於英文教師們,倘若希望能給予那些在學習上較無動機的低成就者更有效的教學與指導,透過後設認知的策略訓練來幫助這群學子們,相信這會對他們未來的教學指導上極有幫助。
It is very crucial for people to acquire rich vocabulary, yet vocabulary teaching and learning might be the part often neglected by English teachers and learners (Zimmerman, 1997). Recent studies (Chang, 2006; Norbert & Diane, 1993; Wu, 2005;) on vocabulary learning have largely suggested the positive impact of English language learners’ awareness of cognitive strategies on the development of their vocabulary learning. However, the processes of understanding abstract words were very different and caused learners greater difficulty understanding the meaning of words (Schwanenfluge, 1991). There are considerable similarities between low achievers and learning disabled students (Ysseldyke et al., 2001), such as dealing with abstract words (Msatropieri et al., 1999).
Therefore, while learning English abstract words, EFL low achievers especially may face more difficulties than EFL medium or high achievers. Moreover, vocational senior high school students do not have strong learning motivation, do not actively engage in English activities, and have passive attitudes toward English learning (Chen, 2006). Further, the low English achievers lack metacognitive strategies (Vann & Abraham, 1990). Metacognition has been recognized as a most relevant predictor of learning (Brown, 1978; Flavell, 1976, 1979; Glaser, 1990; Veenman & Elshout, 1995; Wang, Haertel, & Wallberg, 1990, 1993). Besides, there was a strong connection between metacogniton and motivation (Brown, 1978).
Accordingly, in order to improve the unsatisfactory status quo of vocational senior high students’ English learning, the Metacognitive Strategy Training (MST) was conducted to investigate its effects on the private vocational senior high school students in terms of their abstract vocabulary learning, learning motivation, and metacognitive awareness. There is as yet no related study that combines Metacognitive Strategy Training and abstract vocabulary learning strategies, particularly with EFL low achievers at a private vocational senior high school.
The findings indicate that after the metacognitive strategy training, low English achievers in Taiwan can effectively regulate and manage their comprehension of abstract vocabulary learning process, increase their learning motivation, and raise their metacognitive awareness. In addition, the perceptions from most of the participants for the Metacognitive Strategy Training are positive. For those English teachers who are avid to probe into the more effective instruction and guidance to their less successful learners, it is recommended that the training of metacognitive strategies might be helpful for them.
摘要…i
Abstract…iii
Table of Contents…v
List of Tables…ix
List of Figures…x

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…1
1.1 Statement of the Problem…4
1.2 Research Questions…8
1.3 Significance of the Study…8
1.4 Operationalization of Terms…10
1.5 Organization of the study…11

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…13
2.1 The Importance of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning…13
2.1.1 Abstract Vocabulary…14
2.1.2 Studies on Vocabulary Learning Strategies…15
2.1.3 Studies on Abstract Vocabulary Learning…20
2.2 Learning Strategies…22
2.2.1 The Effects of Learning Strategy training…24
2.2.2 Studies on Training of Language Learning
Strategies…29
2.3 Metacognition…31
2.4 The Characteristics of Low English Achievers…39
2.5 Summary…42

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY…43
The Study…43
Overview of the Experimental Design…43
Rationale for a Mixed Method Design…45
3.1 Participants…46
3.2 Pilot Study…49
3.2.1 The Pilot Study Procedure…49
3.2.2 Instructional Application based on the Pilot
Study…50
3.2.3 Revision of Instruments…51
3.3 Instrumentation…52
3.3.1 The General Test of English Language Proficiency at
Level Four…53
3.3.2 Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT)…54
3.3.3 Abstract Vocabulary Test (AVT)…55
3.3.4 Metacognitive Self-assessment Questionnaire (MSQ)…56
3.3.5 Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategies
Questionnaire (AVLSQ)…57
3.3.6 Metacognitive Interview Questions (MIQ)…57
3.4 Materials…59
3.4.1 Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategy Checklists
(AVLSC)…59
3.4.2 Weekly Schedule (WS)…60
3.4.3 Glossary…61
3.4.4 Worksheets…61
3.5.5 Quizzes…64
3.5 Procedure…64
3.6 Treatment and Intervention…68
3.6.1 Treatments for Both EG and CG…69
3.6.2 Intervention for EG…73
3.7 Teaching Plan…78
3.8 Data Analysis…79
3.9 Summary…82

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS…84
Introduction…84
4.1 The Effects and Delayed Effects of the Metacognitive Strategy Training on Participants'' Performance on the Abstract Vocabulary Test…85
4.2 The Effects and Delayed Effects of the Metacognitive Strategy Training on Metacognitive Awareness…87
4.3 The Effects and Delayed Effects of the Metacognitive Strategy Training on Abstract Vocabulary Learning Motivation…90
4.3.1 Comparison of the Pretest, Posttest, and Delayed
Posttest Subscale Results on the Abstract Vocabulary
Learning Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ) by Each Group
…92
4.3.2 Comparison of the Pretest, Posttest, and Delayed
Posttest Subscale Results on the Abstract Vocabulary
Learning Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ) between the Two
Groups…95
4.3.3 Comparison of Each Pretest, Posttest, and Delayed
Posttest Question Item on the Abstract Vocabulary Learning
Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ) between the Two Groups…99
4.4 Correlation between the Metacognitive Strategy
Training and the Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategy Questionnaire for the EG…106
4.4.1 Correlation between the Metacognitive Strategy
Training and the Abstract Vocabulary Learning
Strategy Questionnaire for Posttest and Delayed
Posttest…107
4.4.2 Correlation between the Overall Mean of
Metacognitive Self-awareness Questionnaire (MSQ) and the
Means on Each Subscale of Abstract Vocabulary Learning
Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ)…108
4.4.3 Correlation between the Posttest and Delayed
Posttest Metacognitive Self-awareness Questionnaire (MSQ)
and Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategy
Questionnaire (AVLSQ) Subscales…109
4.5 Responses and Suggestions from Participants in terms of the Metacognitive Strategy Training…110
4.6 Summary…116

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION…117
Introduction…117
Overview…117
5.1 The Effects and Delayed Effects of the Metacognitive Strategy Training on Participants'' Performance on the Abstract Vocabulary Test…118
5.2 The Effects and Delayed Effects of the Metacognitive Strategy Training on Metacognitive Awareness…119
5.3 The Effects and Delayed Effects of the Metacognitive Strategy Training on Abstract Vocabulary Learning Motivation…122
5.3.1 Comparison of the Pretest, Posttest, and Delayed
Posttest Subscale Results on the Abstract Vocabulary
Learning Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ) by each Group





…123
5.3.2 Comparison of the Pretest, Posttest, and Delayed
Posttest Subscale Results on the Abstract Vocabulary
Learning Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ) between the Two
Groups…126
5.3.3 Comparison of Each Pretest, Posttest, and Delayed
Posttest Question Item on the Abstract Vocabulary Learning
Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ) between the Two Groups…129
5.4 Correlation between the Metacognitive Strategy
Training and the Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategy Questionnaire for the EG…134
5.4.1 Correlation between the Metacognitive Strategy
Training and the Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategy
Questionnaire for Posttest and Delayed Posttest…34
5.4.2 Correlation between the Overall Mean of
Metacognitive Self-awareness Questionnaire (MSQ) and the
mean on each subscale of Abstract Vocabulary Learning
Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ)…135
5.4.3 Correlation between the Posttest and Delayed
Posttest Metacognitive Self-awareness Questionnaire (MSQ)
and Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategy Questionnaire (AVLSQ) Subscales…136
5.5 Responses and Suggestions from Participants in terms of the Metacgnitive Strategy Training…137
5.6 Conclusions, Limitations and Recommendations, and Implications…141
5.6.1 Conclusions Based on the Major Findings…142
5.6.2 Limitations…145
5.6.3 Recommendations for Future Research…146
5.6.4 Pedagogical Implications and Application for
Practitioners…147
5.7 Final Conclusion…151

APPENDIX A: The Passing Ratio of the GEPT Elementary
Level…153
APPENDIX B: Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT)…154
APPENDIX C: Abstract Vocabulary Test (AVT)…157
APPENDIX D: Metacognitive Self-assessment Questionnaire
(MSQ)…159
APPENDIX E: Abstract Vocabulary Learning Strategies
Questionnaire (AVLSQ)…163
APPENDIX F: Metacognitive Interview Questions (MIQ)…167
APPENDIX G: Abstract Vocabulary Strategies Checklists
(AVLSC)…169
APPENDIX H: Weekly Schedule (WS)…171
APPENDIX I: A Sample: Weekly Word List…173
APPENDIX J: Glossary…174
APPENDIX K: A Sample: Vocabulary Card Worksheet…175
APPENDIX L: A Quiz Sample…177
APPENDIX M: Teaching Plan (Week 1)…179
APPENDIX N: Participants Responses for MST…184
REGERENCES…188
Altman, R. (1997). Oral production of vocabulary: A case study. In J. Coady, & T. Huckin, Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 69-97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, N. J. (2002a). The role of metacognition in second language teaching and learning. ERIC Digest. Education Resources Information Center. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EDO-FL-01-10)

Anderson, N.J. (2002b).Using telescopes, microscopes, and kaleidoscopes to put metacongnition into perspective. TESOL Matters, 12 (4), 2002.

Angelis, P. (1974). Listening comprehension and error analysis. In G.. Nickel (Ed.), Applied contrastive linguistics. Heidelberg: Julius Groos Verlag.

Atkinson, R. C. (1975). Mnemotechnics in second-language learning. American Psychologist, 30, 821-828.

Atkinson, R. C., & Raugh, M. R. (1975). An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of a Russian vocabulary. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 104, 126-133.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).

Bannert, M. & Mengelkamp, C. (2007). Assessment of metacognitive skills by means of instruction to think aloud and reflect when prompted. Does the verbalisation method affect learning? Metacognition and Learning,3, No.1, 39-58.
Benson, P. (1996). Concepts of autonomy in language learning. In R. Pemberton, et al (Eds.), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning (pp. 27-34). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Bergert, S. (2000). The Warning Signs of Learning Disabilities. VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Arlington. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED449633)

Bird, S., Jacobs, G. M. (1999). An examination of the keyword method: How effective is it for native speakers of Chinese learning English? Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 9 (1), 75-97.

Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (1996). Teaching vocabulary in all classrooms. New Jersey, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Blakey, E., & Spence, S. (1990). Developing metacognition. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED327218)

Bolinger D. (1970). Getting the Words in. American Speech, 45, 78-84.

Borkowski, J., Carr, M., & Pressely, M. (1987).
"Spontaneous" strategy use: Perspectives from metacognitive theory. Intelligence, 11, 61-75.

Bransford, J. D., & McCarrell, N. S. (1974). A sketch of a cognitive approach to comprehension: Some thoughts on what it means to comprehend. In W. Weimer & D. Palerm (Eds.), Cognition and the symbolic processes (pp. 189-230). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Brewster, J., Ellis, G. & Girard, D. (2002). The Primary English Teacher''s Guide. England: Pearson Education Limited.

Brewster, J., Ellis, G. & Girard, D. (2004). The Primary English Teacher’s Guide. Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.

Brown, A.L. (1975). The development of memory: Knowing, knowing about knowing, and knowing how to know. In H.W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 103-152). New York: Academic Press.

Brown, A.L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: a problem of metacognition. In: R. Glaser, (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology: (Vol. 1., pp. 77–165). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 65-116). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brown, A. L., Bransford, J., Ferrara, R., & Campione, J. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In P.H. Musen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 77-166). New York: Wiley.

Brown, A. L., Day, J. D., & Jones, R. S. (1983). The development of plans for summarizing texts. Child Development, 54, 968-979.

Brown, A.L. & DeLoache, J. (1978). Skills, plans, and self-regulation In R.S. Siegler (Ed.), Children’s thinking: What develops. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.

Bryant, D. P., Goodwin M., Bryant B. R., & Higgins, K. (2003). Vocabulary instruction for students with learning disabilities: A review of the research. Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2, 117-128.

Burns, A. & de Silva-Joyce, H. (Eds.).(2001). Teachers’ Voices 7: Teaching Vocabulary. Sydney, AU: NCELTR Macquarie University.

Butterfield, E. & Belmont, J. (1977). The instructional approach to developmental cognitive research. In A. Karl & J. Hagen (Eds.). Perspectives in the development of memory and cognition (pp. 437-481).Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Campione, J. C., Brown, A. L., & Connell, M. L. (1988). Metacognition: On the importance of understanding what you are doing. In R. I. Charles & E. A. Silver (Eds.), Research agenda for mathematics education: The teaching and assessing of mathematical problem solving (pp. 93-114). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Carrell, P. L. (1989). Metacognitive awareness and second language reading. Modern Language Journal, 73, 121-133.

Casanave, C. P. (1988). Adding communication to the ESL reading class. TESOL Newsletter, 22 (3), 1, 22-33.

Chang, C. Y. (2007). A Study on the Effects of Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction on Vocabulary Learning of Senior High School Students in Taiwan. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Chang, S. C. (張淑娟) (1996)。高一學生後設認知能力與數學解題能力關係之研究 (The relationship between the metacognitive awareness and the ability to tackle mathematics problems for senior high school freshmen)。國立高雄師範大學數學教育研究所,未出版碩士論文。

Chang. Y. W. (2003). A Study of the Effects of Cooperative Learning on English Learning at Vocational High School. Unpublished master thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Chamot, A. U. (1995). Creating a community of thinkers in the ESL/EFL classroom. TESOL Matters, 5(5), 1-16.
Chamot, A. U., & O''Malley, J. M. (1986). A cognitive academic language learning approach: An ESL content-based curriculum. Wheaton, MD: National Clearing- house for Bilingual Education.

Chamot, A. U., & O''Malley, J. M. (1987). The cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21(3), 227-249.

Chamot, A. U., & O''Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Chao, H. I. (2004). The effects of English abstract word instruction on high and low English achievers in junior high school. Unpublished master thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Chen, H. J. (1998). Second language vocabulary learning strategies: A preliminary investigation of Chinese EFL learners. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China (pp. 193-211). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.

Chen, I. R. (2001). Language learning strategies used by high and low English proficiency students in a technology college. Unpublished master thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.

Chen, L. S. (2002). The effectiveness of cooperative learning in an EFL vocational senior high classroom. Unpublished master thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, ROC.

Chen, C. L. (2007). The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and English Achievement of Taiwan''s Junior High School Students. Unpublished master thesis, Tunghai University, Taiwan, ROC.

Chen, L. C. (2003). The effects of “word meanings inferred from context” instruction in English vocabulary learning of vocational high school students: A case study. Unpublished master thesis, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, ROC..

Chen, M. L (2007). Vocational High School Students'' English Learning Motivation and Their English Learning Behaviors. Unpublished master thesis, Tunghai University, Taiwan, ROC..

Chen, T. Y. (1997). Identifying language learning factors among junior college students through diary studies. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference of English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China (pp. 81-93). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.

Chi, M.T. H. (1978). Knowledge structures in memory development. In R. Siegler (Ed.), Children''s thinking: What develops? Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chi, M.T.H. (1981). Knowledge development and memory performance. In M.P. Friedman, J.P. Das & N. O′Connor (Eds.), Intelligence and Learning (pp. 297-315). New York: Plenum Press.

Chiang, P. L. (2005). Effects of Language Learning Strategy-Integrated Instruction on Taiwanese Junior High School Students'' English Learning. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Chien, C. N. & Kao, L. H. (2004). Examining the inter-relationship of metacognitive strategy training, listening comprehension, and learning attitude in EFL training. Chung Yuan Journal, 32 , No.2, 241-254.

Chiu, C. C. (2002). The Study of Path Model of Student’s Learning Attitude and Academic Achievement in Electrical and Electronic Cluster of Vocational High School.

Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Chou, C. Y. (2005). Effects of Language Learning Strategy-integrated Instruction on EFL Taiwanese Vocational High School Students'' English Learning. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Clarke, M.(1979). Reading in Spanish and English. Language Learning, 29, 121–215.

Coady, J. (1997). L2 vocabulary acquisition through extensive reading. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 225-37). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, A. D. & Aphek, E. (1980). Retention of second language vocabulary over time: investigating the role of mnemonic associations. System, 8, 221-25.

Cohen, A. D. (2003). Strategies Training for Second Language Learners. Washington, DC: NW. Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (ERIC DIGEST No. EDO-FL-03-02)
Cotterall, S. (1993). Reading strategy training in second language contexts: Some caveats. Aral, 16(1), 71-82.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Readiness for autonomy: Investigating learner beliefs. System, 23, 2:195-205.

Croll, C. (1971). Teaching vocabulary. College Composition and Communication, 22, No. 5, 378-380.

De Groot, A. M. B. (1993). Word-type effects in bilingual processing tasks: Support for a mixed representational system. In R. Schreuder & B. Weltens (Eds.), The bilingual lexicon (27-51). John Benjamins: Amsterdam-Philadelphia.

Dewitz, P., Carr, E. M., & Patberg, J. P. (1987). Effects of inference training on comprehension and comprehension monitoring. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 99–122.

Denning, K, & Leben, W. (1995). English vocabulary elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dickinson, L. (1987). Self-instruction in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Duffy, G.G., Roehler, L.R., Sivan, E., Rackliffe, G., Book, C., Meloth, M.S. et al. (1987). Effects of explaining the reasoning associated with using reading strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 22 (3), 347–368.

Eslami-Rasekh, Z., & Ranjbari, R. (2003). Metacognitive strategy training for vocabulary learning. TESL EJ, 7(2), 5-15.

Ellis, G.., & Sinclair, B. (1989a). Learning to Learn English: A Course in Learner Training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, N. C. (1997). Vocabulary acquisition: Word structure, collocation, grammar and meaning. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp. 122-139). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, R. (1995). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, G.., & Sinclair, B. (1989b). Learning to Learn English: A Course in Learner Training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, G. (1999). Developing metacognitive awareness-the missing dimension. The Journal, 10, 1-6.

Fabricius, W. V. & Cavalier, J. W. (1989). The role of causal theories about memory in young children''s memory strategy choice. Child Development, 60, 298–308.

Flavell, J.H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L.B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–235). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.

Flavell, J. H. (1981). Cognitive monitoring. In W. P. Dickson (Ed.), Children''s oral communication skills. New York: Academic Press.

Flavell, J.H. (1987). Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition. In F.E. Weinert & R.H. Kluwe (Eds), Metacognition, Motivation, and Understanding (pp. 21-29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Eriksson, R. (1993). Teaching language learning: In-service training for communicative teaching and self-directed learning. Philadlephia, PA: Coronet Books (Goteborg Studies in Educational Sciences, 92).

Glaser, R. (1990). The reemergence of learning theory within instructional research. American Psychologist, 45, pp. 29–39.

Graham, S. (1997). Effective language learning. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Gremmo, M. J. & Riley, P. (1995). Autonomy, self-direction and self access in language teaching and learning: The history of an idea. System, 23 (2), 151-164.

Gu, Y., & Johnson, R. K. (1996). Vocabulary learning Strategies and Language Learning Outcomes. Language Teaching, 46 (4), pp. 643-679.

Hague, S. A. (1987). Vocabulary instruction: what L2 can learn from L1, Foreign Language Annals, 20 (3), pp. 217-225.

Hang, J. (杭菊), & Li, L. F.(李瑞芳) (2002)。清華大學大一學生詞匯學習觀念與策略調查 (The investigation of strategies and lexical learning ideas on the freshmen at Tsing Hua University)。清華大學教育研究,107-113。

Hatch, E. & Lazaraton, A. (1991). The research manual: Design and statistics for applied linguistics. Newbury House Publishers.

Holcomb, P. J., Kounios, J., Anderson, J. E., & West, W. C. (1999). Dualcoding, context-availability, and concreteness effects in sentence comprehension: An electrophysiological investigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 25, 721-742.

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Hong, A. M. (2004). A Study of the Effects of Phonics Instruction on English Word Pronunciation & Memorization of Vocational Senior High School Students in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Hong, Y. F. (2005). The effect of l1 vocabulary glosses on EFL elementary school students'' reading comprehension and reading process. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Horwitz, E. K. (1987). Surveying student beliefs about language learning. In A. L. Wenden& J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 119-129).
Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Horwitz, E.K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. Modern Language Journal, 72(3), 283–294.

Horst, M., Cobb, T., & Meara, P. (1998). Beyond a clockwork orange: Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 11, 207–23.

Hosenfeld, C. (1984). Case studies of ninth grade readers. In J.C. Alderson & A.H. Urquhart (eds.), Reading in a foreign language. London: Longman.

Hu, H. Y. (2007). An Investigation into Taiwanese Vocational High School Students'' Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Huang, C. C. (1999).The effects of vocabulary knowledge and prior knowledge on reading comprehension of EFL students in Taiwan. Unpublished doctorial dissertation, Ohio University, Athens, OH.

Huang, C. C. (2004). A comparison of vocabulary knowledge, content knowledge and reading comprehension between senior high and vocational high school students. National Taiwan Normal University (臺北師範學院學報,人文藝術類), 35, 1, 55-84.

Huang, S. C. (2001). Effects of language learning strategy training on English learning. Paper accepted at the Tenth International Symposium and Book Fair on English Teaching, Taipei, Taiwan.

Huang, T. L. (1997). On the necessity of reinforcement of vocabulary teaching. Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on English Teaching and Learning in The Republic of China (pp. 193-211). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.

Huang, Y. C. (2003). The effects of vocabulary glosses and example sentences on junior high school EFL students'' reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. Unpublished mater’s thesis. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Hulstijn, J. (1997). Mnemonic methods in foreign language vocabulary learning: Theoretical considerations and pedagogical implications. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition ( pp. 203-224). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hulstijn, J. H. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning: A reappraisal of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 258-286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hu, Z. (胡真), & Ding, Y. Z. (丁雲正) (2007)。試論如何提高理工科專業學生的英語口語表達能力 (The investigation into how to improve the oral proficiency for vocational students in Electrical and Electronic Department)。考試周刊。第52期。
Kahle, D. J. (1972). Student-Centered Vocabulary. The English Journal, 61, No. 2, 286-288.

Karabenick, S. A. (2003). Seeking help in large college classes: A person-centered approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 37–58.

Kellogg, R. T. (1994). The Psychology of Writing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kieras, D. (1978). Good and bad structure in simple paragraphs: Effects on apparent theme, reading time and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 13-28.

Kojic-Sabo, I. & Lightbown, P. M. (1999). Students'' Approaches to Vocabulary Learning and Their Relationship to Success. The Modern Language Journal, 83 (2), 176-192.

Kluwe, R.H. (1987). Executive decisions and regulation of problem solving behavior. In F.E. Weinert, & R.H. Kluwe (Eds), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 31–64), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Krashen, S.D. & Terrell, T.D. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. London: Prentice Hall Europe.

Krashen, S. (1989) We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73, 440-464.

Kudo, E. (2004). What is indicated by the above-average effect? Effects of ease/difficulty of acquiring traits or abilities to be judged. Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 19(3), 195-208.

Kurtz, B., & Borkowski, J. B. (1984). Children''s metacognition: Exploring relations among knowledge, process, and motivational variables. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 335-354.

Lan, L. (2005). Language learning strategies profiles of EFL elementary school students in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, USA.

Langer, J. H. (1967). Better Abstract Vocabulary-Higher Intelligence Quotient? The Elementary School Journal, 68, No. 3, 157-161.

Lazonder, A. W. & Rouet, J. F. (2008). Information problem solving instruction: Some cognitive and metacognitive issues. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 753–765.

Levin, J. R., & Pressley, M. (1985). Mnemonic vocabulary instruction: What’s fact, what’s fiction. In R. F. Dillon (Ed.), Individual differences in cognition, Vol. 2 (pp. 145-172). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Liao, Y. F. (2000). A Study of Taiwanese Junior High School Students'' EFL Learning Motivation and Learning Strategies. Unpublished master’s Thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Liao, Y. F. (2004). A survey study of Taiwanese EFL freshmen’s vocabulary learning strategies. Journal of Pingtung Teachers College, 21, 271-288.

Lin, Y. P. (2006). The effects of collocation instruciton on the development of reading proficiency of vocational high school students in Taiwan. Unpublished master thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Lee, M. F. (李明芬) (1997)。從另類觀點詮釋後設認知 (The interpretation of metacognitive awareness from a unique viewpoint.)。社會教育學刊, 26, 181-203。

Lin, M. (林敏) (2003)。非英語專業本科生詞匯記憶與觀念、策略 (The study on non-English Department students’ memorization of vocabulary and learning strtategies)。四川外語學院學報,19(1),156-160。

Lin, M. H. (1998). The effect of the strategy training of memorizing English vocabulary on junior high students. Unpublished master’s Thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal
University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Lin, Q. S., & Chang, J. Y. (林清山, 張景媛) (1993)。國中後設認知、動機信念與數學解題策略之關係研究 (The correlation between metacognition, motivation belief, and solving strategies of mathematics)。教育心理學報, 27, 141-174。

Lin, S. H. (1999). A study of English listening comprehension strategies used by senior high school students in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Little, D. (1994). Learner autonomy: A theoretical construct and its practical application. Die Neuren Sprachen, 93, 430-442.

Little, D. (2001). We’re all in it together: exploring the interdependence of teacher and learner autonomy. In L. Karlsson, F. Kjisik & J. Nordlund (eds), All Together Now, 45-56. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, Language Centre.

Little, D. (2007). Language learner autonomy: some fundamental considerations revisited. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1 (1), 14-19.

Livingston, J. A. (1997). Metacognition: An overview. Retrieved 12/27/2007, 2007, from http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/FAS/Shuell/CEP564/Metacog.htm

Luo, Y. P. (1998) English language learning strategies of junior college students in Taiwan. Studies in English Language and Literature, 3, 43-60.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E. & Fulk, B. M. (1990).
Teaching abstract vocabulary with the keyword method: effects on recall and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23 (2), 92-96.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Levin, J. R., Gaffney, J., & McLoone, B. (1985). Mnemonic vocabulary instruction for learning disabled students. Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1, 57-63.

McCarthy, M. (1990). Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Meara, P. & Jones, G. (1980). Vocabulary size as a placement indicator. In P. Grunwell (Ed.). Applied linguistics in society (pp. 80-87). London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching Research.

Meara, P. M. (1996). The dimensions of lexical competence. In G. Grown, K. Malmkjaer & J. Williams (Eds.), Competence and performance in language learning (pp. 33-51). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Meichenbaum, D. (1983). Teaching thinking: A cognitive-behavioral approach. In Society for learning Disabilities and Remedial education (Ed.). Interdisciplinary voices in learning Disabilities and Remedial education (pp. 127-150). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

MOE. (教育部). (2003). 九年一貫英文課程2000常用英文字彙, [The 2000-word List for the Nine-Year-Integrated Curriculum.] Retrieved December 13, 2007, from http://teach.eje.edu.tw/9CC/fields/2003/language05-source.php

Middleton, M., & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An under-explored aspect of goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 710-718.

Msatropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Fulk, B. J. M. (1999). Teaching abstract vocabulary with the keyword method: Effects on recall and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, No. 2, 92-107.

Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., Stern, H. H., & Todesco, A. (1978). The good language learner (Research in Education Series No. 7). Toronto, Canada: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching & learning vocabulary. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Nation, I. S. P. (1993). Vocabulary size, growth, and use. In R. Schreuder & B. Weltens (Eds.), The bilingual lexicon (115-134). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, P. & Waring, R. (1997). Vocabulary Size, Text Coverage and Word Lists. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (eds.), Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy (pp. 6-19). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), 1981, 1985. http://www.ldonline.org/index.php

National Yang-Ming University(國立陽明大學)。英語字彙學習網 (English vocabulary exam website)。http://memory.ym.edu.tw/Client/Game/index.asp

Nattinger, J. (1988). Some current trends in vocabulary teaching. In R. Carter & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary and language teaching (pp. 62-82). London: Longman.

Nisbet, J., & Shucksmith, J. (1986). Learning strategies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.


Olah, B. (2006). ESL learning strategies, motivation, and proficiency: A comparative study of university and high school students in Japan.文京學院大學人間學部研究紀要, 8, No.1, pp.189-205.

O''Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G.., Kupper, L., & Russo, R. P. (1985). Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35, 21-46.

O''Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Mazanares, G., Russo, R., & Kupper, L. (1985). Learning strategies applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 285-96.

O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The effects of training on the use of learning strategies on learning English as a second language. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learning strategies in language learning (pp. 133-144). Cambridge: Prentice Hall International.

O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: what every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Oxford, R., & Scarcella, R. (1994). Second language vocabulary learning among adults: State of the art in vocabulary instruction. System, 22, 231-243.

Oxford, R. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: An overview. GALA, 1-25.

Oxford, R. (1994). Language learning strategies. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington DC. (ERIC Document Reproduction service No. ED376707)

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representation: A dual-coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.

Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory: Retrospect and current status. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45, 255-287.
Paris, S. G. & Jacobs, J. E. (1984). The benefits of informed instruction for children''s reading awareness and comprehension skills. Child Development, 55, 2083–2093.

Paris, S. G., & Lindauer, B. K. (1982). The development of cognitive skills during childhood. In Wolman, B. B. (Ed.), Handbook of Developmental Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hail.

Paris, S. G. & Oka, E. R. (1986). Children''s reading strategies, metacognition, and motivation, Developmental Review, 6, 25–56.

Paris, S.G., Wasik, B.A., Van Der Westhuizen, G. (1988). Meta-metacognition: A review of research on metacognition and reading. In J.E. Readence and R.S. Baldwin (Eds.), Dialogues in literacy research. Thirty- seventh yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 143-166). Chicago, IL: National Reading Conference.

Pearson, P. D., & Dole, J. A. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: A review of research and new conceptualization of learning. Elementary School Journal, 88, 151-165.
Peirce, W. (2003). Metacognition: Study strategies, monitoring, and motivation. Text version of workshop presented Nov. 17, 2004 at Prince George Community College.
Retrieved 12/23/07 from http://academic.pg.cc.md.us/~wpeirce/MCCCTR/metacognition.htm

Pintrich, P. & DeGroot, E. (1990). Motivational and Self-regulated Learning Components of Classroom Academic Performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.

Politzer, R. L. (1978). Errors of English speakers of German as perceived and evaluated by German natives. Modern Language Journal, 62, 253-261.

Ponnusamy, R. (2006). The impact of metacognition and problem solving strategies among low-achievers in history. JURNAL IPBA, 133-142.

Pressley, M., Borkowski, J. G., & O''Sullivan J. T. (1985). Children''s metamemory and the teaching of memory strategies. In D. L. Forrest-Pressley, G. E. MacKinnon, & T. G. Waller (Eds.), Metacognition, cognition, and human performance (Vol. 1, pp. 111-149). New York: Academic Press.

Pressley, M., Forrest-Pressley, D. & Elliott-Faust, D. (1988). What is strategy instructional enrichment and how to study it: Illustrations from research on children s prose memory and comprehension. In F. Weiner & M. Perlmutter (eds.), Memory Development: Universal Changes and Individual Differences (pp. 101 130). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & Miller G. E. (1981). How Does the Keyword Method Affect Vocabulary Comprehension and Usage? Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 2, 213-226.

Pressley, M., & Harris, K. (2006). Cognitive strategies instruction: From basic research toclassroom instruction. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Wine (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp.265-286). Mahwah: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Rasekh, Z., & Ranjbary, R. (2003). Metacognitive strategy training for vocabulary learning, TESL-EJ 7(2), 1-18.
Read, J. (2000). Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reiss, M. A. (1981). Helping the Unsuccessful Language Learner. The Modern Language Journal, 65, No. 2, 121-128.
Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Elements of the competitive situation that affect intrinsic cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 450-461.

Reiss, S. (1987). Theoretical perspectives on the fear of anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review 7, 585–596.

Riley, R. (1996), BATs and BALLs: Beliefs about talk and beliefs about language learning. Proceedings of the International Conference AUTONOMY 2000: The Development of Learning Independence in Language Learning, Bangkok, 151-168.

Rott, S. (1999). The effect of exposure frequency on intermediate language learners’ incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention through reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 589-619.

Rubin, J. (1975). What the good language learner can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51.

Rubin, J. 1995: The contribution of video to the development of competence in listening. In D. Mendelsohn, & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

Rubin, J., & Thompson, I. (1982). How to be a more successful language learner. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Sanaoui, R (1995). Adult learners’ approaches to learning vocabulary in second languages, Modern Language Journal, 79, 15–28.

Saragi, T., Nation, I. S. P., Meister G..F. (1978). Vocabulary learning and reading. System, 6, 72–8.

Schmitt, M. C. (1987). The effects of an elaborated directed reading activity on the metacomprehension skills of third grades. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Schmitt, N. (1997).

Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition, and pedagogy (pp.199-227). Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Schmitt, N. & Schmitt, D. R. (1993). Identifying and assessing vocabulary learning strategies. Thai TESOL Bulletin, 5, No. 4, 27-33.

Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D. (1995). Vocabulary notebooks: Theoretical underpinnings and practical suggestions. ELT Journal, 49, 133-143.

Schraw, G. (2001). Promoting General Metacognitive Awareness. In H. J. Hartman (Ed.),Metacognition in Learning and Instruction. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Schunk, D. H. (1996). Learning theories: An educational perspective (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Merrill.
Schwanenflugel, P. (1991). Why are abstract concepts hard to understand? In P. Schwanenflugel (Ed.), The psychology of word meanings (pp 223-250). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Akin, C. E. (1994). Developmental trends in lexical decisions for abstract and concrete words. Reading Research Quarterly, 29(3), 250-264.

Schwanenflugel, P. J., Harnishfeger, K. K., & Stowe, R. W. (1988). Context availability and lexical decisions for abstract and concrete words. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 499-520.

Schwanenflugel, P. & Shoben, E. (1983). Differential context effects in the comprehension of abstract and concrete verbal materials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition 9, 82-102.

Schwanenflugel, P., & Stowe, R. (1989). Context availability and the processing of abstract and concrete words. Reading Research Quarterly 24, 114-126.

Schwartz, N. H., Andersen, C., Hong, N., Howard, B., & McGee S. (2004). The influence of metacognitive skills on learners’ memory of information in a hypermedia environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31, No. 1, 77–93.

Sheinker, J. & Sheinker, A. (1988). Metacognitive Approach to Social Skills Training: MASST : a Program for Grades 4 Through 12. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Sinclair, B. (1996). Materials design for the promotion of learner autonomy: how explicit is explicit? In R. Pemberton, S.L. Edward, W.W.F. Or, & H.D. Pierson (Eds.), Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning (pp. 149-165). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Sökmen, A. (1997). Current trends in teaching second language vocabulary. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stavrianopoulos, K. (2007). Adolescents'' Metacognitive Knowledge Monitoring and Academic Help Seeking: the Role of Motivation Orientation. COLLEGE STUDENT JOURNAL, 41, No. 2, 444-453 Steponavičienė, S. (2004). Abstract vocabulary representation and processing: pointers to teaching/learning practice. Pedagogy Studies (Pedagogika), issue: 73, 94-99.

Stern, H H (1975). What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 304-318.
Sternberg, R. J. (1984). What should intelligence tests test? Implications for a triarchic theory of intelligence for intelligence testing. Educational Researcher, 13 (1), 5-15.

Sternberg, R. J. (1986a). Inside intelligence. American Scientist, 74, 137-143.

Sternberg, R. J. (1986b). Intelligence applied. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers.

Su, Y. F.(1986). Effects of metacognitive training program on reading comprehension and metacognitive skills of sixth grade less skilled readers. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Suchanova, S. (2006). The relevance of metacognitive skills to autonomous language enrichment. Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, 17.

Thompson, E. (1958). The “master word” approach to vocabulary training. Journal of Developmental Reading, 2, 62-66.

Tsai, L. C. (2006). Learning Style Preferences in Relation to Language Learning Strategies of VHS Students. Unpublished master thesis, Ming Chuan University, Taiwan, ROC..

Tsao, T. L. (2002). Perceptual learning style preference and learning strategy use among Taiwanese senior high school EFL learners. Unpublished master’s thesis, National
Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsou, W., Wang, W., & Li, H. Y. (2002). How computers facilitate English foreign language learners acquire English abstract words. Computers & Education, 39, 415–428.
US National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (1988), in Hammill, D. D. (1990). On defining learning disabilities: an emerging consensus. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23 (2), 74–84.

Vann, R. J. & Abraham, R. G. (1990). Strategies of Unsuccessful Language Learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24, No. 2, 177-198.

Victor, M. & Lockhart, W. (1995). Enhancing metacognition in self-directed language learning. In L.Dickinson & A.Wenden (Eds.), System, 23, 223–234.

Victor, J.D., Conte, M.M., and Purpura, K.P. (1997). Dynamic shifts of the contrast-response function. Visual Neuroscience, 14, 577-587.

Veenman, M.V.J. & Elshout, J.J. (1995). Differential effects of instructional support on learning in simulation environments. Instructional Science, 22, 363–383.

Wang, M.C., Haertel, G.D. & Walberg, H.J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 30–43.

Wang, M.C., Haertel, G.D., & Walberg, H.J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational Research, 63, 249–294.






Wang, W. Y. (2002). Effects of gender and proficiency on listening comprehension strategy use by Taiwanese EFL senior high school students: A case from Changhua, Taiwan.
Unpublished master’s thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.

Waring, R. & Takaki, M. (2003). At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15, 1–27.

Wang, R. H. (2004). Study of the Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on Adult School Students’ Reading Comprehension. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R. O. C..

Wang, S. Z. (2006). A case study on a metacognitive strategy training in an English writing program for senior high school students in southern Taiwan. Unpublished master’s Thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, R.O.C..

Webb, S. (2007). The Effects of Repetition on Vocabulary Knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 28(1), 46-65.

Weinert, F. E. (1987). Introduction and Overview: Metacognition and motivation as determinants of effective learning and understanding. In F. Weinert & R. Kluwe (eds.), Metacognition, motivation and understanding (pp. 1-16). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Weinert, F. E., & Kluwe, R. H. (Eds.). (1987). Metacognition, motivation, and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Weinert, F.E., Knopf, M., & Barann, G. (1983). Metakognition und Motivation as Determinanten von Gedächtnisleistungen im höheren Erwachsenenalter. Sprache & Kognition, 2, 71-87.

Wellman, H. M. (1983). Metamemory revisited. In M. T. H. Chi (Ed.), Contributions to human development: trends in memory development, vol. 2 (pp. 31–51). Basel, Switzerland: Karger.

Wenden, A. L. (1985). Learner strategies, TESOL Newsletter, 19(5), 1-7.

Wenden, A. L. (1986). What do second language learners know about their language learning? A second look at retrospective accounts. Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 186-201.

Wenden, A. L. (1987). Incorporating learner training in the classroom. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin. (Eds.). Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 159-68). NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wenden, A. L. (1987a). Conceptual background and utility. In A. L. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 3-13). London: Prentice Hall International.

Wenden, A. L. (1987b). Metacognition: An expanded view on the cognitive abilities of L2 learners. Language Learning, 37, 573-597.

Wenden, A. L. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. New York: Prentice Hall.

Wenden, A. L. (1995). Learner training in context: A task-based approach to promoting autonomy. System, 23, 183–194.

Wenden, A. (1998). Metacognitive knowledge and language learning. Applied Linguistics, 19, 515-537.

Wenden, A. L., & Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies in language learning. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

West, M. (1953). A general service list of English words. London: Longman.

Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Linguistics in language teaching. London: Edward Arnold.

Woodcock, R. W., & Johnson, M. B (1977). Woodcock- Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. Boston: Teaching Resources Corporation.

Wolters, C. A., Yu, S. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). The relation between goal orientation and students’ motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 6, 211-238.

Wu, W. S. (2005). Use and helpfulness rankings of vocabulary learning strategies employed by EFL learners in Taiwan. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1, No. 2, 7-13.

Xia, L. Y. (夏利亞) (2002)。非英語專業詞匯學習策略研究對英語學習的影響 (The effects of non-specific English lexical learning strategies on English learners)。江蘇大學學報 (高教研究版),24(4),53-57。

Xie, J. P. (謝俊平)( 2002)。如何提高理工科大學生的英語口語水平 (How to improve the oral proficiency of university students in Electrical and Electronic Department)。西北大學學報(哲學社會科學版 (Journal of Northwest University)(Philosophy And Social Sciences Edition)。第2期。

Xu, J. T. (涂金堂) (1999)。後設認知理論對數學解題教學之啟示 (The Implication on the instruction of solving mathematics questions in terms of the theories of metacognitive awareness)。教育研究資訊, 7 (1), 122-137。

Xu, M. L. (2002). The Effect of Pair Think-aloud Procedures on Taiwanese Senior High School Students’ EFL Reading Comprehension and Metacognitive Awareness. Unpublished Mster’s Thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Tseng, M. H. (曾美華) (2004)。我國高職生英語學習動機與學習策略之研究 (The study on learning motivation and learning strategies for vocational senior high school students)。國立台北科技大學,未出版碩士論文。

Tu, J. T. (涂金堂) (1995)。國小學生後設認知、數學焦慮與數學解題表現之關係研究 (The relationship between metacognition, anxiety for mathematics, and the performance on solving mathematics questions in terms of elementary school students)。國立高雄師範大學教育研究所,未出版碩士論文。

Yang, N. D. (1995, March). Effective awareness-raising in language learning strategy training. Paper presented at the 29th annual meeting of International Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Long Beach, California, USA (ERIC Document Reproduction service No. ED 392 278)

Yang, Z. R. (楊宗仁) (1991)。國中生地理科學習之研究-後設認知取向 (The investigation of learning geography for junior high school students in terms of metacognitive awareness) 。國立高雄師範大學教育研究所,未出版碩士論文。

Yeh, H. M. (2002). The relationship among senior hight school students'' learning motivations, learning strategies, and learning achievements. Unpublished master’s Thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Ysseldyke, J. E., Algozzine, B., Shinn, M. R., & McGue, M. (2001). Similarities and differences between low achievers and students classified learning disabled. The Journal of Special Education, 16, No. 1, 73-85.

Zeng, W. J. (曾韋婕) (2005)。英檢王初級全真試題 (The simulated exams for GEPT elementary level)。我識出版社有限公司。台北。

Zhou, L. F. (2006). The Story Behind English Writing: Effects of Three Metacognitive Learning Strategy Training on EFL Senior High School Students. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, R.O.C..

Zhu, Y. Q. (朱玉琴) (2007)。如何提高高職學生英語口語表達能力 (How to improve vocational senior students’ oral proficiency.)。中國科技信息(China Science and Technology Information)。第02期。

Zimmerman, C. B. (1997). Do reading and interactive vocabulary instruction make a difference?: An empirical study. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 121-140.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top