跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.229.142.104) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/27 07:37
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:王啟鈞
研究生(外文):Chi-Chun Wang
論文名稱:標音系統對漢語語者音韻覺識的效應
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Orthographic Experience on the Phonological Awareness of Chinese Speakers
指導教授:王旭王旭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:應用外語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:標音系統音韻覺識注音符號漢語拼音
外文關鍵詞:transcription systemphonological awarenessorthographyorthographic effectZhuyin FuhaoHanyu Pinyin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:285
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:7
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
許多研究已顯示出拼字文字系統中音韻覺識能力與閱讀之間的關係,以及音韻覺識能力在中文閱讀中所扮演的角色。雖然過去的文獻中已經完成許多比較注音符號的學習前後對音韻覺識能力所造成的影響,但是對於學習注音符號與漢語拼音造成音韻覺識能力差異的研究就顯得較少。
本研究目的在探討注音符號與漢語拼音的學習是否對音韻覺識能力造成影響。研究對象為台灣以及大陸的幼稚園學童、小學生、以及大學生共六組受試者。受試者接受一連串的音韻覺識測驗,包括音節拆解、音素分割、目標音偵測(ㄧ、ㄨ、ㄚ)。研究結果顯示兩岸幼稚園學童在音節拆解上,以四個音節的項目表現較差;兩岸小學生在音節拆解與音素分割的表現較幼稚園兒童佳。在音素分割上,台灣一年級學生的表現大部份與注音符號的表現一致;而大陸的學童受到漢語拼音與學校教學法影響,拆解音素的表現和台灣學童較不一樣,但切割音素的總數目較台灣學童多。同樣的情形也出現在台灣大學生與大陸大學生。至於在目標音偵測方面,研究顯示兩岸幼稚園學童在各個音節節構的表現較差,但在注音符號與漢語拼音未提供線索的項目較佳。反之,台灣一年級的學童在有注音符號的協助下表現較好;而在注音符號未提供線索的較差。然而,大陸的學童也在拼音有提供線索的項目上較好。同樣的情形也出現在大學生組。本研究結果顯示,拼字系統的不同會造成音韻認知上的差別,學習系統的不同,以及學校教學法的影響都是音韻覺識發展的重要因素。

關鍵字: 標音系統、音韻覺識、注音符號、漢語拼音
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect on phonological awareness of Chinese speakers as a result of different exposure to different phonetic symbols. The present study compares younger, pre-literate to older literate children and adults from two linguistic backgrounds: mainland China and Taiwan. Although Mandarin is used in both these areas, people in mainland China have learning experiences of Hanyu Pinyin while the speakers in Taiwan learn to use Zhuyin Fuhao to annotate Chinese characters. Kindergartners, primary school children, and college students in both sides of the strait were administered syllable segmentation task, phoneme segmentation task, and sound /i/ /u/ /a/ detection task. The results of the study showed that (1) both Beijing and Taiwan kindergartners performed very well on syllable segmentation task, but very poorly on four syllable items. (2) Both Beijing and Taiwan primary school children showed a greater improvement as compared to their kindergartners’ counterpart on syllable segmentation, phoneme segmentation, and sound detection. (3) The overall means of phoneme of each spoken word segmented by Beijing subjects were larger than Taiwanese counterpart. The same effect was observed in Beijing college group as well. (4) Regarding sound detection task, both Taiwan and Beijing kindergartners performed much better on the items that provided no phonological cues than primary school children. It was found that both Beijing second grade children and college students performed more poorly on GV item than Taiwanese counterpart, but much better on the items which are transparent to Pinyin system, indicating that familiarity with the alphabetic Pinyin transcription was superior to the Taiwanese when the task involved dealing specifically with diphthongs and VN rhyme. Relatively poor performance by Beijing subjects when asked whether GV item word containing the target /i/ and /u/ sound is due to school’s instruction. (5) The results of the current study showed that the way in which orthography represents phonology not only has effect on Chinese speakers’ phonological awareness, but also has long lasting effect on speakers’ intuition concerning the cognitive procedures.
Keywords: transcription system, phonological awareness, orthography, orthographic effect, Zhuyin Fuhao, Hanyu Pinyin
Chinese abstract i
English abstract iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of contents viii
List of tables xi
List of figures xii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 The Use of the Term ‘Orthography’ in This Thesis 3
1.2.1 The Use of Zhuyin 5
1.2.2 The Use of Pinyin 5
1.2.3 The possible effect of Chinese computer input systems on PA 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study 7
1.4 Organization of This Thesis 8
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 The Definition of Phonological Awareness 10
2.2 Evidence from Learners of Non-alphabetic Scripts 12
2.3 Different Languages and Orthographic Experiences and Its Impact on PA 13
2.3.1 Orthographic Effects on PA Tasks 13
2.3.2 L1 Phonological Structure and Its Impact on PA 18
2.4 The Role of PA among Chinese speakers 22
2.4.1 The relationship between Training of Phonetic Symbols and Its role in PA 22
2.4.2 Training Studies in Kindergarten 26
2.5 A Sketch of Chinese Phonology 27
2.5.1 Consonants 27
2.5.2 Vowels 29
2.5.3 A Sketch of Chinese Phonology 29
2.6 Zhuyin Fuhao and Hanyu Pinyin 30
3. METHODOLOGY 38
3.1 Participants 38
3.2 Materials and Procedure 40
3.2.1 Syllable Segmentation 40
3.2.2 Phoneme Segmentation 42
3.2.3 Sound detection task 44
4. RESULTS 51
4.1 Syllable Segmentation 51
4.2 Phoneme Segmentation 54
4.2.1 Kindergartners 57
4.2.2 Taiwanese first graders (FG) vs. Beijing second graders (SG) 57
4.2.3 College students (CG) 58
4.3 Distribution of Phoneme Segmentation 58
4.3.1 TW FG vs. BJ SG 58
4.3.2 The Difference of Distribution between TW and BJ SG on Phoneme Segmentation 61
4.3.3 College students 62
4.3.4 The Difference of Distribution between TW and BJ CG on Phoneme Segmentation 65
4.4 Sound Detection 67
4.4.1 Kindergartners (TW vs. BJ) 67
4.4.2 Primary school children vs. kindergartners 68
4.4.2.1 Taiwan FG vs. KG 68
4.4.2.2 Beijing SG vs. KG 69
4.4.3 Primary school children (TW FG vs. BJ SG) 71
4.4.4 College Students (TW vs. BJ) 73
4.4.5 College students vs. Primary school students 74
4.5 Further Analysis on ai ao items 76
4.6 Further Analysis on an ao ang items 77
5. DISCUSSION 80
5.1 Syllable and Phoneme Segmentation Task 80
5.2 Sound Detection Task 87
5.3 Discussion of the Two Research Questions 92
6. CONCLUSION 95
6.1 The significance of the Present study 95
6.2 Limitation of the Current Study and Suggestions for Future Research 96
6.2.1 Sample of the Participants 96
6.2.2 The Design of the Experiment 97
6.2.3 Future Study 97
References 99
APPENDIX A 107
APPENDIX B 108
APPENDIX C 109
APPENDIX D 110
APPENDIX E 111
APPENDIX F 112
APPENDIX G 113
Akamatsu, N. (2003). The effects of first language orthographic features on second language reading in text. Language Learning, 53, 207-231.

Alegria, J., Pignot, E., & Morais, J. (1982). Phonetic analysis of speech and memory codes in beginning readers. Memory & Cognition, 10, 451-456.

Ball, E., & Blachman, B. (1991). Does phoneme awareness in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 49-66.

Ben-Dror, I., Frost, R., & Bentin, S. (1995). Orthographic representation and phonemic segmentation in skilled readers: A cross-language comparison, Psychological Science, 6, 176-181.

Bentin, S. (1992). Phonological awareness, reading, and reading acquisition: A survey and appraisal of current knowledge. In R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, phonology, morphonology, and meaning (pp. 67-84). Amsterdam: Elsevier, North-Holland.

Bentin, S., & Leshen, H. (1993). On the interaction between phonological awareness and reading acquisition: It''s a two way street. Annals of Dyslexia, 43, 125-148.

Bertelson, P., Chen, H. C., de Gelder, B. (1997). Explicit speech analysis and orthographic experience in Chinese readers. In H. C. Chen (Ed.), Cognitive Processing of Chinese and Related Asian Languages (pp. 27-46). Hong Kong: the Chinese University Press.

Bertelson, P., de Gelder, B., (1991). The emergence of phonological awareness: Comparative approaches. In Mattingly, I. G., Studdert-Kennedy, M. (Eds.), Modularity and the Motor Theory of Speech Perception (pp. 393-412). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A casual connection. Nature, 301, 419-421.

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. (1985). Rhyme and reason in reading and spelling. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Bruck, M., Genesee, F., & Caravolas, M. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early literacy acquisition. In B. A. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early interaction (pp. 145-162). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Castles, A, & Cotheart, M. (2004). Is there a casual link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 71-111.

Chen, S.W., Wang, M., Cheng, C. (2005). Is there an L1 orthography transfer effect? Unpublished manuscript.

Chen, Y. A. (2005). The effect of shared reading and writing instruction in kindergarten on Chinese phonological awareness. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tainan university of technology, Tainan, Taiwan.

Cheng, C. C. (1973). A synchronic phonology of Mandarin Chinese. The Hague: Mouton.

Cheung, H. (1999). Improving phonological awareness and word reading in a later learned alphabetic script. Cognition, 70, 1-26.

Cheung, H., Chen, H.-C., Lai, C. Y., Wong, O. C., & Hills, M. (2001). The development of phonological awareness: Effects of spoken language experience and orthography. Cognition. 81, 227-241.

Cheng, R. L. (1966). Mandarin of phonological structure, Journal of linguistics, 2, 135-158.

Chung, K. K. H. (2002). Effective use of Hanyu Pinyin and English translation as extra stimulus prompts on learning of Chinese characters, Educational Psychology, 22, 150-164.

Cossu, G., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, I., Katz, L. E., & Tola, G. (1988). Awareness of phonological segments and reading ability in Italian children. Applied psycholinguistics, 9, 1-16.

Cunningham, A. E., (1990). Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 429-444.

de, Gelder, B., Vroomen, J., Bertelson, P., (1993). The effects of alphabetic reading competence on language representation in bilingual Chinese subjects. Psychological Research, 55, 315-321.

Derwing, B. L. (1992). Orthographic aspects of linguistic competence. In P. Dowing, S. D. Lima, & M. Noonan (Eds.), The linguistics of literacy (pp. 193-210). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Duanmu, S. (2007). The phonology of standard Chinese. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Durgunoglu, A. Y., & Oney, B. (1999) A cross-linguistic comparison of phonological awareness and word recognition. Reading and Writing: An Interdisplinary Joutnal, 11, 281-299.

Ehri, L., & Wilce, L. S. (1980). The influence of orthography on readers’ conceptualization of the phonemic structure of words. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1, 371-385.

Elkonin, D. B. (1973). USSR. In J. Downing (Ed.), Comparative reading: Cross-national studies of behavior and processes in reading and writing (pp. 137-172). New York: Macmillan.

Fox, B., & Routh, D. (1975). Analyzing language into words, syllables, and phonemes: A developmental study. Journal of Psychological Research, 4, 331-342.
Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. (1990). Phonological skills and learning to read. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hatcher, P. J., Hulme, C., Ellis, W. (1994). Ameliorating early reading failure by integrating the teaching of reading and phonological skills: the phonological linkage hypothesis. Child Development, 65, 41-57.

Ho, C. S. –H. & Bryant, P. (1997). Development of phonological awareness of Chinese children in Hong Kong. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 26, 109-126.

Holm, A., & Dodd, B. (1996). The effect if first written language on the acquisition of English literacy. Cognition, 59, 119-147.

Hu, C. F. (2004). Learning to spell with poor phonological awareness. English Teaching & Learning, 28 (4), 31-52.

Hu, C. F., & Schuele, C. M. (2005). Learning nonnative names: The effect of poor native phonological awareness. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 343-362.

Huang, H. S., & Hanley, R. J. (1992, July). The relationship between phonological awareness, visual skill and reading ability in the U. K., Hong Kong and Taiwan. Paper presented at the 25th International Congress of Psychology, Brussels, Belgium.

Huang, H. S., & Hanley, R. J. (1994). Phonological awareness, visual skills and Chinese reading acquisition in first graders: A longitudinal study in Taiwan, In H. W. Chang, J. T. Huang, C. W. hue, & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.), Advances in the study of Chinese language processing. Vol. 1: Selected writings from the Sixth International Symposium on Cognitive Aspects of the Chinese Language (pp.325-342). Taiwan: Department of Psychology. National Taiwan University.

Huang, H. S., & Hanley, R. J. (1995). Phonological awareness and visual skills in learning to read Chinese and English. Cognition, 54, 73-98.

Huang, H. S., & Hanley, R. J. (1997). A longitudinal study of phonological awareness, visual skills, and Chinese reading acquisition among first-graders in Taiwan. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20, 249-268.

Hsieh. Y. C. (2003). The development of a Chinese phonological awareness test battery: its validation and relevant studies. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taitung University, Taitung, Taiwan.

Juel, C., Griffith, P., & Gough, P. (1986). Acquisition of literacy: A longitudinal study of children in first and second grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 243-255.

Katz, L., & Frost, R. (1992). The resding process is different from different orthographies: The orthographic depth hypothesis. In R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning (pp. 67-85). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ko. H. W. & Lee. J.R. (1996). Chinese children phonological awareness ability and later reading ability- A longitudinal study. Journal of National Chung Cheng University, 7(1), 49-66.

Liberman, I. Y., Liberman, A. M., Mattingly, I. G., & Shankweiler, D. L. (1980). Orthography and the beginning reader. In J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Vanezky (Eds.), Orthography, reading and dyslexia (pp. 137-153). Baltimore: University Park Press.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F., & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 201-212.

Lundberg, I., Frost, J., & Petersen, O. (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 263-284.

Lundberg, I., Olofsson, A., & Wall. S. (1980). Reading and spelling skills in the first school years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 21, 159-173.

Mann, V. A. (1986). Phonological awareness: The role of reading experience. Cognition, 24, 65-92.

Mann, V. A., & Liberman, I. Y. (1984). Phonological awareness and verbal short term memory. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 592-599.

Mann, V., & Wimmer, H. (2002). Phoneme awareness and pathways to literacy: a comparison of German and American children. Reading and Writing, 15, 653-682.

Mattingly, I. G. (1972). Reading, the linguistic process and linguistic awareness. In J. Kavanagh, & I. Mattingly (Eds.), Language by ear and by eye (pp. 133-137). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McBride-Chang, C., Bialystok, E., Chong, K., & Li, Y. P. (2004). Levels of phonological awareness in three cultures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 89, 93-111.

Morais, J. (1991). Constraints in the development of phonemic awareness. In S. A. Brady, & D. P. Shankweiler (Eds.), Phonological awareness in literacy: A tribute to Isabelle Y. Liberman (pp. 5-28). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Morais, J., Bertelson, P., Cary, L., & Alegria (1986). Literacy training and speech and segmentation. Cognition, 24, 45-64.

Morais, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J. & Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously? Cognition, 7, 323-331.

Morrison, F. J., Smith, L., & Dow-Ehrensberger, M. (1995). Education and cognitive development: a natural experiment. Development Psychology, 31, 789-799.
Muljani, D., Koda, k., & Moates, D. R. (1998). The development of word recognition in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19, 99-113.

Nasund, J. C., Schneider, W., & Van Den Broek, P. (1997). Beginning reading in Germany and the US: a comparison of phonological segmentation, decoding, lexical access and comprehension. In C. K. Leong, & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Cross-language studies of learning to read and spell (pp.103-120). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Perfetti, C., Beck, I., Bell, L., & Hughs, C. (1987). Phonemic knowledge and learning to read are reciprocal: A longitudinal study of first grade children, Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 33, 283-319.

Perfetti, C., & Zhang, S., (1991). Phonological process in reading Chinese words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 633-643.

Read, C., Zhang, Y., Nie, H. Y., & Ding, B. Q. (1986). The ability to manipulate speech sounds depends on knowing alphabetic writing. Cognition, 24, 31-44.

Skjelford, V. (1987). Phonemic segmentation : An important subskill in learning to read. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 31, 41-57.

Stanovich, K., Cunnigham, A., & Cramer, B. (1984). Assessing phonological awareness in kindergarten children: Issues of task comparability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38, 175-190.

Su. T. Y. (2004). A study of the Influence of nursery rhymes on children’s phonological awareness. Unpublished master’s thesis, Shu Te University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Taylor, I., & Taylor, M. M. (1995). Writing and Literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Torgesen, J., Davis, C., & Wagner, R. K. (1993, April). Individual differences variables that predict response to training in phonological awareness. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA.

Torgesen, J. K. Morgan, S., & Davis, C. (1992). The effects of two types of phonological awareness training on word learning in kindergarten children. Journal of Educational Psychology,84, 364-370.
Torgesen, J., Wanger, R., Rashotte, C. (1994). Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 276-286.

Treiman, R., & Baron, J. (1981). Segmental analysis ability: Developmental and relationship to reading. In G.E. MacKinnon & T.G. Waller (Eds.), Reading research Advances in theory and practice, (Vol. 3), (pp.159-196). New York: Academic Press.

Treiman, R., & Zukowski, A. (1991). Levels of phonological awareness. In S. A. Brady & D. P. Shankweiler (Eds)., Phonological awareness in Literacy A tribute to Isbelle Y. Liberman (pp. 67-83). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Tung, T. H. (1998). 董同龢。Chinese Historical Phonology.《漢語音韻學》。Taipei, 臺北: Wen Shih Che. 文史哲。

Tunmer, W. E., & Herriman, M. L. (1984). The development of metalinguistic awareness: A conceptual overview. In W. E. Tunmer, C. Pratt & M. L. Herriman (Eds.), Metalinguistic awareness in children: theory, research and implications (pp. 12-35). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Tunmer, W. E., & Herriman, M. L., & Nesdale, A. R. (1988). Metalinguistic abilities and beginning reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 134-158.

Tunmer, W. E., & R, M. (1991). Phonological awareness and reading acquisition. In D. J. Sawyer & B. J. Fox (Eds.), Phonological awareness in reading: The evolution of current perspectives. (pp. 1-30). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Tunmer, W. E., & Nesdale, A. R. (1982). The effects of digraphs and pseudowords on phonemic segmentation in young children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 299-311.

Tunmer, W. E., & Nesdale, A. R. (1985). Phonemic segmentation skill and beginning reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 417-427.

Wan. I. P. (2002). The status of prenuclear glides in Mandarin syllables: evidence from psycholinguistics and experimental Acoustics. Journal of Chinese Phonology, 11, 232-248.

Wan. I. P. & Jaeger, J. (2003). The phonological representation of Taiwan Mandarin vowels: A psycholinguistic study. Journal of East Asian linguistics, 12, 205-257.
Wang, H. S. (1997). 王旭。On Chinese Phonetic Symbols. <漢語音標芻議> Symposium conducted at the First Conference on the Development of the Languages in Taiwan. 第一屆台灣語言發展學術研討會論文講稿。National Hsin-Chu Teachers’ College. 國立新竹師範學院。

Wang, M., Koda, K., & Perfetti, C. A. (2003). Alphabetic and non-alphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: A comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners. Cognition, 87, 129-149.

Wang, M., Koda, K., & Perfetti, C. A. (2004). Language and writing system are both important in learning to read. Cognition, 93, 133-137.

Wang, M., & Koda, K. (2005). Commonality and differences in word identification skills among learners of English as a second language. Language Learning, 55, 71-98.

Wimmer, H., Landerl, K. Linortner, R., & Hummer, P. (1991). The relationship of phonological awareness to reading acquisition: More consequences than precondition but still important. Cognition, 40, 219-249.

Yamada, J. (2004). An L1-script-transfer-effect fallacy: a rejoinder to Wang et al. (2003). Cognition, 93, 127-132.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top