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研究生:高思雅
研究生(外文):Szu-Ya Kao
論文名稱:文化教學在大學英語會話課中的實踐調查
論文名稱(外文):Investigations of English teachers’ practices and perceptions of instructing culture at the university level English class in Taiwan
指導教授:中澤一亮中澤一亮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kazuaki Nakazawa
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:應用外語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:大學英語文化教學會話英語
外文關鍵詞:cultural instructioncultural componentsteaching cultureEnglish conversation class at the university level
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本研究的主要目的為瞭解我國大學英語教師對文化教學的看法與教學情形,以及探討他們如何把文化教學納入英語教學中,以可提供大學英語教師了解現今大學英語實踐文化教學的狀況,以提供如英語教師、政府教育行政主管機關研究學校、出版商、及師資培訓機構,提供英語教學研究者、規劃大學課程改革之重要參考。
為達成上述之研究目的,本研究採用一學期的課程觀察及訪談方式,以中壢市某所大學內的一位為外籍及一位中籍教師的會話英語為研究樣本,為質的研究,深入探究大學英語教師對英語課中文化教學的態度以及與實際教學情形。
本研究之結論如下:
一、兩位老師肯定在大學英文實施文化教學的重要性與價值。
二、兩位老師都也把文化教學納入他們的英語課中。
三、比較法與分享文化經驗是兩位大學英語老師最常使用的教學方法。
四、美國文化與台灣文化為老師主要教授的文化,而世界文化佔的比例較少。
五、教科書為影響大學老師教授文化與否的只要原因。
六、國小英語教師認為實施英美文化教學遭遇的困難是教學資源不足、時間不夠,
沒有教授文化的教育訓練。
根據上述研究結論,提出下列建議:
一、大學老師方面
1. 老師應要注重英語課文化教學的重要性。
2. 要挑選含有文化教學教材。
3. 要在課前計畫文化教學的方式及時間。
二、學校及教育行政主管方面
多舉辦英美文化教學研習,鼓勵在職教師進修。
三、師資培育機構方面。
開設職前文化教學之相關課程與訓練。
四、出版商方面
1.教科書內容宜涵蓋較多的文化知識。
2.提供教師輔助教學教材與相關參考資料。
Instructing culture in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learning environment has received considerable attention from researchers (Kramsch, 1993; Brown, 2002). English teachers have also been concerned about instructing culture in English classes in Taiwan recently since understanding Chinese and foreign culture is one of four goals for the educational policy, General Curriculum Guideline from first grade to ninth (Chuang, 2002).
Most studies (Chuang, 2002; Lai, 2002; Tsai, 2002) about instructing culture focus on instructing culture in lower education, such as the elementary and junior high schools’ levels. Furthermore, cultural instruction in English class at the university level has largely been ignored. Previous studies only examined teachers’ perceptions of instructing culture by employing questionnaire and interview (Chuang, 2002; Tsai, 2002; Yang, 2004). These studies did not provide direct observational evidence about whether teachers actually do teach cultural components or how they actually instructed culture in their classes. Only a few studies have been conducted by classroom observation at the university level (Lin 1995; More & Jerningan 1997). Lin (1995) examined how culture would be instructed in an English writing class, and More & Jerningan (1997) did in a Portuguese class in America. However, no study has explored the issue in the English conversation class in Taiwan. The conversation class is believed to involve more cultural instruction since cultural knowledge is an imperative requirement for understanding one another in conversation. Samovar, Porter, & Jain (1981) stated that “culture is the foundation of communication” (p.24). Although university students have learned many grammatical structures, they may still fail to communicate in English. One of the reasons may be because they lack knowledge of culture. Thus, it is important to examine how culture is instructed at the university level English class in Taiwan. The present study investigated English teachers’ practices and perceptions of instructing culture at the university level English class in Taiwan. One Taiwanese and one Canadian English teachers’ English conversation classes were observed and videotaped for a period of one semester. Two kinds of data, the cultural instruction parts in the classroom observations and the interviews with the teachers, were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. The present study reports 1) English teachers’ definitions of culture; 2) English teachers’ attitudes toward teaching culture in English classes at the university level in Taiwan; 3) Cultures taught in English classes in English classes at the university level; 4) Ways to instruct culture in English classes at the university level; and 5) Problems that English teachers encounter when they teach culture in English classes at the university level.
The results of the present study reveals English teachers’ practices and perceptions concerning instructing culture as well as how culture is actually instructed at the university level English conversation class. As a result, it is provided that some suggestions about how to instruct culture at the university level. The results may also be helpful not only for teachers to adjust ways of teaching culture but also for publishers to integrate more cultural components into English textbooks in order to achieve more successful English teaching in Taiwan. Discussions and implications of the findings are provided.
Table of Contents

CHINESE ABSTRACT......................................... i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT....................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT......................................... vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................... vii
LIST OF TABLES........................................... x
CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION................................ 1
1.1 Background and Motivation....................... 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study............................ 4
1.3 Research Questions.............................. 5
1.4 Significance.................................... 5
CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW............................ 8
2.1 Definition of Culture........................... 8
2.2 Importance of Teaching Culture in Language Class ............................................... 11
2.3 Teaching Cultures in this Globalized World ... 18
2.4 Issue of Instructing Culture in University ... 22
2.5 Cultural Instruction in Taiwan ........... 25
2.5.1 The Role of Cultural Instruction in Taiwan’s
Policy ....................................... 25
2.5.2 Cultural Instruction in Taiwan’s Foreign Language
Education ...................................... 27
CHAPTER THREE- METHODOLOGY .............................. 31
3.1 Methods ....................................... 31
3.2 Participants .............................. 31
3.2.1 School ....................................... 31
3.2.2 Teachers ....................................... 32
3.2.3 Classes ....................................... 33
3.2.4 Textbooks .............................. 34
3.2.5 Students ....................................... 35
3.3 Data Collection .............................. 36
3.3.1 Classroom observations ..................... 36
3.3.2 Interviews .............................. 36
3.4 Procedures .............................. 37
3.5 Data Analysis .............................. 38
3.5.1 Analyses of the classroom observation data ... 38
3.5.2 Analyses of the teacher’s interview data ... 41
CHAPTER FOUR-RESULTS .............................. 42
4.1 Teachers’ Definition of Culture ............ 42
4.2 What are English Teachers’ Attitudes toward
Teaching Culture in English Class at the
University Level in Taiwan? .................... 43
4.2.1 Answers from interview ..................... 43
4.2.2 Classroom observation ..................... 48
4.3 Culture Taught in English Classes ............ 50
4.3.1 Answers from interview ..................... 50
4.3.2 Classroom observation ..................... 52
4.4 The Way English teachers Instruct Cultures ... 53
4.4.1 Answers from interview ..................... 53
4.4.2 Classroom observation ..................... 55
4.5 Problems that English Teachers Encountered When
They Taught Culture in English Classes at the
University Level................................ 67
4.5.1 Answers from interview ..................... 67
4.5.2 Classroom observation ..................... 68
CHAPTER FIVE-DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ............ 69
5.1 Discussions .............................. 69
5.1.1 Teachers’ definition of culture ............ 69
5.1.2 English teachers’ opinion about teaching culture
in English class at the university level ... 71
5.1.3 Cultures taught in English class ............ 78
5.1.4 The way English teachers instruct culture ... 79
5.1.5 The problem English teachers encounter when
teaching ....................................... 84
5.2 Conclusions .............................. 86
5.3 Implications .............................. 89
5.2.1 Textbook selections ..................... 89
5.2.2 Training programs .............................. 90
5.2.3 Teaching plan .............................. 91
5.2.4 Materials selection ..................... 91
5.4 Limitations and Further Study ............ 92
5.4.1 Limitations .............................. 92
5.4.2 Further study .............................. 93
REFERENCE ....................................... 94
APPENDIX A-INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ..................... 98
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